Animal Farm and Lord of flies, both have depictions of Democracy breakdown. Inanimal Farm, animals were dictated every step of the way by NapoleonLikewise, in Lord of Flies, Jack becomes bossy on others. He is arrogant and makes them feel like he knows more than they do and order others to do things.

In Chapter 2, Napoleon says, Never mind the milk, comrades!” cried Napoleon, placing himself in front of the buckets. “That will be attended to. The harvest is more important”. This shows Napoleon lust for power. He is a clear dictator on the sheep’s as he makes them chant this phrase repeatedly. He doesn’t wants to share the milk but saves it for the other pigs. He makes them chant it like a mantra and shows this pig as being a monster.Aldino Hartan in his article, Dictatorship Of The Proletariat In George Orwell’s Animal Farm Novel (1945) : A Marxist Analysis, describes Napoleon as a dictator. He schemes alongside the hounds to take over the leadership. (Hartan, 2019)Napoleons actions depict him as a dictator with lust for power. Further, in Chapter 3, Orwell writes about the puppies, “As soon as they were weaned, Napoleon took them away from their mothers, saying that he would make himself responsible for their education.” This is another example of dictatorship where the puppies away to train them. . Stalin was also a dictator like these used to scare the animals in the faUsing them to keep the other animals in check is what a dictator would dorm.Hartan in his article refers to this predicament as another example of Dictatorship as he was using violence and fear to put the animals in their place and make them feel sad and down.(Hartan, 2019)Hartan’s perspectives that Napoleon is actuallya brute dictator who used terror to silent the other animals at the farm.Napoleon says, “Comrades, do you know who is responsible for this? Do you know the enemy who has come in the night and overthrown our windmill? SNOWBALL!”This directs towards the realization that Napoleon was a tyrant who wanted to derail Snowball as the leader.He wanted to use this predicament in his favor and turn all others against his opponent is an example of breaking down democracy and introducing dictatorship. John Rodden in his article refers to “Napoleon as the dictator Stalin”. (Rodden, 1999) Stalin also had the lust for power and he made the wholea s snowball was the true leader of the animals that is why he was maligning his name the most to turn them against him.

Lord of the Flies

In Lord of Flies, Jack says,“And you shut up! Who are you, anyway? Sitting there telling people what to do. You can’t hunt, you can’t sing—”(Golding, 54)This is another example of demeaning and making other feel small about themselves. Leaders do not make other feel bad about themselves to feel big. They take the team with them and motivate them every step of the way. They don’t tell the team member to shut up or mock them by saying who are you anyway. This is not just insulting but shameful but openly depicts that Jack is ab autocratic leader and only believes in giving order rather than taking the team onward with him.Jack in Chapter 4 said, I painted my face—I stole up. Now you eat—all of you—and I—”(Golding, 54)This is a portrayal of Democracy breakdown as jack yelled at his team to obey him. This is a very harsh tone used by Jack and the choice of words is very insulting. LIU Li in her article, “The Application of Frye’s Theory to Lord of the Flies” describes jack as Satanic. (Li, 2014) His actions are trulySatanic in nature and wants to the democratic breakdown. Li presents his character as someone who is demonic in nature and loves being savage to others. Golding presents him as self-absorbed about himself and forces others do what he wants that make him a complete dictator. He is the least likeable character in the novel due to his dictator attitude and at every step of the way; we find one new reason to dislike him with his actions. He is very rude and has no right to demean others.Jack further says,“Hands up?” said Jack strongly, “Whoever wants Ralph not to be chief?(Golding, 54)These words depict thatGolding shows the characterof jack asrude and a dictator who wants to be the chosen chief.He wasa control freak and made those in her teamsuffer. Ralph represents democracy and listen to others. Jackon the other hand symbolizes dictatorship shamelessly shapes the minds of other team members as Ralph. Hedrift’s away from the process of a democratic system by which Ralph was selected as the chief of the team. Asking them to raise hands against him is itself a portrayal of democracy breakdown in Lord of the Flies.

In the light of this evidence, it’s concluded on the fact that from it is proven that there was characters in both the novels and they were the Portrayal of democracy breakdown.  Jack was the dictator in Lord of the Flies and repeatedly he showed signed of overlapping the democratic process at every level. Repeatedly proved of being so. On the other hand, Napoleon in Animal farm was the dictator anddespite the animals but also for the fellow human beings as well.




Golding, W. (1954). Lord of the Flies. Faber and Faber.

Orwell, G. (1945). Animal farm. Secker and Warburg.

Hartan, A. (2019). Dictatorship Of the Proletariat In George Orwell’s Animal Farm Novel (1945) : A Marxist Analysis. Retrieved from

Li, L. (2014). The Application of Frye’s Theory to Lord of the Flies. Studies in Literature and Language, 187-189. Retrieved from

Rodden, J. (1999). Understanding Animal Farm: A Student Casebook to Issues, Sources, and Historical Documents.





Animal Farm is George Orwell’s allegorical novel that describes the stories of a group of animals that turn out as rebels against their oppressing human farmers.William Golding in his novel “Lord of the Flies” describes the story of a group of British students that are stranded on an island and later form groups to govern themselves.Orwell and Golding present their Animal Farm and Lord of Flies that refers to oppression that they observed in societies around them.

Orwell was a critic of the Stalin, and his novel Animal farm is the Russian Revolution’s metaphor. Characters in the novel represent actual people and Napoleon and his fellow pigs were actually metaphors for Kremlin. He focused on writing about the greed and lust for power. The In Animal farm, Orwell’s mentions, “Four legged good, two legs bad”(Orwell, 1945) He saw that the leaders had drifted away from Marxism and he used these lines to relate to that era’s leader. This line represents the idea that not all humans are equal. Dinesh Kumar in his articles agrees with the mindset of  refers to the Vision of Society in George Orwell’s Animal Farm” describes how Orwell expressed his views on authoritarianism andtotalitarianism regarding the globe world through symbolically using the character’s in the novel, regarding Oppression, Tyranny and injustice. (Kumar, 2014) This reinforces oppression as a theme of the novel.“All animals are equal, but some animals are more equal than others.”(Orwell, 1945)Here, Orwell refers to a satirical presentation of the idea regarding all the animals as being equals, yet some are equal. He referred to are equal in everything except the ones that is chosen by humans as leaders. Napoleon in this Novel represents Stalin and Orwell symbolizes the started wearing clothes that were not allowed for animals. He also started to walk on two legs. Furthermore  “If you have your lower animals to contend with,” he said, “we have our lower classes”(Orwell, 1945)refers to the class system in animals as well as human beings. Animals have classes where some are weak, and some are strong. Some are fast, and some are slow. That is what ranks them from lower to the upper tier in the animals. On the other hand, there are classes in human beings as well. Golding

Likewise there is oppression in Lord of FliesI ought to be chief…because I’m chapter chorister and head boy. I can sing C sharp.(Golding, 1954)Jack uses these words to claim to be the natural leader of the boys. His choice of words depicts his oppressive attitude towards others. One who claims by himself that he is the one deserving to be the leader of the group claiming he can sing C sharp? with the notion that Jack was actually an oppressor that represents savagery. Xiaofang Li in her article, “On Symbolic Significance of Characters in Lord of the Flies” refers to jack in the exact word as a savage. He is a dictator by nature and forces the followers to do so. (Li, 2009)Jack attitude towards other is belittling and he doesn’t respect his team mates.Golding further writes, “His specs – use them as burning glasses!”(Golding, 1954) Another highly demeaning and insulting comment that Jack passes is for Piggy’s glasses. Soon as they feel the need for fire, Jack refers to piggy’s glasses that can be used as fire. This is another insulting comment by Jack for one of the group members that yet again represents the word oppression. He is so arrogant that in spite of looking for some woods for fire, the first idea that comes to his genius mind is to use his group member’s glasses to be used for fire.Eat! Damn you!(Golding, 1954)These are words used by Jack for his team members soon as he manages to kill the pig, he asks the team members to eat it in his honor. This is another example of oppression where he oppresses his team member to do something against their will and be happy with it as well. Li in her article writes about Jack choosing to hunt because of his urge for blood and that he wants to share a conquest of killing something and enjoy the pleasure of taking life. (Li, 2009) This depicts his autocratic attitude towards others and his oppressive attitude depicts by it. His wants to prove himself strong and powerful. This makes him the symbol of oppression in Lord of the Flies.

In the light of this evidence, it can be concluded on the fact that there was the portrayal of oppression by characters in both the novels. Jack in Lord of the Flies was the oppressor that time and again proved of being  a oppressor in the novel by his actions. On the other hand, Napoleon in Animal farm was the oppressors.He was an oppressor who took charge from snowball by force. His personality changed soon as he became the oppressing leader in Animal Farm..Hence, both Animal Farm and Lord of the Flies had the element of oppression in it.



Golding, W. (1954). Lord of the Flies. Faber and Faber.

Kumar, D. (2014). Vision of Society in George Orwell’s Animal Farm. International Journal of Research, 89-99. Retrieved from

Li, X. (2009). On Symbolic Significance of Characters in Lord of the Flies. School of Foreign Languages, 119-123. Retrieved from

Orwell, G. (1945). Animal farm. Secker and Warburg.





In your discussion-topic paper, identify the page number of the passage you are writing about and then explain what caught your interest and why, your impressions of what’s being conveyed, and even if you are only trying to understand something confusing about a passage and would like to raise questions about it to follow up on later in class. Write informally, there being no rigid structure to follow, and write in a conversational style appropriate for academic communication, i.e., no cursing, slang, texting shortcuts, emoji, etc. So, despite the informality, do write with a sense of logical purpose and concentration, communicating clearly, precisely, and effectively in standard English prose. I’ll see how you fare with this Monday’s batch, and, as needed, will provide further instructions to the group or to individuals. 

  1. 2. Part 2, chapter VII, page 253-278

Chapter seven starts a new turmoil on the protagonist Raskolnikov as he is reminded of his own accident when he sees the incident that happens to Marmeladoy. Here it is very interesting to note that Raskolnikov’s compassion overshadows his other selfish worldly desires as he helps the man and even pays him money to help Katerina. This part is highly important as it reveals that even though Raskolnikov is a murderer but despite that, he is compassionate and is actually very tender from the inside as he despite being in an economically hard position, still helps the poor family out and from the money that his mother gave him for his own expense. This part humanizes Raskolnikov’s character and strengthens it by adding dimensions and showing that he is not just a heartless being but is actually far more than that.

This also reveals a universal message that the author Dostoyevsky wanted to convey to his writers that humans are not simple beings who are merely good or bad but are profoundly complex in their behaviors, values, thoughts and ultimately actions as well. For instance, the protagonist can make sense of the murder he committed but cannot face seeing the suffering of another human being.

The metaphorical importance of the part when Raskolnikov is drenched with blood while aiding Marmeladov is very significant. It is important because it draws interesting parallels between the blood that granted him a moral dilemma and the blood that gave him life in a way. The former being the blood on his hands from the murder of Alyona and the latter being when he decides to commit to an extremely good deed that brings back life to him to an extent.

The dialogue, “Life is real! haven’t I lived just now? My life has not yet died with that old woman!” reveals these feelings of his and convey the recurring theme of the dual nature of a human being who is a combination of both good and bad.

The ending of part two is important as the surprise visit from Raskolnikov’s mother and sister overwhelm him so much that he faints.

  1. Part IV, page 397-506

Part four reveals the protagonist’s views on religion and familial ties. This part brings with itself uncertainty for Raskolnikov as he cannot differentiate if he is dreaming or not because his sense of morality has clouded his reality of the world. This part plays a crucial role in developing the character of the protagonist as despite the fact that he leaves his family, mother and sister behind, he asks his trusted Razumikhin to take care of them in his absence. This shows that the protagonist Is actually sincere from the inside but still has some weak spots and it is this dual nature of the character that makes him realistic and this portrayal is possible thorough the genius of Dostoyevsky’s writing.

It is important to note that this part also marks the redemption of Raskolnikov as he leaves his family behind and goes to visit Sonya. Although this part shows us that Raskolnikov mocks Sonya’s faith but it must be kept in mind that what marks his character arch towards redemption is his absolute choice to go in the first place. He makes fun of Sonya’s faith because he does not really understand it. His condescending bahavior is also eveident when he talks to Porfiry but this exchange also reveals the protagonist’s inner change towards finding the path of change, towards salvation and redemption. Despite feeling superior in the starting conversations, his tone changes when he realizes that Porfiry knows much more than him and thus his air of superiority sheds.

It is when Nikolai discloses the fact that he brought about the murder, Raskolnikov understand what really is happening that Porfiry might be intellectually superior than him, but they have no solid evidence against him in the role he played in carrying out the murder of the old lady Ivanovna. This changes Raskolnikov’s behavior again but it must be acknowledged that this is the first time his character broke and hence although it might not be one hundred percent evident that Raskolnikov has redeemed himself, he definitely begun his journey towards a better path or at least had a glimpse of the right path.



The COVID 19 pandemic has shocked the world suddenly. There are no clouds when this crisis will ends. However, we to get your help in identifying the following ”
– What we need to capture for this experience?
– How we can capture the values?
– What we can do now, and after the employees come to work again?
And anything else that we need to plan for.


It would be an understatement to say that the novel coronavirus has changed the ways of life globally. The virus first emerged in the Chinese city of Wuhan and slowly encompassed about 210 countries, resulting in the deaths of more than 1.5 million people in just a mere five months. The scale of covid-19 might be global, but its wave has not hit every country equally at the time as the number of reported cases and severe ones as well appear to be far higher in Europe and the US than in the rest of the world. China claims to have “flattened the curve” and has reduced restrictions related to social distancing, presently the only solution available for covid-19. This article will explore the changing way of life, lessons learnt from living in quarantine, the economic impact, and when life gets back to the “norm” (or will it?).

The coronavirus outbreak has changed a lot about normal lifestyles. With the closing of schools, universities, prayer places, shopping malls, parks and almost all the places except the hospitals and quarantine centres, a virtual lifestyle has peaked as meeting, classes and appointments have shifted to video calls over the internet. Along with the self-isolation policy, all of us are to follow to flatten the curve and reduce the spread of the virus, the closing of institutions for some has brought negative feelings. Another major change in the ways of life is that a safe distance of about 6 feet is to be maintained and no physical contact ought to be made with people who don’t physically live with you. This means that the affectionate gestures of meet and greet, such as a handshake or a hug, have vanished. These simple things in life are being missed by many so much so that a sense of fear and paranoia too has prevailed. Some people are structuring creative schedules as coping mechanisms such as cooking, giving themselves a haircut, painting and catching up with their readings. Additionally, travel bans have been implemented, and public gatherings made illegal. Quarantine and the lockdowns are new for mostpeople, but the threat of the deadly virus is forcing people to obey the order, though there are some exceptions.

The covid-19 outbreak has learnt numerous and profound lessons. Many people have realized that they have been taking simple things in life for granted and claim that they will appreciate life more after the battle with the virus is over. An important lesson leant from the virus is the fact that even significant parts of the world were unprepared for the virus, even after knowing the damage it had caused in Wuhan. The lack of efficient leadership on a political level has made people see the major loopholes in the healthcare and medical branch. For instance, the President of the US was warned time and again to prepare for the outbreak of the virus. Still, he kept on ignoring the advisory personnel until it was too late and not the US is the most severely affected country from covid-19, having lost more than 40,000 lives in just a month and a half. Despite the warnings of many scientists that the world needs to prepare for a pandemic, even the most developed countries ignored the call and are now suffering because of their ignorance.

The Chief environmentalist of the UN said, “The separation of health and environmental policy is a dangerous delusion. Our health entirely depends on the climate and the other organisms we share the planet with.” Hence, orders are being given to call off the unhygienic intake of food and the suggestive time to time washing of hands is proving beneficial for fighting against the virus.

Further, the efforts of the medical administration including, doctors, nurses and the rest of the medical staff, is extremely plausible as they have been fighting for their patients by putting themselves at risk and sacrificing meeting their loved ones to protect them. They have been declared the frontline fighters and their efforts have been acknowledged by the entire world.

Another eye-opener for everyone has been the positive impact the virus has had on nature. The outcome of social distancing has meant that fewer cars are on the road; less space is occupied by the man that leaves more space for nature. Many factories have stopped production, lessening the air pollution index in many cities.  According to a study done by Carbon Brief, a specialist outlet, the emission of polluted gases have fallen drastically, such as the carbon dioxide emissions fell by around 25% in China. There are many claims made that even the depletion of the ozone layer has slowed down and has instead recovered to an extent.

An important and worrisome impact of the virus other than the biological aspect is the economic aftermath. Many economists had predicted a world recession in 2020 before the pandemic, but this event has worsened it, and many global economists now suspect an economic depression. People being locked away and not producing materials is putting an immense burden on the economy. Hence many economists have been in favour of removing the lockdown, claiming that even if people survive the pandemic, the economic hardships afterwards might result in desperate times that may lead to their demise.

Leading world economist James Meadway stated “the correct Covid-19 response isn’t a wartime economy – with massive upscaling of production. Rather, we need an “anti-wartime” economy and a massive scaling back of production. And if we want to be more resilient to pandemics in the future (and to avoid the worst of climate change), we need a system capable of scaling back production in a way that doesn’t mean loss of livelihood.”


The coronavirus outbreak has made us realize how frail our market systems are. There are global alarm and speculation, and even governments are afraid that these systems might break down as supply chains are disrupted, social care is challenged, and healthcare has become questionable. Hence, a shift from the conventional economic system might provide a solution.

Many believe that this crisis has triggered a push towards economic imagination.


Finally, the most awaited question on everyone’s mind seems to be about going back to normalcy. It must be noted that many thinkers believe that the coronavirus is here to stay until its vaccine has developed. If it does not develop soon, then the period of social distancing will continue for a very long time, maybe even a year or two as postulated by many, such as analytical thinkers of the Business Insider and many more. However, some places that have successfully flattened the curve and have removed some restrictions such as China and Hong Kong. They are on their way back to the normal life, but it must be remembered that in the global village of today, no country can survive without others and if major world countries take longer to reopen their system, then the fully functional countries would not be able to continue trade and commerce that would naturally impact their economic and social systems.


It can be said that although there have been many pandemics before, this one feels completely new as the era it targeted did not expect it at all and despite the world being transformed into a post-modern world, it still lacks the basic necessities of proper health care and hygiene. The quarantine life may seem a bit bland as compared to the previous jovial life; it is a duty on all of us to protect ourselves and our loved ones from the heinous disease. Thus we should follow the instructions given by the authorities and hope for better days.


Blodget, Henry. When Will Life Go Back To Normal Again? Insider Today: Business Insider.


Oroschakoff, Kalina. 6 Ways the Coronavirus is Changing the Environment. POLITICO.


Torres, Ella. How life has changed since coronavirus struck. ABC news.













History of Disney Plus

The American subscription video-on-demand service for streaming is being operated at the international level by Walt Disney Company. This streaming service is provided by Disney plus. The direct to consumer and international performance division comprises of TV series and film. Disney plus is working on many original TV series and film series. The company is providing family-oriented entertainment, but no TV-MA programming and R-Rated. Disney has built this service from main entertainment studios of Disney comprises of Pixar, Walt Disney Pictures, National Geographic, and Marvel Studios. Disney has gained a controlling stake about its services operating along Hulu, i.e. generating common entertainment. The Hulu is an add-on service by Disney Plus.

Figure 1 Walt Disney Revenue

(Source: Eng& Hernandez, 2006)

Disney Plus is an online streaming place and came out in November, 12th 2019. It is offering a big collection of libraries, movies, and shows. In December 2019, Disney Plus presented a children game show Star War’s based (Temple Challenge). It is working on a documentary to produce conversation themes content related to documentaries. It is working on web browsers streaming, Apple TV, iOS devices, Amazon ad Android TV. Apple TV app is a listed item for content on Disney Plus. It is also working on seven user profiles for an individual account and offer streaming on four devices as well as offline viewing. Disney Plus was first launched in the US, Netherlands, and Canada, then in New Zealand, Australia, and Puerto Rico. In December 2019, it started Canal + in France (Eng& Hernandez, 2006).

Disney Plus Streaming

Disney has entered in streaming market world of entertainment due to its highly anticipated Disney plus streaming. The streaming plan by Disney was implemented due to the high demand for its shows and films. Disney is the best performer at the industry average and extended its year-to-date gain to 35% with the ease of ringing it a versatile stock for the company. The start of Disney Plus added 10 million subscribers on the first day of launch. Verizon is providing free of charge Disney plus to its subscribers as a part of smart marketing. A positive catalyst for the stock of Disney will be the free trial for Verizon customers. On March 31, 2020, it will be launched in Western Europe. It is also being expected that in the first quarter of 2020, this will increase the subscribers from 15 to 25 million. Streaming is at peak growth these days, so it has attracted many glitzy growth companies.

Disney Plus is also entered into the competitive industry due to high demand and gaining positive growth (Zeitchik, 2019). The year to date stock of Disney is 25% before its debut of streaming service due to its anticipation. This was due to the investors’ appreciation of different elements of the company regarding the business model. The streaming service by Disney was also mainly inspired due to its theme parks. The resorts and parks are the main shining components of Disney plus and allowed a sustainable growth rate. Disney always aims to provide original content for TV and its series have ties to the significant and unique properties of shows (Lam & Rossiter, 2013). The Disney studio, its themed competition such as Cinema Relic and Be Our Chief are inspiring stories for kids. It has also launched a documentary studio super club based on conservation nature-themed documentary.

The key Disney’s differentiators allow them to create and sustain a competitive advantage. It will include action shows under the theme of the Marvel Cinematic Universe. The big-screen stars such as Tom Hiddleston and Elizabeth Olsen are some motivating key features of Disney. The marvel series films will roll out in 2020-2022, and Falcon & Winter Soldier will launch in August 2020. The Jim Henson Company will produce parody and Muppet that will release in the current year (Zeitchik, 2019).

Traditional Streaming Business Model for Netflix

The most successful streaming business model provided by Netflix was started in 1998, by offering services to consumers by mailing copies of shows, movies, videos, and media forms. Netflix offered different technical changes by converted its business model (Sherman, 2020). It has provided streaming technologies for its business revenue and structure. The key partners of Netflix are alliance with the game industry, Smart TV companies, and TV companies such as Amazon and Google. The value propositions of the Netflix business model are streaming of 24/7 minus ads, high definition movies, unlimited access to movies and TV shows, algorithm recommendations and 30 days free trial after new sign up.

Figure 2 Netflix Business Model

(Source: Lam & Rossiter, 2013)

The customer relationships are built by offering exceptional services, online chat services, self-setup ease and gift cards by Netflix. The customer segments in Netflix are mainly interested in watching shows, TV documentaries and movies. The key resources are software developers and algorithms. Its cost structures are aligned on purchasing the right establishment, producing movies cost, R & D services, cost of artificial intelligence, subscription cost and mail-related shipping costs of DVDs (Sherman, 2020).

The Netflix revenue streams are mainly three kinds of subscription plans, standard, basic and premium. The channels offered by Netflix are online streaming, TV apps streaming, gaming consoles, and DVDs delivery. This traditional business model by Netflix is aligned with technology and maintaining technical staff. It has also developed its pricing strategy model to ensure affordability.

Figure 3 Netflix Performance

(Source: Lam & Rossiter, 2019)

Disney’s Plus Business Model

Disney experienced high initial sustainable growth. The main entertainment studios of Disney are Pixar, Disney Animation, Marvel Studios, and Lucas film. The growth is sustainable due to the high customer base and loyalty framework. According to Bob Iger, Disney plus will focus on family-oriented entertainment and Hulu will also focus on the general kind of entertainment. Disney plus is expected to produce 500 films and 7,000 TV episodes and the main content will be taken from Marvel, Pixar, Disney, and 20th-century studios. The services provided by Disney plus will hold pay cable rights. It will include acquired programming from different production companies that are not its subsidiaries.

Figure 4 Market share and forecast of Disney

(Source: Pilipets, 2019)

New 20th century Fox is not available on Hulu and Disney plus due to its pre-existing deals (Pilipets, 2019). Iger stated that Disney plus has key features of growth and can sustain its performance by adding technology.

The features of Disney plus are significant that can help the company continue its growth rate. For instance, Disney plus is easy to go with PCs, Apple TV, iOS devices and Amazon devices. The Smart TVs, Chromecasts, Fire HD and Roku devices are easily aligned with Disney plus. It is also providing easy accessibility features such as audio description, closed captioning, video services and assistance in navigation. It has based its business model on free subscription-driven service (Lam & Rossiter, 2013). It is expected that it will increase the prices with time but sustaining lower prices for some content can increase engagement for studio entertainment. Its business model has focused on internally licensed content, i.e. content studio entertainment and license-free media networks. It is estimated that licensed content expense for the fiscal year 2020 will be less than $1.5B and for the fiscal year 2024 it will be $2B.

The original content will be amortized over many years so that will represent long term usefulness of streaming. The business model also focused on male and female affinity ratio. Disney will bundle Hulu and Disney plus or ESPN to get a large customer base. ESPN can bring sports fans while Hulu will provide adult content to its subsidiaries such as Fox Searchlight, Freeform. ABC Studios, and Touchstone Pictures. Disney plus has an advantage over Netflix in ems of offering a significant catalog of original content, though the business model of both is not very different.

Key Competitors of Disney

A number of competitors are playing a role in the path of Disney across the market such as Time Warner, Sony, 21st Century Fox, CBS, and Viacom. The high competition with Disney is due to its main products of media markets, cable, and TV. Multichannel video programming is increasing competition for Disney in the industry.

Figure 5 Competitors of Disney Plus

(Source: Eng& Hernandez, 2006)

Disney is positioning it within the highly competitive market by mainly focusing on the competitive sports market, for instance, it has a strong collaboration with ESPN that makes 24% of its revenue (Eng& Hernandez, 2006). The popularity of sports channels is a key package for program building. In the theme park market, many rivals of Disney are at the front, such as Universal Studios, Cedar Fair, Six Flags and Comcast. The high competition is maintained by renegotiating its contracts, managing innovations and offering wide consumer products by involving publishing, licensing and retails. It is competing with other companies in terms of original content and technology. Thecompetitive position at market place is accompanied by innovation and technical implementation in streaming, video on demand and subscription processes. This improved performance is attributable to customer loyalty and strong base of general entertainment.




Eng, S., & Hernandez, F. (2006). Managing streaming video: A new role for technical services. Library Collections, Acquisitions, And Technical Services30(3-4), 214-223.

Lam, G., & Rossiter, D. (2013). A Web Service Framework Supporting Multimedia Streaming. IEEE Transactions On Services Computing6(3), 400-413.

Pilipets, E. (2019). From Netflix Streaming to Netflix and Chill: The (Dis)Connected Body of Serial Binge-Viewer. Social Media + Society5(4), 205630511988342.

Sherman, A. (2020). Disney+ already has 10 million subscribers — here’s how that compares with rivals. CNBC. Retrieved 28 February 2020, from

Zeitchik, S. (2019). The Disney Plus launch ratchets up talk of streaming competition. But the same creators work for all of them. Washington Post. Retrieved 28 February 2020, from





Argument 1:

The conflict of Northern Ireland dates back to the 1960s. The written passage offers facts about the conflict. It is not very opinionated and hence, not very argumentative. However, the image attached clearly shows a harmless civilian being brutally manhandled by the police so that does build a perspective in the viewers head. There has been no mention of any resolution for the conflict.

Argument 2:

The Israeli-Palestinian conflict is quite old and still ongoing as the passage mentions. The argument here is weak as mostly the factual details are presented by the author and neither is the conflict resolution discussed. However, it does mention and show destruction and harm inflicted upon civilians so indirectly it shows the side against war rather than support for either countries.

Argument 3:

The images and passages highlight the structural violence and protests. The war is on territory and division amongst the ethnicities and religions of both groups. But it is evident that on Palestinian side, civiliansare suffering and fighting against the Israeli army. The argument is strong over here however, the weakness is that no effective solution has been suggested for this issue (Bar-Siman-Tov, 1994).

Argument 4:

This is a strong argument as it clearly indicates the side of conflict to support. The destruction and countless deaths caused by the military against the minorities asking for rights. It offers facts and figures to support as well. Most importantly, it also mentions the peace efforts that took place to solve the conflict and how war ceased by 1995 (Statzmiller, 2002).

Argument 5:

The passage and image show two different aspects of the same argument. This makes the argument stronger as both show violence or the miserable state of one group. It also hints how UN hasn’t been as successful in bringing peace as it should be (Athanasopoulou, 2009). While the Bosnian war ceased, the psychological damage and poor treatment in refugee camps still exist.


Athanasopoulou, E., 2009. Conflict resolution in Bosnia and Herzegovina: Public debate on the Dayton institutional framework and its ongoing reform. NATIONAL & KAPODISTRIAN UNIVERSITY OF ATHENS.

Shatzmiller, M., 2002. Islam and Bosnia: conflict resolution and foreign policy in multi-ethnic states. McGill-Queen’s Press-MQUP.

Bar-Siman-Tov, Y., 1994. The Arab—Israeli Conflict: Learning Conflict Resolution. Journal of Peace Research31(1), pp.75-92.



Essay 3:

Privilege is a concept still unknown to many people out there. We often forget that what we have today is not necessarily a fair result of our hard work, but it isalso our elders’ hard work whose fruits we tend to enjoy. Our professional and financial positions speak a lot about ourplaces in society. People who do not fit specific standards set by the society get treated as social outcasts and misfits. It is unfortunate to say that this so-called standard is dependent mainly on the availability of money the person can generate regardless of the “how” process. What is even sadder is the fact that the world is a cruel place for those who are not rich when, in fact, the world should be more thoughtful towards them. Everyone feels the need to get validated, but it seems that validation is also easy to come if you have money. Monetary issues can be solved if more employment opportunities get created and special compensations are given to those who are deserving and in need. It is also possible at times that employment maybe available, but since it doesn’t help further learn newer skills, at that moment, the person decides to stay jobless because it seems to be a more efficient allotment of resources. In the same manner, I also took a gap after my degree in law completed. I needed my time to clear my head out and decide what I can do in the future. It is crucial that decisions such as taking a gap are not discouraged and frowned upon by our colleagues and the society at large. It is not okay to pressure someone into something when they have to make life decisions. I have trained myself not to be too affected by how others feel and think about me. And I think that this is a considerable achievement being a young adult. We derive our validation from people knowingly or unknowingly. But we must derive that validation from ourselves foremostly. My gap year also taught me how to be vigilant towards available resources. At that time, I learned the process of conservation and minimalism. We have a knack for both wasting things and piling up useless things. When I get landed with a leadership role, these are the two things that I will prevent as much as possible.



Biophilic architecture happens to be a holistic approach to utilizing the best nature-based systems, and the current applications of biophilia include landscape urbanism, green city movement, and ecological infrastructure which happens to be one of the best applications. Throughout history, biophilicdeisgn was used to designate an image of opulence, grandeur and power. The Alhambra is the most prominent example of howbiophilic design was used as a representation of power by the rulers of the Alhambra. Alhambra palatine is the most admired as well as famous examples of Islamic heritage and architecture in Europe. However, in the 21st century, Biophilic design is more than just a technical format for aesthetics. The biophilic framework is now considerd as an advanced methodology for sustainability for the built environment. Sustainability is bound to be an elusive target until states can shift the entire focus on building a fulfilling relationship between humans and their natural environment



Alhambra Palace is located at a strategic point within the city, offering views over the entire meadow and the city, which have aided the rulers inhabiting the castle to gain a vantage point (EggletonL. , 2012). The fortress is surrounded by irregular ramparts, with its eastern side facing the Cuesta del Rey Chico and its southern side facing the valley of al-Sabika (Rabbat, 1985). The palatine fortress, the Alhambra, is a palace perched upon Sabika hill located in the city of Granada.

There are three main areas of the Alhambra, Medina, the Generalife, and the Citadel. The citadel area is for protecting the site and the medina is an area which provides accommodation for the administrative staff as well as the artisans. The Generalife is the summer palace which consists of pavilions, colonnades, and gardens. Analysis of the Palace indicates that there is a spatial order underlying the design patterns. This is a quality closely associated with Medieval Islamic Art.


Alhambra palace was initiated by Muhammad 1 in 1232 who was the very first sultan in the Nasrid dynasty. The majority of the construction of the palace took place from thirteenth to the fourteenth century and was completed at the end of the reign of Muhammed V, Sultan of Granada from 1353 to 1391 and reflects the architectural style at the end of the Nasrid dynasty (Willmert, 2018). The well-preserved fortress complex became archetypal to the “Moorish” architecture of the Western scholars at the end of the Nasrid rule (Irwin, 2004). The architectural style, common at that time, was a mixture of exuberant Moorish and Christian influences which has been known as the Nasrid style (Eggleton E. , 2011). Despite many subsequent alterations, specifically under the many Catholic monarchs, the castle remains symbolic both as a war trophy of the “Reconquista” and as a symbol of the long-lost golden era of the al-Andalus(Eggleton L. , 2012).

The fortress owes as much to its modern-day location in Spain as it does to the European travelers of the eighteenth century who had a huge part to play in its “rediscovery”. After the conquest of Spain by the Catholic Monarchs in 1492 the Alhambra underwent changes in its design. The Palace of Charles V, a Renaissance building commenced by the Emperor in 1526 is located on the hill of Assabica inside the Alhambra fortress. The projected Palace is a specimen of Spanish architecture, designed by Pedro Machuca, and has been characterized by Washington Irving as “an arrogant intrusion” (Calvert, 1904). Charles V installed his royal emblem on every surface and the square plan encloses a two-story circular courtyard. Doric order pilasters and rustication is articulated on the façade on the first story of the Palace (Eggleton, 2012).

There are distinct parallels between the Moorish design and that of the Renaissance, broadly speaking, the formal design of the Palace expresses a Roman and Renaissance style architecture which does not have the incorporation of landscapes or natural elements. Charles V has often been criticized for introducing the incompatible architectural element of the renaissance art within the existing Moorish design of the Alhambra (Abdelaal, 2018). Historians point out towards the tenacity of the rulers who, during a time when political negotiations were intense and warfare an ex veto, managed to produce some of the most phenomenal architectural buildings and sophisticated poetry within the region. The surge of culture within the Nasrid rule managed to leave its impact on the walls of the palace (Barker, 2016).

Style of the Alhmabra Palace

The Alhambra is a medieval Islamic monument in Granada Spain (figure4) that has been in existence for an extended period. The style of the palace was meant for religious rulers and persons belonging to the affluent class. The situation is evident through multiple structural designs and artefacts that were common with rich people such as rulers. In 1894, UNESCO declared the monument as a world heritage site, which is open for the public. People visit the site to observe and learn about its history and design.

The city hosts a rich architectural and cultural history that has continuously changed to modern times. Eggleton (2011, 9) claims that the city qualifies to be a monument as it houses different histories and practices of people who occupied it during the early Christian and Islamic rules. The monument’s structural and architectural designs (figure 5) have a natural feeling that has been re-envisioned multiple times by its occupants to modern-day. Built on a hill, the feature observes a biophilic style, which is evident in its architectural designs. For example, it has gardens, water pools, fountains, and mimics of natural light in most of its palaces.

The Alhambra complex has two describable entities remaining today, the Court of the Lions and the Court of the Myrtles. Court of the Lions was built in the reign of Muhammad V during the time of 1354 to 1359 and has been paralleled with the Villa Rustica. The architectural style common at that time was a mixture of exuberant Moorish and Christian influences which has been known as the Nasrid style (Eggleton E. , 2011). A pavilion project into the courtyard and the light domed roof has filigree walls. The oblong court is thirty-five meters in length and twenty meters in width with white marble colonnade and colored tiles.

The Court is situated at the heart of the Palace, and the main living units surround the court and turn outside while receiving the sun, view, and light from the garden of the courtyard. When one moves through the space, physical involvement with water is induced due to the integration of small water channels and fountains which engage the human body with an element of water. The main technique for the decoration of the walls of the courtyards in the Palace is created through the dado tiling used to cover the bottom and upper part of the wall in the Court of the Golden Room. The stucco art which is covering the muqarnas in the Court of the Lions has different colours such as gold, green, blue, white and red. There is a consistency of the natural elements and themes in historic architecture which points towards the fact that biophilic design is a phenomenon contributing towards codification of history, neural sciences, and human intuition. This shows that contact with natural elements and nature itself is essential for a vibrant existence specifically for those living in urban areas (Jorge, 2018). The natural colour tones create a material connection with nature and reflect the local geology to create a sense of the place (al-Rhodesly, 2018).

The surface of the pool in the Court of the Myrtles serves the function of a mirror, reflecting the biophilic design in the architecture itself. This creates an admirable visual effect. There isarabesqueornamentationofthedifferentvarietyfoundwithinAlhambra.Theseincludegeometric starsandroseswhichrun intoeachotheranddevelopthedesign.Thebestexampleofbiomorphic designpatternsistheornamentalepigraphswhichareinterwoveninthesurfacedecorationsinthe porticos of the Court of the Myrtles because the ornamentalepigraph patterns are reminiscent of nature thus projecting the design element of naturally occurring shapes in nature  (al-Rhodesly, 2018).

Biophilic Design

The term ‘Biophilia’ was first coined by a professor at Yale University who defined the biophilic design as being affiliated with the inherent need of human beings to associate with natural designs within the built environment. Thus the goal of the biophilic design is that an environment is created which consists of elements that promote well-being and contact between human beings and nature. Over the years, architects, have published different works which include a unique form of approaches for realizing the transition of biophilic design from theory to application in building design. Biophilic design happens to be a holistic approach which utilizes the engineering principles, design cues, and nature-based systems to support well-being improved health and performance which can be measured through self-rated biometrics, personal mood as well as work quality.

Since the beginning, the hunting and gathering societies shared what humans today have, the need to connect with nature for obtaining necessities and for gaining mental peace. While analysing the existing literature one stumbles upon the idea that biophilia developed and has its origins within the understanding of the evolution of human beings (Söderlund, 2015). Human species developed biologically in adaptive response to the natural surroundings and not the artificially created forces. Thus, the human mind and body evolved with the bio-centric approach and not through technological advancement (Gullikson, 2010). The main hurdle which humans today have to experience between themselves and nature is the paradigm of development and design of the structures and artificially built environment (Söderlund, 2015). The biophilic design thus addresses not only the problems and deficiencies in modern landscape practice and building but also provides a new method for creating a positive experience for humans with nature (Kellert, 2018).

The term Biophilia has its roots in Greek literature means “love of life”. The Biophilia Hypothesis proposed by Wilson indicated that there is a need within people to connect with the complex geometrical forms in their surroundings just like they require air and nutrients (Price, 2018). Thus, sprang the Biophilic architecture, giving innovation to way architectural spaces are used and paved the way for the dialogue between the need for humans to connect with nature and the patterns as well as natural forms. There are geometrical features such as the scale-invariance and fractals which provide a notion of self-similarity as well as symmetry for people to indirectly connect with natural elements (Ramzy, 2015).

Principles of biophilic design can be seen in the architecture of the Islamic era, in cities such as Damascus, Aleppo, Bagdad, and Cairo. Pointed out that in contrast to the building being viewed as a sculptural element, the traditional madrasa has characteristics of well-arranged interior spaces and exterior patterns that are integrated harmoniously in an interplay with natural elements (Abdelaal, 2018). Moreover, themes connected with natural elements can be found in historical architecture such as that of the Egyptian sphinx with stylized animals, and that of the acanthus leaves on the Greek temples. Thus, this representation of elements and plants as ornamentation represents the tendency and need of human beings to connect with nature (Kellert S. R., 2012).

There is a consistency of the natural elements and themes in historic architecture which points towards the fact that biophilic design is a phenomenon which has contributed towards codification of history, neural sciences, and human intuition. This shows that contact with natural elements and nature itself is essential for a vibrant existence specifically for those living in urban areas (Ancona, 2017 ).


The Alhambra and the Biophilic Design

There is a consistency of the natural elements and themes in historic architecture which points towards the fact that biophilic design is a phenomenon which has contributed towards codification of history, neural sciences, and human intuition. This shows that contact with natural elements and nature itself is essential for a vibrant existence specifically for those living in urban areas. The Alhambra Palace is the perfect example of the historic structure with the biophilic design because the architecture has beauty and functionality which connects people with natural elements. The Alhambra palatine is the most admired as well as famous examples of Islamic heritage and architecture in Europe.  The biophilic design was achieved in the Alhambra palace through the architectural magnificence of the Generalife Palace, which is framed with a panoramic view of different landscapes that extend to different horizons.

Biophilic Design Patterns present in the architecture of Alhambra

Browning allocates the biophilic design into three main categories, the Natural Analogues, The Nature of the Space, and the Nature in the Space (Downton, 2017). There is a visual connection with nature in the design of the Alhambra palace, specifically in the Generalife Palace in which the panoramic views of the landscape is extended out to cover the horizon. The terraces, garden pavilion, and flowers, shrubs as well as plants cover the spaces (Browning, 2014).

Nature in the Space: Visual Connection with Nature

The visual connection creates a stimulating as well as calming experience for the viewers. This pattern is rooted in the idea of biodiversity as researchers claim that having visual access to various ecosystems and biodiversity is beneficial for the health of individuals. Kahn is of the view that viewing environmental elements in an office surrounding reduces the stress level (Ryan, 2014). The Alhambra observed visual connections with nature evident in the Generalife Palace. According to Amoeda et al. (2018, 376), the palace has panoramic views of the natural environment spanning to the horizon. The palace’s gardens are filled with flowers and shrubs, while plants cover its pathways as evident in (figure 6). The oblong pools are fitted with fountains and surrounded by shrubs, as evident in (figure 7) below.

Moreover, the Patio de la Acequia (The Court of the Water Channel (figure 8) and the Patio de la Sultan have are “magnificent” courtyards that enhance the palace’s biophilic design. Amoeda et al. (2018, 376) claim that visual connections with nature enhance positive emotions, reduce stress, and improve recovery rates and concentration. The presence of plants, shrubs, and flowers in the Generalife Palace made it possible for its architects to incorporate direct experience with nature into the Alhambra. The scenery may have served to reduce stress and increase mental engagement among dwellers of the palace.

Direct experience of nature

Direct experience of nature includes the actual contact with natural phenomena such as water, animals, plants, light, natural landscape, and weather. Indirect engagement comprises of natural colour, evoking nature, simulations of natural air and light, and images of nature (Kellert & Calabrese 2015, 11). Notably, people use colour to locate water, food, and other primary resources, making it an essential natural element. The use of natural colours in built environment consists of the utilization of pigments that consider earth tones such as rocks, soil, rainbow, sunset, animals, sunrise, and plants (Downtown, 2017). An evocation of nature includes the use of representations that do not occur literally in the environment but imply specific natural principles. A building can have shapes that evoke specific animal qualities. For instance, the Sydney Opera House has wings that imply the qualities of a bird.


Non-Visual Connection with Nature

This pattern involves auditory as well as olfactory sense simulation through sound patterns and the main objective is to provide environmental elements using scent, touch, and taste to some extent. The main design considerations include prioritizing natural sounds over the artificial urban sounds. The best example of Non-Visual Connection with Nature is that of Calat Alhambra in which these fourteen patterns can be seen.

The architecture of the Alhambra supports the nonvisual experience through the connection of indoor as well as outdoor spaces between natural landscape and buildings. There are solar heat penetrates, sounds of nature and myrtles along with fragrant plants within the palace which create the exquisite stimulation for senses. The non-rhythmic sensory stimuli is present in order to circulate the natural sensory stimuli and to attract the attention of the viewers by relieving their psychological stress.

Thermal & Airflow Variability

There is thermal as well as airflow variability within the palace which makes the spaces in the fortress invigorating, refreshing and alive. The Hall of Comares is the best example of the “Venturi effect” in which air is circulated rapidly throughout the space creating cross ventilation. The Alhambra observed direct contact with nature through the creation of thermal and airflow variability. According to Amoeda et al. (2018, 376), thermal and airflow variabilities are changes in airflow, relative humidity, and air and surface temperatures that imitate the natural surroundings. The aura created by design generates a refreshing, alive, active, comfortable, and invigorating feeling. In the monument, the wall height provided a natural cooling against the intense sun rays. The situation created an indirect illumination at the higher parts, which spread to the lower parts of the interior. The design prevented the influx of heat in the rooms by manipulating direct sunlight while still achieving the required level of ventilation and illumination (Amoeda et al 2018, 377).

Additionally, ventilation in the rooms was achieved by structural placement of the windows that created a stack effect and venture effect. Structural placement of the windows refers to the accurate position of windows. For example, the variation in air pressure and density between the lighter warm air and heavier cold air created a stack effect in the Tower of the Captive and the Tower of the Princess. The Hall of Comaress (Figure 9,10) achieved natural ventilation by rapid air circulation in spaces where cross-ventilation creating a venturi effect. The air ventilation was necessary to enhance human comfort and productivity. According to Kellert & Calabrese (2015, 12), natural ventilation can be achieved by operable windows and or complex engineering strategies. Therefore, by engineering the windows to allow cross ventilation in the Alhambra (figure 11), its architects achieved a biophilic design that allowed the circulation of natural air into the interiors of the buildings.

Presence of Water

The presence of water created compelling as well as captivating presence. The best example is that of Alhambra pools as there is the presence of water in the Court of the Lions design and the Water Stairway which is one of the most breathtaking designs of the Generalife. The presence of water (figure 12) encouraged the connection of nature with the Alhambra’s design. Amoeda et al. (2018, 379) claim that water promotes the experience of a place through touching, hearing, and seeing. People develop a captivating and compelling feeling. The Alhambra has multiple watercourses comprising of canals, water stairs, bannisters, basins, and fountains created in different geometric forms. For example the Court of Myrtles has a reflective pool with pools that gurgle water, creating a calm relaxing, and quiet sound that generates a wonderful sense (Amoeda 2018, 379).


Dynamic & Diffuse Light

Dynamic light effect creates the experience of intrigue and drama within the viewers and buffers a sense of calm.

Connection with Natural Systems

These are the interactive designs such as the integrative educational curriculum, community gardens, horticulture designs in which the use of materials is that which engages the viewer. This form of connection with nature can be seen in the Alhambra palace as well in the ceilings of the Throne Room and in the roof of the Balcony of Dar Aisha.

Natural Analogues

Natural Analogues in the Alhambra

The natural analogs of the Biophilic design are the non-living, organic vocations of nature that are indirect. These include the colors, shapes, patterns as well as materials which manifest natural elements in the form of artwork. These biomorphic forms and patterns can be seen throughout Islamic ornaments which were used for decorative purposes and are present in the architectural decorations in the palace as well. There is arabesque ornamentation of the different variety found within Alhambra. These include geometric stars and roses which run into each other and develop the design. The best example of biomorphic design patterns in Alhambra is the Balcony of Dar Aisha which is considered as one of the most enchanting corners of the palace. Moreover, ornamental epigraphs are also present on the perforated screens and panels (al-Rhodesly, 2018).

Indirect Experiences with Nature

The Alhambra also achieved a biophilic design by incorporating natural analogues into its structural designs. The above elements are incorporated into structures designs creating a mimicry of the natural environment.

Biomorphic Forms & Patterns

The Alhambra has multiple biomorphic forms and patterns that enhance individuals’ connection with the cosmic world through imagination (Gonzalez 2003, 262). In relation to the Islamic decorative ornaments (figure16,17), the cosmic world is made up of three dimensions that include nature, the universe, and human beings. (Amoeda et al. 2018, 381). The Alhambra represents the cosmic beauty through epigraphic and geometric decorations throughout the palace. According to Amoeda et al. (2018, 382), natural geometries are evident through geometric flower decorations and patterns that fill the walls of the monument. For instance, the Balcony of Dar Aisha (figure 18) presents one of the most spectacular epigraphic compositions and spectacular decorations. In this case, walls are filled with geometric representations of flowers, star wheels, and puzzles.

On the other hand, the epigraphs are interwoven with other surfaces(figure19), making the Alhambra rich in information. According to Kellert and Calabrese (2015, 12), people develop a positive feeling towards diverse and information-rich environments. For example, tourists are fascinated by reading ancient writings on monument walls provided they are legible and comprehensible (Garcia, 2017). The epigraphs in most of the Alhambra’s walls are placed above the tile decorations on the lower part of the walls, which make them more visible for visitors. Today, most of the structures have been renovated after abandonment for a considerable period since the 1700s. The palace has been termed as a world heritage monument by the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO).

Biophilic Design Throughout History

The sense of attachment of human beings with their built landscapes happens to be the promise of biophilic design and the distortion of an individual’s values with that of nature in the digital age has only occurred because of conventional design. Furthermore, the distortion in the values also occurred because of the growing alienation and environmental degradation within the world. Thus sustainability is bound to remain a goal rather elusive until there is a shift in the ethical values with the natural world. Sustainability is bound to be an elusive target until we can shift the entire focus on building a fulfilling relationship between humans and their natural environment. This relationship is depicted in biophilic design, which can be seen in the Alhambra. Thus the successful application of the biophilic design relies solely on recognizing how one can remain productive, healthy, and maintain a meaningful connection with nature.

Angkor Wat present within Cambodia happens to be one of the largest religious monument which happens to be 162.6 hectares. The temple was built in the 12th century by Khmer King, and it was not dedicated to Vishnu which was the previous tradition but was rather the mausoleum for Khmer Empire. Angkor Wat uses the Khmer architecture and uses sandstone as the main building stone and has redented towers which have been shaped to look like lotus buds. The complexity and order pattern, which is a sensory element of the biophilic design that adheres to the special hierarchy matching that of natural surroundings (Hartley, 2014). The main design associated with complexity and order pattern, the fractal pattern can be identified in the vernacular as well as classical architecture from the column capitals of the art of Ancient Mayans, ancient Egypt, and Greece, the Hindu Temples, etc. The fractal pattern can also be seen in the Angkor Wat as there is high dimensional fractal artwork such as that of narrative scenes, extensive garlands, bas reliefs, decorative elements like pediments and devatas.

The madrasa and bimaristan design during the 11th century valued biophilic elements which can be seen in the Qubbat&-Bimaristan al-Sultan Qalawun of the 1283 A.D. In contradiction to the western conception of sculptural element of the biophilic design, the madrasa feature uses patterns that are well-arranged within the interior as well as exterior spaces that interplay as well as integrate the natural elements. The biophilic elements included within madrasa architecture includes water elements, daylight, clever manipulation, patterns, wood, and stone (Abdelaal, 2018). These features happen to be essential elements present within the biophilic architecture. The pattern, also known as the complex order happens to use a different form of strategies such as the scaling factor with the fractal geometries, hierarchical symmetry, bio-geometry, universal scaling, and connective symmetries. These patterns can be seen in the Muqarnas dome, which happens to be an Iranian architecture that can be seen in Erzurum Yakutia Madrasa that was built in 1310.

Biophelia in Modern Day

Biophilia started as a display of power and opulence as it was designed as not just a castle but like a mini city with the royal family being the center of attraction. The impressively large castle was constructed with a powerful exterior containing fortified structures that were meant to fend off attackers. The castle was built as a symbol of power and strengthened at a time when the Christian expansionism was at its peak in the 13th century as it threatened to overrun the Muslim rule in the state of al-Andalus.

Alhambra was not only considered as the priced jewel of the Granda but it was also the center of political power within the kingdom and Nasrid Palace was located at its core. The Alhambra Palace, during the Nasrid rule was meant to designate opulence as well as power. The palace was constructed to impress and it worked its charisma on most of the visitors from all over the world, particularly the Catholic Monarchs, Isabella and Ferdinand. Palace of Charles V within the Alhambra exudes majesty and power because of its impression of size, weight, symmetry and ornamentation which suggest authority and dignity. The opulent Moorish styled reception halls, royal quarters and reception halls part of the Nasrid Palace in the heart of Alhambra are a perfect blend of splendor and power. This is because the dazzling ornamentation of the columns and walls dazzles the eyes of the visitors. However, opulence alone is not sufficient to suffice for being the source of power (Eggleton E. , 2011). The other means through which the palace displays power include the disproportion and uncertainty of the layout of the Nasrid Palace communicates a sense of mystery regarding the ruler of the palace. Thus the visitors or the potential assassins will be disoriented by the narrow passages, blind alleys and rooms at odd angles.

Eggleton states that multiple generations of Christian monarchs chose to occupy the Alhambra palace demonstrates that it was considered as a site of immense power and opulence. This shows that the biophilic design implemented at Alhambra represents the ruler just like beauty, architecture, ornament, and the surrounding landscape represents power (Eggleton E. , 2011). However today, architects utilize technology to enhance people’s contact with nature. According to Lin, Egerer, &Ossola (2018), urban gardens provide urban dwellers with diverse animals, plants, and soils. The situation influences an in-depth comprehension of natural processes, such as pollination, climate processes, and pest control, which affect food production. The gardens also allow individuals to interact and engage in physical activity, reducing the risk of some lifestyle disorders such as obesity. Modern designs also infuse biophilic elements by creating plant walls, which enhance positive health among employees in urban places (Lin et al. 2018). For instance, the Pasona Group’s Office in Tokyo utilizes hydroponic technology to grow plants along the interiors and exteriors of its walls (figure 24,25).

Integration of shapes and patterns, such as water ripples, which mimic natural forms, have also gained popularity in giving building a wavy appearance. Glass walls and windows are used to incorporating space and light in most buildings. The materials allow buildings to utilize natural light as they reflect sun rays around spaces. For instance, Genzyme building in Cambridge incorporates natural light and space in its design. The above cases reveal that technology can be utilized to enhance biophilia as opposed to hindering its integration in the built environment.

Among the best practices architecture these days, there happens to be immense demand to reduce the number of carbon emissions which is a concern for developed countries where complex regulations, energy demand, and thermal studies have provided solutions for architectural designs. Thus developing countries these days are also opting towards architectural designs that lower the energy consumptions in buildings (Garcia, 2017).  For example, the thermal condition of the desert in UAE is reduced using high technology design walls that happen to be built by Norman Foster in the Masdar Institute in Abu Dhabi UAE. Biophilic design can also be observed in the ceramic coating overlaying the structure made up of concrete of the Sydney Opera House which has been created by JornUtzon.

Furthermore, the handmade bricks building system at Turpan, China happens to allow moisture release as well as natural cross ventilation because of the clay, dry vegetation and earth mixed together in the bricks (Garcia, 2017). Furthermore, a building in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil known as the GuilhermeWeinschenck happens to compensate for heat through local vegetation which is used for lowering the temperature as well as release the built-up of moisture through balancing the levels of humidity inside the building.  The Dockside Green community in Canada happens to be an example of biophilic design as it represents the non-rhythmic stimuli. The goal of the non-rhythmic sensory stimuli is to enforce the use of natural stimulus which can attract the attention and enhance the ability of the individual to connect with nature which can often be replenished from psychological and mental fatigue. The Dockside Green community design is responsible for rainwater management as well as habitat restoration which can lead to noises and buzz of insects, grass noise through swaying and noise of falling water as well as that of nearby animals that can be visible through windows, porches, and walkways.


The main objective of the biophilic design is to build an environment based on the positive natural aspect. The restorative environment design focuses on the relationship between humanity and nature within a world that is increasingly marred because of the psychological, social as well as environmental alienation. The sustainable designs tend to combine the efficiencies of biophilic design, which makes enhanced connections to complement nature with restorative environmental design. Implementation of Biophilic design at the Alhmabra represented grandeur, opulence, aesthetics and natural connection with nature. However,due to urbanization and development in modern times, this relationship has translated from a personal to a collective level (from houses / dwellings / palaces) to public parks through a transition of power and an increased densification of urban areas which would not allow for “wasted personal space”. Today, the construction industry utilizes technology to promote the design by the use of nature, space and light. Notably, further studies can be conducted to investigate how natural aspects can be integrated into building design from an early stage, where space and resources are limited to enhance human contact with nature. It is incumbent on architects to incorporate nature into the built environment to optimize its benefits in the future.

The aspects of biophilic design such as energy-saving concept, human health, enhancement of microclimates, and green building elements are in favor of making the biophilic design as sustainable. These aspects are now being implemented by states who wish to create sustainable environment and living.The energy-efficient concept in biophilic architecture asserts that passive biophilic design tends to have an elaborate system of insulations, which means that there is a low loss of energy and increased thermal comfort. The biophilic design embraces the green building elements that lower the damage on the ecosystem, whether it is the biophilic design within a city or a building.










Lorraine Code argues regarding the subjectivity of the knower in the formulation of epistemology known as “S knows that P.” It unarguably means way more as compared to the prevailing empiricist & positivist perspective. I agree with the idea that The “S,” Code says that maximum production of knowledge is invested politically, and the historical as well as social locations of “S” impact the variety of issues that are selected to investigate. Adding to that, taking the subjectivity into account also means examining political and other structures for the ways in which they direct research to focus on specific lines of inquiry rather than others. (Code, 1995)

On the other hand, Collins, with reference to Black feminist epistemology, rejects the perspectives and ideals regarding Black women being passive victims as they haven’t mentioned it. It is found in the western elite, and there is where their sexual politics, motherhood, as well as every other aspect has been exploited. Collins associates the positivist epistemology with the male-dominated and controlled knowledge described in their stories. It is accurate as my understanding that Black women achieve face pressures from multiple sides as compared to other feminist ideal keeping individuals.

While taking subjectivity into account, means examining the political as well as all other structures that can be debated about in order to a feminist approach to epistemology refers to epistemology being at value neutral. While examining these ideals, a more transparent and effective perspective can be driven from these notions. It brings clarity in aspect, and yes, it is accurate and evident that most of the western writings have been dominated by controlled knowledge of the elite that created perspectives. These stereotypical images now are being broken in the modern times.

Collins rightfully identifies the significant groups of women scholars who aim to form a Black feminist narrative in order to assure their credibility, and these notions are depicted in their ideals. They should be advocates for Black women and prepared to involve their findings, be accepted by Black women scholars, and should be ready to confront Eurocentric masculinist political and epistemological requirements. Considering these notions, all keeping subjectivity into account becomes necessary for maintain authenticity while describing any of the opinions. Without being neutral about these notions like Collins, no clear perspective can be presented. Collins maintains beings neutral herself in her attitude while being perspective, and so is the need of every philosopher.


Code, L. (1995). Taking Subjectivity into Account . Retrieved from



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