The idea of a Universal Basic Income has garnered attention in the past and continues to be a topic of discussion in many countries. In simple terms, the Universal Basic Income (UBI) is defined as “a regular fixed cash transfer payment provided by the government – or another institution in the public sphere – to every citizen or resident, regardless of whether he or she is rich or poor and/or wishing to be engaged in paid employment” (Raventós, 8). According to De Wispelaere&Stirton (267), there are three essential characteristics of the UBI. These are universality: basic income should be given to all population; individuality: basic income should not be given to households but individuals and; unconditionality: basic income should be unconditional, so it does not exclude anyone. This paper aims to argue that countries should adopt the concept of UBI as it reduces inequality, values unpaid workers such as women and caregivers, and would lead to positive job growth. 

The advantages of applying the UBI are many. First of all, it would be a significant step in eradicating poverty and eliminating income inequality. The societies were more egalitarian when they were agriculturist. The land was not private property, and so, there was less inequality. All the profits were equally divided, and the whole community prospered—and suffered in times of difficulties—together. However, the slaves struggled in the American Southern plantation economy. Circumstances became even more difficult for some workers when the industrial revolution took place. Skilled craftsmen had to take up unskilled, monotonous jobs.

Moreover, as Levin-Waldman states that the industrial revolution transformed skilled craftsmen, artisans, and farmers into unskilled labor, and “economies throughout the world saw the emergence of great pockets of poverty as more and more unskilled workers found work in the factories” (Levin-Waldman, 135). These workers were paid wages and had no health-benefits or job-security. So, “such an economy was still operating on the concept of slavery, although it was not at all the chattel slavery of the American Southern plantation economy” (Ibid). Even though labor unions made progress and workers got many rights, the world continues to witness a considerable amount of income inequality. The “world’s richest 1 percent, those with more than $1 million, owns 44 percent of the world’s wealth . . . [while] 56.6 percent of the world’s population hold less than 2 percent of global wealth” (Credit Suisse Global Wealth Report, 2019). The gap between wealth accumulation is massive, and the UBI can help in reducing this discrepancy. The poorest of the population includes many people who are unemployed or have to resort to taking extremely exploitative wages. UBI would give them financial independence and the opportunity not to accept wages that are not even enough for subsistence. Similarly, it would provide a sense to employers not to offer rates that the workers would agree to work on. 

Other than eliminating exploitation of workforce and reducing income inequality and poverty, UBI would also play a significant role in improving the conditions of women, many of whom are involved in unpaid child and elderly care or have to do “double-shift” by working in and outside of homes. Doing household chores while caring for children and the elderly is tough but often under-valued and unpaid task. Therefore, the UBI would help in compensating women for their efforts. Moreover, financial independence would result in other benefits, such as breaking free from domestic abuse. The rate of domestic violence around the globe is frightening. According to the United Nations Office report, “87,000 women were killed worldwide in 2017, 58 percent of the victims of domestic or family violence . . . more than 30,000 of those deaths were the result of domestic abuse” (Office on Drugs and Crime: World Drug Report 2018, 86). 

It could be said that thinking that UBI could reduce the number of crimes committed against women and make women more informed and vocal of their rights, is being too optimistic. To clear this misconception, it is imperative to note that this deduction is based on evidence gathered from many pilot studies done in many countries. For instance, one of the results of the pilot project of UBI done in Namibia was that it “reduced the dependency of women on men for their survival” (Jauch, 9)Moreover, the UBI trial in India resulted in “women’s empowerment” and noted, “that women receiving a UBI participated more in household decision making, and benefited from improved access to food, healthcare, and education” (Bharat, S.E.W.A., & UNICEF, 2014). Furthermore, even the Manitoba Basic Annual Income Experiment (MINCOME) conducted in Manitoba, Canada, in the 1970s “found that emergency room visits as a result of domestic violence reduced during the period of the trial” (Jarosiewicz, 90). These facts suggest that many women remain in subjugation only because they do not have the financial stability to break free from the shackles that constrain them. 

Added to the advantage the UBI would provide to blue- and white-collar workers who have lost their jobs to the technological revolution, it would help the youth to contribute positively to the economy. Contrary to what many people fear, the UBI does not reduce people’s desire to work and remain unemployed. Instead, it reinvigorates their willingness to learn more and to perform better as they are motivated intrinsically and not to be compensated monetarily. It also allows people to take risks, experiment, and learn more as they are not bound by low wages and no or lack of job security. According to the Roosevelt Institute’s researchers, all the three models they created for the implementation of UBI in the United States found that “under all scenarios, UBI would grow the economy, increasing output, employment, prices, and wages” (Nikiforos, Steinbaum, &Zezza, 3).

 Other than providing people the freedom to take risks and pursue what their heart desires, the UBI also results in increasing the rate of education and lowering the rate of school dropouts. The MINCOME found that “the participants of the trial were more likely to complete high school than counterparts not involved in the trial” (Forget, 291). Similarly, the Basic Income Grant trial in Namibia found that the parents could now afford their children’s education and school-related expenses which increased attendance and “as a result, school dropout rates fell from almost 40% in Nov. 2007 to 5% in June 2008 to almost 0% in Nov. 2008” (Haarmann&Haarmann, 38). Higher education means a more educated workforce in the future. This would be beneficial as an informed workforce would increase output, and the economy would prosper. Moreover, while it is believed that a job is required to earn money, the sad truth is that at least some amount of money is also needed to get a job. Having a safety net in the face of UBI would also provide the cultural capital to people to secure a good job. This, in turn, would also help the economy as people’s power of consumption would exceed. A decrease in poverty and unemployment would allow people to spare more on necessities as well as luxuries. For instance, the Alaska Permanent Fund increased the purchasing power of UBI recipients so much that “it has resulted in 10,000 additional jobs for the state” (Kingma, 2018).

One of the major objections that are made against the adoption of the UBI is that it is too costly. The Chief Economist of the Central Organization of Finnish Trade Unions (SAK), IkkaKaukoranta, stated that the implementation of UBI model in Finland is “impossibly expensive” (Tiessalo, 2017) and the United Kingdom Minister for Employment, Damian Hinds in a speech in the parliament in 2016 said that the implementation of UBI model in the UK would be “clearly unaffordable.” Moreover, the questions that would it be right to give extra money to the already wealthy people and would the UBI not mean giving the money that the poor deserve to the non-deserving rich people can be raised. While these are fair points to ask and must be given attention, what is more important is to focus on the greater good that would come out of the implementation of the UBI. One of the outcomes of implementing UBI would be the wealthiest 1% having and added income. Still, the significant outcome of the implementation of the UBI would be to give 56.6% of the total population, which holds less than 2% of the global wealth money that they deserve and desperately need.

Moreover, the developed welfare countries can implement the UBI model with greater convenience. In case they are unable to afford these, they can cut back on other expenses—such as unemployment insurance, subsidized housing, education, sustenance, health services, benefits given to the disabled and elderly and other—which would be unnecessary to spend on as the public would have the financial means to pay for these. Also, once everybody is relieved from financial tensions, they would be more motivated to work, as seen in the UBI trial run in Iran in 2010. When the citizens were given 29 percent of the median income every month, “poverty and inequality were reduced, and . . . people used it to invest in their businesses, encouraging the growth of small businesses” (Lowrey, 188). Along with economic prosperity, the UBI would result in the well-being of people, as seen as one of the outcomes of MINCOME the trial in Manitoba, Canada. The trial resulted in “fewer hospitalisations and mental health diagnoses” (Lowrey, 199). The developed countries can take the initiative and show the developing countries that the outcomes of implementing the UBI are far greater than the financial risk it may pose. 

Conclusively, the benefits of implementing the UBI are numerous and varied. The UBI would help reduce poverty, income inequality, exploitation of workers, and increase the middle-class. It would be hugely beneficial for women as well, as they will have the financial independence to break free from violent relationships, and also gives value to their unpaid child and elderly care. Not just for women, the UBI would be helpful for parents to be there for their children instead of working odd hours under unfair pay just to meet ends. The parents would be able to afford their children’s education, overall increasing the rate of literacy and lowering the rate of school dropouts. Some fears related to the implementation of the UBI are valid, but it must be remembered that the good that comes out of UBI is abundant and worth taking the risk. 


Ag, C. S. (2019). Global Wealth Report 2018. Research Institute, Zurich, Switzerland.

Bharat, S. E. W. A., & UNICEF. (2014). A little more, how much it is… piloting basic income     transfers in Madhya Pradesh, India. January, Sewa Bharat and UNICEF, New Delhi.

De Wispelaere, J., &Stirton, L. (2004). The many faces of universal basic income. The       Political Quarterly75(3), 267.

Forget, E. L. (2011). The town with no poverty: The health effects of a Canadian guaranteed       annual income field experiment. Canadian Public Policy37(3), 283-305.

Haarmann, C., &Haarmann, D. (2012). Namibia: Seeing the sun rise—The realities and hopes       of the Basic Income Grant pilot project. In Basic Income Worldwide (pp. 33-58).            Palgrave Macmillan, London.

Jarosiewicz, S. (2016). Basic Income and Housing Satisfaction: Evidence from the Mincome            Experiment (Doctoral dissertation, Carleton University).

Jauch, H. (2015). The rise and fall of the Basic Income Grant (BIG) Campaign: Lessons from       Namibia. Global Labour Journal6(3).

Kingma, L. (2018). Universal basic income: The answer to automation. Futurism. com.      Available at: https://futurism. com/images/universal-basic-income-answer-            automation/, accessed March.

Levin-Waldman, O. M. (2018). The Inevitability of a Universal Basic         Income. Challenge61(2), 133-155.

Lowrey, A. (2018). Give people money: how a universal basic income would end poverty,             revolutionize work, and remake the world. Broadway Books.

Merz, F. (2018). United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime: World Drug Report 2017.    2017. SIRIUS-ZeitschriftfürStrategischeAnalysen2(1), 85-86.

Nikiforos, M., Steinbaum, M., &Zezza, G. (2017). Modeling the macroeconomic effects of a        universal basic income. Roosevelt Institute.

Raventós, D. (2007). Basic income. The Material Conditions of Freedom, London.

Tiessalo, R. (2017). Free Money Provokes Some Finns to Slam Basic Income as     ‘Useless’. Tilgængeligpå: https://www. bloomberg. com/news/articles/2017-02-08/-      useless-basic-income-trial-fails-test-at-biggest-finnish-union-Tilgåetd.30.


Feminism in gender studies
feminism in gender studies

Significant changes had come and are still coming in the role and image of women in the 20th and 21st century United States of America. The feminist movement is on the rise and getting prominent in politics. The purpose of this analytical piece is to look at the condition of women’s rights during the 20th and 21stera through the arguments presented by Alice Stone Blackwell. Blackwell was a feminist activist and a writer who addressed anti-women’s-suffrage arguments in a volume published in 1917. 

The fundamental question that Blackwell answered was why women should vote. The concept was newly emerging at the time, with many still opposed to it. Alice argued that under the law women were the same as men. And since the society claimed to be diplomatic and a republic rather than a monarchy then they should allow women to vote too. She insisted those women should have a voice in deciding who makes the laws for them as they were expected to obey those laws alongside men. A vote is “an expression of an opinion,” and everyone should have the right to voice their opinion.

One argument posed at the time was that if women voted then chivalry would end. The next one was that females are too emotional and cannot be trusted with matters of politics. The response to this was that sentiment is important in a political context. Men who do not feel tend to be heartless and inconsiderate of others. Such men are more often than not lacking in their ethical and moral standards.

It was also believed during that time that men and women are entirely different. Their characters and role in society are starkly apart. So if women voted, they would turn like men and lose their sex, their identity. Alexis argued that a country such as America, which was one of the founding nations of Democracy, should give suffrage to women. And acknowledge them as equal to men.

However, people also argued that suffrage rights meant that women would start looking for ways of increasing their influence further in the matters of the state. They would neglect their domestic duties and responsibility. Ultimately, they wouldn’t want to become homebound and domestic. This destroys the family system in America that was getting followed until then.

American politics in the 20th century was becoming milder than in the preceding years when the politicians were more rigid on their conservative mindsets. Some setbacks had also taken place internationally, and the economy of the country was going down. During this, the liberal mindset started to really foster and grow in the minds of others too.

Another reason for this social progression towards liberalism was the industrialization and capitalism wave in America. With technological innovation, standards of living increased, women had more time on their hands and wanted to work professionally.


Secondary sources:

The Unravelling. 2017. The American Yawp. Retrieved from:

The triumph of the right. 2017. The American Yawp. Retrieved from:

World War 11. 2017. The American Yawp. Retrieved from:

The Progressive Era. 2017. The American Yawp. Retrieved from:

Morris, Bonnie. History of Lesbian. Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Social Movements. Retrieved from:

The Progressive era. 2017. The American Yawp. Retrieved from:

World War 11. 2017. The American YawpRetrieved from:

Primary sources:

Alice Stone, Blackwell.  Answering Objections to Women’s Suffrage (1917). American Psychological Association. Retrieved from:







Related Keywords: Representations of women in Greek art, Greek Art, Ancient Greek art, the Greek god of art, Greek mythology art

Representations of women in Greek art, Greek Art, Ancient Greek art, the Greek god of art, Greek mythology art
Representations of women in Greek art


  1. Introduction: Artwork from Archaic to Hellenistic Era represented women. In Ancient Greece, Renaissance women’s relationship is seen among poetry and artwork before the Hellenistic period.
  • The Greek society is antique civilization of the globe found more than 4000 years ago.
  • Greeks were different due to ideas, religion, culture, and art
  • The main element of art was a beauty, sex, and nudity in sculptures

        2. Archaic period was from 650 BCE to 480 BCE

  • In this period, stones, bronzes, marble, and wood were used to present different forms of artwork
  • The material was used to show the role of women in a distinct way
  • Women sculptures were a sex sign or predilection for sex
  • Egyptian sculptures
  • The era represented low-class women as prostitutes and priestesses

        3. Significance of Era: the sculptures of females were drawn on multiple patterns that exhibited drapery under ornamental qualities.

  • Women’s role in the archaic era was that they were only supposed to cook, manage, spin, and raise children.
  • Athens provided some evidence about women’s role in the archaic era that they were only supposed to cook, manage, spin, and raise children.

        4. The Hellenistic Era From 323 B.CE-1st century

  • Greeks showed ethnic components and monarchies
  • Women involved in religious spheres and queens
  • Principle symbol continued in this era was the portrayal of nude figures, young women, and attractive figures. Common elements were sensual themes, comical, and ugly scenarios
  • The era gave rise to education

         5. Conclusion: Both eras presented the role of women as significant in visual arts with the imposition of artistic subjects. The common elements were political aspirations, religious aspects, and economic responsibilities.

Women from the Archaic to Hellenistic Era

The feminist movements have been a great deal of attention since history. Most studies and literary sources have dramatized a specific bias related to women’s representation in Greek art. Studies have shown a contemporary depiction of artistic work, vases, and colored elements. The role of women is visualized differently in the Greek era, while the imposition of artistic subjects has suggested critical significance in visual arts (Gill, 2019). In Ancient Greece, Renaissance women‘s relationship is seen among poetry and artwork before the Hellenistic period (Ridgway, 1987). There is a limited role seen by Roman women in monuments and buildings as compared to Greek women.    

Ancient Greeks were the ancient and antique civilizations of the globe, i.e., more than 4000 years ago. From 2000 B.C to 146 B.C, ancient Greek empires experienced the reign of prosperity (Schmitz, 2010). Ideas, religion, culture, and art by Greeks were spread everywhere (art, 2019). The Greek sculptures are ubiquitous today due to their richness and style; for instance, Greeks focused on stones, bronzes, marble, and wood to present different forms of artwork. The familiar and most famous periods of Greeks were 650-480 B.CE (Archaic) and 323 B.CE-1st century (Hellenistic). This era highlighted the role of women in a distinct way.  

Women figures in Greek sculptures were commonly used to show famous artwork and beauty. These sculptures stay noticeable in different periods because they reflected unique culture and style in a bright format. The ancient Greek sculpture mainly engaged the nudity of women, not showing the way of disrespect towards females, but it was a culture (Palagia, 2015). These women’s sculptures during the era were considered a sex sign or predilection for sex. The role of women in these sculptures was to inspire males. The inspiration of real-life women mainly drew these and portrayed some advantages and disadvantages.

The Archaic period settled in 650 BCE to 480 BCE is considered the earliest period that represented Greek art. The sculptures that belonged to this artistic period were commonly known as Egyptian sculptures, mainly due to the reflection of Egypt style in male and female artwork. The intense creativity period was associated with traditions, temple architecture, and monumental sculptures (Ridgway, 1987). Maiden was the common word used for female sculptures in that ear, and its leading example is Draped Female in 530 BCE. As shown in Fig.1

Figure 1 Kore Peplos

(Source: STATUES, 2019)

The Peplos Kore is a girl statue, 118 cm and 46 inches in height, made up of white marble and painted in different colors. It is placed in the Acropolis Museum (STATUES, 2019).

During this era, the sculptures of females were drawn on multiple patterns that exhibited drapery under ornamental qualities (art, 2019). Simonides and Hesiod were poets in that era who mentioned women’s portrayals in artistic and poetic styles. Hesiod focused on women’s exploitation in its writings, and a famous example is Pandora. The image reflected from the story is women were unnatural.

From Hesiod to Persian War by the end of the Archaic age, the women’s exploits were estimated by Lesbos Sappho. Athens provided some evidence about women’s role in the archaic era that they were only supposed to cook, manage, spin, and raise children (Palagia, 2015). The home-associated concept of women was prevalent in the middle class, where women were a liability. Low statuses of the Archaic era women were prostitutes and priestesses. Greek women were influential in terms of employment; for instance, some Greek tradeswomen were involved in property, laundries, and stall operations (Gill, 2019). In Archaic Greece, the family roles were painful; women had to pay a dowry to husbands. Women were married to the much older persons, and in the case of no son, the daughter had to bestow her father’s inheritance to the spouse.

The Hellenistic period in Greeks was mainly associated with ethnic components and monarchies (Schmitz, 2010). Women were increasingly involved in the societies in the form of religious spheres and queens, while in public performance, their roles were significant. The literary evidence confirmed that the importance of women from the 8th to 5th centuries was substantial, in form of cultures, traditions, and customs (Ridgway, 1987). Greece’s influence was spread in the world by Alexander in 336 BCE. The Hellenistic period in 323 BCE was the revival of Greek sculpture because from the Archaic to Classical period, the reign of sculpture was less focused. The portrayal of nude figures, young women, and attractive figures is the principal symbol of this period. Most of them were created with marble and bronze (art, 2019).   

From the Archaic to the Hellenistic period, the scope of women’s role was increased. Increased evidence about sculpture and nude figures was found in that era. Greeks preferred their masters, and with the representation of women, the low preferred the women aspects (STATUES, 2019). This was characterized by sensual themes, comical, and ugly scenarios. The Greek art in that era highlighted women to show how concrete it was to design this structure. Its best example is the Venus de Milo sculpture in the same period. As shown in Fig.2

Figure 2 the Venus de Milo

(Source: nationaux, 2019)

Venus de Milo represents Aphrodite, which was a goddess of beauty and love in Greece. This statue is 18-50 cm; it fascinates antiquities (national, 2019). 

Women’s role in the Archaic to the Hellenistic era was crucial in different terms. Women represent different roles in society, i.e., mother-daughter, sister, and muse. In Ancient Greece, this role was shown in Greek sculpture with power and excellence. More often, the female figures portrayed love and sex in that period. The Hellenistic period was a transition due to growing competencies (nationaux, 2019). Ruing families as Macedonian competed in terms of a power struggle among men. This struggle created the relationship between mothers and sons while also provided the polygamist nature of kings. Many royal women in this period came at the front by exhibiting imperial and political power, i.e., the mother of Alexander Olympias (Palagia, 2015). 

The role of women in the classical period between these two eras was not significant, and women started to gain power in the Hellenistic era. This notion provided political marriages; an example is Antiochus and Berentice. Political aspirations for females were illustrated by their actions (STATUES, 2019). In addition, domestic and economic responsibilities that females faced between the two eras were increased. Men did not talk about the religious aspect of women and their glory. The social standing of women was evident in that region. Legal rights and their evolution are seen in the Hellenistic era (Schmitz, 2010). A clear example is Papyri from Egypt, and it showed how important it was for females to had guardians. The legal rights aspect highlights the women’s involvement in marital contracts to demonstrate the protection of rights and expression of mutuality (Gill, 2019).  


The position of women from Archaic to Classic, and then the Hellenistic period, was changed drastically (nationaux, 2019). The changing patterns of society also changed the behavior of women. Erinna of Talos in the Hellenistic era is a clear example of educated women. Women’s positions in society faced a transition due to the multiplicity of roles. In these eras, a focus on women’s education was made. This changed the social standing of women and provided a different scenario to all the women in society. The prominent culture and prevalence of customs had affected women’s life in Greek to a high degree.


Art, G. (2019). Greek art from the Archaic to Hellenistic Era. Retrieved 4 November 2019, from

Gill, N. (2019). The Lives of Greek Women in the Archaic Age. Retrieved 30 October 2019, from

nationaux, R. (2019). Aphrodite, known as the Venus of Milo – From 18 to 50 cm. Retrieved 30 October 2019, from

Ridgway, B. (1987). Ancient Greek Women and Art: The Material Evidence. American Journal Of Archaeology91(3), 399. doi: 10.2307/505361

STATUES, K. (2019). Greek Art & Architecture: Archaic Kore Statues. Retrieved 30 October 2019, from

Palagia, O. (2015). Greek sculpture, Archaic, Classical & Hellenistic: new finds & developments 2005–2015. Archaeological Reports61, 104-114. doi: 10.1017/s0570608415000113

Schmitz, T. (2010). A. D. Morrison: The narrator in archaic Greek and Hellenistic poetry. Gnomon82(3), 211-215. doi: 10.17104/0017-1417_2010_3_211

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