It is important to understand the role of value underperformance differentials and inter-firm competition. Value creation in relation to technology and product functionality gives an understanding of technological capabilities. Research has contributed to increasing knowledge about value creation under performance improvement. This mechanism highlights the cultural significance of the strategy to differentiate products (Tohidi, 2012). Research demonstrates wide principles regarding multiple disciplines such as cultural sociology, anthropology, technical performance, and cultural terms (Thai & Anh, 2016).

The strategy scholars highlight the meaning of the product and its relation to the differentiation source. Strategy research also identifies religious values under wide-reaching social institutes. The scope of culture and society is expanded with the expansion of sociology research (Ives & Kidwell, 2019). The social influence of religion is clear from society because it aligns and modifies social values. The current study is about investigating the role of culture/religion in influencing value. It will elaborate on literary studies with the relation of societal values and religious influence.

Literature Review

One of the possible determinants is a culture that is widely acknowledged to show decision making power. This activity demonstrates the cultural background of companies under specific motivation, attributes, and entrepreneurial orientation (Mã­guez). It is discussed in studies that people from different cultures capture different opportunities under particular tactics. Cultural differences work to shape ventures as a value creation process. The disruptive markets show a process of complete markets where some resources established businesses (Gupta, 2019). Digital disruptors in specific industries allow for improvements in products and services. Literature about entrepreneurship discusses the influence of culture on business motivation. Studies have revealed that cultural factors are important to highlight key differences in the organizational framework (Ives & Kidwell, 2019).

Culture is an influential factor because it works significantly for organizations and modifies the structure. Multiple approaches work inherently for the creation of a business environment because it is the role of culture that describes structural implementation (Tohidi, 2012). Some business models at the conceptual level illustrate the organizational background and corporate culture as they are influenced by societal values. A significant influence of religion is also seen in wide social institutes that appear through different societies and cultural spheres. The scope of culture and its relation to societal settings escribe clear evidence of the influential perspectives. The ubiquity of social influence is clear from the regional diversification.

Religion is primarily based on diverse values, beliefs, and practices that are helpful to modify the transnational movement. The research studies describe religion as a set of values that show peculiar decision making and establish a belief in culture (Gupta, 2019).

With the diverse array of structure and cultural significance, it is seen that institutionalized teaching has played a powerful role in the elaborate significance of religious systems. For some cultural practices, an embedded approach is discussed to express values and their meaningful approaches. Through various literary aspects, it is clear that religion plays a crucial role in shaping societal values so to create value. The concept of social values is related to the sustainability of society. It is all linked to the cultural understanding of future based aspects that work inherently to shift the traditional practices (BENTONVILLE, 2017). Research studies have focused on many perspectives of social and religious values that show transition when applied to society. This transition elaborates on the fundamental shift in growth centered society, where it appears important to discuss for human-based society.

If the cultural significance is focused on products, it is important to focus on the central insights of cultural anthropology—the collective understanding of the functionality of the product and its recognition of different descriptive kinds of consumer cultural beliefs. The cultural perspective is different when viewed in terms of sociologists’ perception because these scholars have related multiple theories to culture. The discussion of social value and the concept of value creation is linked to multiple business opportunities (Thai & Anh, 2016). In this way, it is crucial to highlight the required resources, expertise, and enterprise role. The enterprise’s creation is also valued significantly when it comes to discussing organizations.

The scope of entrepreneur creation is to assemble interdependent activities and create a logical sequence that develops some outcomes (Gupta, 2019). With the help of the value creation process, case-specific identity is made that works in multiple stages, for instance, when it comes to evaluating multiple business ideas that are feasible (Kang, 2019). In this regard, opportunity recognition plays a crucial role since it is linked to start a new project. The prospective entrepreneurs define the structural significance of the product and its linkage with value. The business opportunities are identified when there is a sophisticated need to work on values, either religious or societal (Ghazali et al., 2016). In successful organizations, the role of culture is rational, and value cannot be attained without culture. Value creation is attributable to employees, customers, and investors because these groups are linked inextricably.

Problem Statement

Culture works most significantly in terms of organizational structural alignment and creating value. In some instances, where it is difficult to know about value creation about social values and religious values, it is important to identify the structure of the workplace and prevailing factors that are contributing to value or outcomes (Ghazali et al., 2016). This paper discusses some significant roles of culture and religious values in creating value. Corporate culture creates value for the organization’s development. It works to produce better goals of management and improves the financial performance of the firm. The scope of religious and cultural values is extensive because it prevails in many perspectives.

Research Question and Objectives

The research question of this study is how culture/ religions play a major role in creating value?

The study is important to identify how influential culture is:

  • To prove a successful work environment, and
  • To identify the process of value creation.

Case Study and Methods

The study involves a qualitative analysis of Walmart as a retail Distribution Company to understand the components of value creation. When a company engages with fast and rapid production methods, it tends to generate value. The process of value creation is not simple because it involves key integral cultural factors that play a crucial role in determining the success ratio. In this way, the scope of the workplace, employee participation, and, most importantly, the culture of the company plays an inherent role (Thai & Anh, 2016). The value of culture and religion is significant, yet needs examples to understand. The case study selected for this paper is Walmart Retail Company. Walmart is the corporate leader in managing culture and creating value.

The role of retailor in encompassing social and environmental system is based on transparency and trust. Through the positive mechanism of the workplace, enhanced productivity, and improved collaboration of employees have shown a key contribution in value creation (BENTONVILLE, 2017). The value-maximizing strategy employed by Walmart has shared its value with society, business, and its customers. The scope of work under aspirational goals is defined through the vision and approach of the company, and this aspect is evolving continuously. The sustainability, the opportunity is inherent in the community because they have shown a clear direction for the shared value, so involved true integration (Ghazali et al., 2016).

Retail supply chains are working on intense competition lines while Walmart has used increasing economic opportunity framework to support the community. It has addressed challenges that were impeding the career advancement of its employees (Asaael, 2019). The scope of Walmart’s profit in 2017 is based on investment because of huge investment in education; training has generated higher wages, so contributed to the value creation. This structural significance of Walmart Retail strategy is key to consider the role of social values and its influence on the value creation (BENTONVILLE, 2017).

Social values also played a major role in accelerating frontline mobility of jobs beyond the company. Due to sector-wide efforts, the company has made it easy to strengthen the skills transferability in the US (Thai & Anh, 2016). Research has indicated that Walmart has invested greater than $59 million to train its employees, educate them, and build educational institutions (Gupta, 2019). Walmart has invested in American jobs and supported many small, local, and diverse businesses thus highlighted the role of value creation.

Research Findings

Walmart Retail Company has multiple ventures, and its scope of operations is large. This extensive framework is not limited to the prevailing culture but also societal values as well as innovation. Many research studies have indicated that how value creation is carried out within regional diversity. The framework of value creation under Walmart has enhanced operations sustainability as well as the significance of the value chain. The concept of corporate culture is important to understand in large organizations because they work internally and transform the structure of organizations.

Walmart’s case study has highlighted that employee commitment is a strong component that contributes to value creation. Through the concept of value creation, it is recognized that better performance can be attained by improving the culture and structure of the organization. It not only contributes to the financial gain but also engages employees in the longer term. Culture is not a single entity that works to change the existing pattern, but it depends on the continuity and existence of core values. The success of the company is attributable to the right culture and the prevalence of strong values. It is a form of glue that keeps the organizational part together and guides all the decisions. The culture contributes to value, and in a society, it declares positive power for decision-making aspects.

There is a significant contribution of employees in Walmart because improving corporate culture brings innovation. This innovation is likely to enhance productivity and fulfills the mission of the organization (Gupta, 2019). This core way starts with trust and integrity. Corporate culture in Walmart has been proved a powerful factor for the long term success of a company. The significant part of strategy making is also positively related to the culture (Asaael, 2019). Value creation is a process that undertakes a set of values to modify the overall behavior of the organization. Walmart has contributed to the sustainable value chains, so it has set goals for the sustainability index. The case study highlights that retail brand is working under leadership to get a defined direction for long term profitability. In other words, this is a positive sign to contribute to value creation. Social qualities additionally assumed a significant job in quickening cutting edge versatility of occupations past the organization. Because of area wide endeavors, the organization has made it simple to reinforce the abilities transferability and to acknowledge the key framework that attributes value creation.

Conclusion and Future Research

The research study has explored the complex impact of values, i.e., social on value creation. The study has indicated the role of social values in the context of value creation and discussed the role of contributory studies. It is safe to say that consistent trends change the dimensions of value creation. It is also important to discuss that social and political aspects work differently to understand value creation. There are different ways to discuss the concept of value creation, yet for the case study of Walmart, it is inferred that corporate culture plays an inherent role in creating values. In societal matters, value is created when relevant factors are considered. The literary studies have answered the research question of this study because values are recognized in societal norms, and social practices play a considerable role in understanding shared value. The creation of value is linked to marketing and customer satisfaction in some perspectives.

Limitations of the study exist because of its limited scope to discuss social/religious influence to create values. The business philosophy is extensive, but there is the future scope for this research because it only explains limited variables, and their context is limited.


Thai, M.T.T. & Anh, N.H., 2016. The impact of culture on the creation of enterprises. J. for International Business and Entrepreneurship Development, 9(1), p.1.

Ghazali, N., Bakar, N. & Din, N., 2016. The relationship between servicescape towards consumers’ perceptions on food truck concept. Heritage, Culture and Society, pp.203–206.

Kang, S., Leadership, organizational culture, knowledge productivity and value creation in four scuccessful Korean companies.

Asaael, M., 2019. Without Team Identification, Diversity Fails.

Gupta, N., 2019. Influence of demographic variables on synchronisation between customer satisfaction and retail banking channels for customers’ of public sector banks of India. International Journal of Electronic Banking, 1(3), p.206.

Tohidi, H., 2012. Assessing the impact of organizational learning capability on firm innovation. African Journal of Business Management, 6(12).

Ives, C.D. & Kidwell, J., 2019. Religion and social values for sustainability. Sustainability Science, 14(5), pp.1355–1362.

Mã­guez, N.S.O., The Theological Value of Social Class Analysis and Other Social Distinctions. Religion, Theology, and Class.

BENTONVILLE, W., 2017. Walmart Highlights Progress in Creating Shared Value. Available at:





Networking is a linked system of different elements. A network represents a social phenomenon or describes natural operations while networking is a complex process of connecting more than two systems to give shape to the social system. Today, all kinds of electronic sociotechnical systems are known as digital networks. These systems allow processing of information flow and linkage with social systems. The techno-social system work in collaboration with human and technological factors (Dominici, Di Fatta & Cupido, 2017). A most common example of a digital network is the internet. The system appears sound and integrated with multiple technologies that are based on the internet and give rise to multiple complex interconnected systems. They have an integral role in the current era, known as the digital era. The objective of this paper is to explain the role of networking in the digital era.

 Technological progress and networking

In information and communication technology, networking holds a central place. The technological progress is continuing rapidly, thus driving new applications. Networking is an example of recent technological advancement that is attributable to three recent developments. The first is the interdisciplinary network theory. It is the science of networks that provides a broader explanation of scientific approaches linked to organizational patterns. It elaborates prevailed networks surrounding everyone. The network theory was introduced in 1960 by Stanley Milgram that was later known as six degrees of separation. In 1970 it was known as weak ties by Mark Granovetter. In 1990, the concept was further modified by Duncan Watts as small-world networks.

This approach explained network as different clusters that occur under human-made and natural systems. Later it was discovered that these small word networks are aristocratic and scale-free in nature, yet they consist of small multiple connected system and nodes. These networks were examined under math laws (Dominici, Di Fatta & Cupido, 2017). The second process explains the dominant cultural logic in prevailing time. Due to changed practices today, the organizational structures are changed, so a change in degree is common in the developing world. The networking society is structured around digital patterns and communication. Current society is living in the network information economy where circulation and flow of information are enormous and based on market forms. A network of information-based society is based on individualization.

Internet is playing a crucial role to facilitate society by offering complex networks that are working at a broader level. The rise of the network society, individualism and networked economy is supporting the whole economy (Hong, 2017). Networking system is mutually constitutive due to overlapping digital spaces. Digital transformation is an advanced concept that is linked to technology. Digital assets are changing as organizations are moving. This is involving technology and realigning technological perspectives while extending all other constituents. Digital transformation is working on improved performance of the enterprise. It is also the priority of all IT businesses. The digitalization is enhancing the business landscape, so they are reshaping at an unprecedented rate.

Digital transformation is inherent in various companies. For instance, I experienced in Alpha company that technology framework is so big that it is playing a crucial role in all processes. In the UK, all the technical processes are linked to advanced networking system (Kotarba, 2018). A proof of this is evident from the book Leading Digital, where it is found that organizations have to master in digital transformation, and due to this implementation, companies have acquired better profits. Business in the UK has embraced digitization in all aspects, some of them I experience are: capturing new opportunities in the market, offering better customer experience, streamlined business operations and expanding outreach of businesses. For example, I studied about Revolut and Blockchain in the UK are focusing on cloud computing where IT mergers are using the best practices for business and allowing enterprises to use cloud services and implement the better internal infrastructure. I am working as a technical person in the IT field, and my knowledge about networking is extended on the basis of daily experience. With several IT companies, I have experienced many projects that engaged me in networking and expanded my knowledge.

Networking has a significant scope in Darktrace in the UK, one of my friends was IT manager in this company and I gained insights on how networked participation is spread everywhere that strengthens the relationship of digital networks. This experience is further backed up by structural improvement under the mapping process of networking. The UK business companies are using networking in multiple approaches to strengthen businesses; for example, it is enabling people to exploit every digital channel and manage it to reach more customers. This point is very helpful for me because I am planning to enter into networking world that has a significant place in modern IT companies. In another past experience, I witnessed the implementation of big data analytics. It is a core framework in a network that is allowing digital organizations to create minimum data.

The role of networking is also significant in boosting customer experience because it enhances digitization in the form of personalization (Kotarba, 2018). Retaining customers is a long term success for companies, who work on maintaining technological transformation. Cloud computing allows companies to develop internal cloud infrastructure. In another case of a company, I have done my internship in the web browsing aspect that has an integral role in managing technology. The streaming of media and video conferencing are important components that are responsible for client evolution.  Another important component in networking in the digital era is the internet of things. This is the networking of physical devices, operational technology, sensors, vehicles and data analytics.

In the UK and other global countries, networking is expanded on a broader scope because all the centric technology means networking is critical to set up a business(Dominici, Di Fatta & Cupido, 2017). Few organizations have linked this transformation to their networking; for instance, ZK research discussed their digital strategy to integrate networking into the strategy of the business. This plays a central role in accomplishing digital plans for the company (Pegrum, 2010). For instance, connectivity, security, business insights and automation are some key uses. Computing is mainly server focused networking that enables the device to get connected with other devices. According to Metcalf’s law, the value of the network is proportional to the connected devices so that mean networking will be exploding. Security is another component that secures end pints and protects IT structure. The norms of a digital platform are IoT, cloud and mobility that increase the security’s effectiveness.

In my experience, some organizations witnessed malware in operations. Security is necessary to protect not only network but also digital enterprise other operations, internal environment and the perimeter. The digital era witnesses successful businesses related to networking. IT processes are automated when networking is implemented. Due to networking, connections are established because huge information is offered to the business. For instance, networking offers granular information to the shoppers, retailers and offer business insights to provide a perfect shopping experience.

Networking Significance

In the UK, multiple IT organizations place the latest technology to get rid of the traditional style of communication and networking allows a better understanding of business capabilities. Networking is the core part of any business (Ross, 2012). A survey of LinkedIn in 2017 reported that 80% of professionals think networking is very important for the business.

But, in similar research, it has been shown that the approach of networking by the businessmen is not adequate. Specifically, networking is not used by half of the businessmen when their businesses are going well(Dominici, Di Fatta & Cupido, 2017). Networking is a dual way traffic, and, to develop the relationships strong with the online community, they must always work hard to provide more than the return. There are different procedures for providing significance to the network. Like, share the content of network members on the social media platforms, mention the members, also give the link of their post. If a member posts a significant content, use its link on the business’s website to support them increase their authority and traffic. Help members of the community to contact each of them through social networks or email. The members of the network should be encouraged to share their content on the business’s website (Ross, 2012).

When online content is discussed, it is generally linked to backlinks, high rankings and SEO. But, the development and marketing of content are much more than that. By developing unique, relevant, informative and fresh content, there is an opportunity to stand the business as a strong resource online (Xu, 2018). In the start, the content development strategy should be diversified. Experiment with the media platforms that are used to publish the content. It can be social networks, other appropriate industry websites or blogs etc. There can be diverse kinds of quality content anybody can create, for example, how-to guides, articles, infographics, videos, whitepapers, podcasts etc.

The content helps to widen the network. High-quality content gets lots of likes, backlinks and shares online. Such as, if a how-to guide gives reasonable solutions to a certain problem, people of the related industry start sharing it with their networks through different social media platforms. To increase the extent of business content, relevant online groups can be joined. The basic aim is to stand on top of related discussions and observe the topic that the targeted customers are talking about. So that relevant content can be developed to attract the targeted audience (Pegrum, 2010).

Around the globe, in the businesses, digital transformation is developing the methods of organizations, whether big or small the way they operate. In today’s digital economy, digital transformation is attributable to networking. Its characteristics in management processes and manual configuration allow for the safety of the system, i.e. external threats to security. The digital business goals at the global level are based on valuable business capabilities and to align network functioning. It is a digital networking system that meets the changing scope of systems as well as the dynamic needs of the enterprise (Venkatesh, Mathew & Singhal, 2019). The demand for growing network today is based on reliable connectivity to meet the expectations of the consumer. There are several fundamental components in this regard, such as scale, speed, cloud, security and simplicity.

The scale is about investment in digital platforms that works with best-operating models. Internet of things and mobile are the substantial parts of networking, and it is important to securely connect massive platforms with distributed networks. Many organizations in the UK are moving at a faster pace due to networking and digital initiatives. The IT infrastructure establishes a business and allows keeping up with modern style (Pegrum, 2010). The networks of organizations are built to support the internal process of the company and its operations continuity. The scope of networking is based on the diversity and simplicity of applications. The simplified, automated network operations are linked to the structure of management. The networking teams are occupied with the innovative IT support that works with business capabilities (Venkatesh, Mathew & Singhal, 2019).  In another example that I observed in Cisco, IT experts use digital networking readiness model. It was related to the network planners and leaders to effectively stimulate the operations and meet challenges.


Networking priorities allow companies to take an architectural approach to manage time. Network modifications are aligned on the distributary system within the enterprise to access the data centre. Networking in the digital era is moving with a fast pace and building open standards for the interfaces. Digital transformation needs an open solution for standards to support business capabilities. A centralized policy-based protocol is essential in networking that increases automation. Due to the structural dynamic, agile networking system, a business can build its model in the digital era. It is prudent to consider networking a key part of IT architecture because it offers innovative services to companies and incorporate virtualization. The operation wide networking is increasingly implemented to help companies navigate in the transactions of the market.


Dominici, G., Di Fatta, D. and Cupido, F., 2017. The value of a network in the digital era: insights about Doctor Chat case study. International Journal of Electronic Marketing and Retailing, 8(4), p.301.

Hong, Y., 2017. Networking China: The Digital Transformation of the Chinese Economy. SSRN Electronic Journal,.

Kotarba, M., 2018. Digital Transformation of Business Models. Foundations of Management, 10(1), pp.123-142.

Ó Briain, L., 2015. Beyond the Digital Diaspora: YouTube Methodologies, Online Networking and the Hmong Music Festival. Journal of World Popular Music, 2(2), pp.289-306.

Pegrum, M., 2010. ‘I Link, Therefore I Am’: Network Literacy as a Core Digital Literacy. E-Learning and Digital Media, 7(4), pp.346-354.

Ross, S., 2012. Digital Preservation, Archival Science and Methodological Foundations for Digital Libraries. New Review of Information Networking, 17(1), pp.43-68.

Venkatesh, R., Mathew, L. and Singhal, T., 2019. Imperatives of Business Models and Digital Transformation for Digital Services Providers. International Journal of Business Data Communications and Networking, 15(1), pp.105-124.

Xu, L., 2018. Ulises Ali Mejias: Off the Network: Disrupting the Digital World. Fudan Journal of the Humanities and Social Sciences, 11(2), pp.257-264.







Current age is confronting challenges of health and humanity survival. The issue of pandemic global Coronavirus has stopped every business activity around the globe. Covid-19 crisis is taking over the world and testing clinical capacity of teams with unprecedented patient numbers (Bauer & Anderson, 1985). The situation is also providing opportunities to healthcare to envision effective care delivery in future. Leadership and communication are the core parts of teams during current pandemic. A thoughtful and strong leadership is critical for organizational stability. During the height of crisis, a team planning is necessary to tackle the situation. The team building approach works significantly for the leadership development and this practice yields a planned orientation. Covid 19 has modified communication ways in teamwork, focused more on team building work and developed sound basis. Leadership process is a systematic work that binds team members to produce a productive workforce.

Covid-19 upheaval has expedited team communication and virtual setup, leadership and management. Best practice to handle tough situation is team management, effective collaboration and virtual communication. Team management trains to work on virtual platform because teammates need to know their delivery and its significance. Before this crisis, team management have not faced virtually integrated and technology driven environment (Burt, 2018). Trust, confidence and engagement are some core parts of team management that needs to be communicated with customer. These attributes function effectively under thoughtful leadership.

It is critical to discuss that team leaders manage and devote essential time to train teams. Knowledge transfer through team building approach allow them to lead and perform effectively. It is important to understand that essential principles of leadership work inherently when applied to teamwork (Costantine, Landon &Saade, 2020). They aid team development approach, grouping performance and business environment. Due to effective communication and connectivity, awareness related to key societal issues needs a broad-based structure. A leader follows these rules and provide a wide scenario to implement techniques of grouping and group based tasks.

Performing strong and knowledge based teams play a critical role in developing groups. The group based learning allows individuals to participate in different ventures and focus on connectivity. Group based activities also focus on good attributes and put relevant impact on capabilities to face challenges (Georgiades, 2020). Under a leadership perspective, the goal of grouping is to face issues and develop planning. To accomplish groups’ objectives, preparation is essential that is invigorated by leaders and they develop a team charter. It is essential to understand the team operating agreement that enhance group members’ involvement and they know about work patterns. Teams can reduce stress by using mindful technologies and collaboration (Hajro, 2018). Role of group in education is significant to understand because positive and negative characteristics determine success ratio.

Purpose of study

It is important to know that how a leader contributes for the good of the group. This notion is better to understand when required leadership and grouping theories are considered. Working on leadership theories, allows understanding of team work, management principles and abilities needed to accomplish tasks. The purpose of this paper is to identify how a leader contributes to good things in a group and it will be linked to relevant theories. The paper will describe good and bad attributes of a group and its influence through leadership.

Theoretical Overview

Individual and collective level leadership pertains to effective team members. At individual level, groups behave different from the external point of view, for instance, it is reflected when a person say that someone has got into the bad company. The notion of self-managed teams is linked to the high performing and task oriented structure (Hirpara& Taylor, 2020). In certain organizations, these features of team are not common but depends on leaders’ involvement. A leader can walk in such situation and adopts necessary steps required for high performing groups. Teamwork, group and leadership play essential role in the Industrial age. Current pandemic has focused on the need to work in grouping to achieve goals and objectives.

Group Dynamics

Groups differ in size, character and composition. Some famous groups appear to share key values and similarity of features make them dominant. The systematic group study was stated by Kurt Lewin in 1940s, when multiple research papers were written on group dynamics. It is a vibrant field that overlap multiple branches like social science, psychology, education and sociology. The scope of groups and its linkage with industry is significant because in many disciplines, group study is focused (Kassema, 2020). For example, psychotherapy is about group therapy, in business, management teams are managed, and in politics, political leadership participates. Groups have taken recognition after the setting up of theories in social psychology about work nature, plan and development of teams.

In grouping, good and bad are two key types that elaborate the idea about functioning of groups. The good group functioning all goes well, it spreads positive influence and give positive motivation that persists. On the contrary, the wrong or bad group is about the rebellious attitude and conflicts in class or at workplace. This form of group engages team members in unproductive activities and show unwillingness to cooperate. The difference in good or bad group is different and based on situational factors. The group dynamics play inherent role in defining the role of group in classroom or in workplace. The internal characteristics of a good group pave the way for learning and evolve over time.

The learner group consists of active partners and members represent a strong social unit that is bigger than the sum (Kaul, Shah & El-Serag, 2020). Group development is essential to work inherently because if it goes astray, it can harm learning. It is important to consider the positive development of group processes, as driving force can pursue learning goals. Researchers have focused on key processes used in the development of group dynamics that go inside and analyze team building approaches. In educational contexts, the group dynamics determine coherency and act as independent units. The productive environment for groups allows their involvement and they specialize in subject matter training. Due to structural significance of group based behaviors, the scope of leadership extends.

Leader Member Exchange Theory

Literature presents the dimensions of leader member exchange theory under transformational leadership. The concept ‘leader-member exchange’ theory was floated in classical Greek Days under vertical dyed linkage (McArthur, 2002). The concept is about leadership approach that work on group behaviors within organizations. The theory is intuitive and discuss what a leader group structure can be. It explains the working dimensions of group and leadership by pointing towards the strong features. It also illustrates the dynamic of problems, issues of loyalty with leader and develops structure to offer solutions. A leader works to maintain team in most significant form through its hard work and striving efforts. The role of responsibility matters a lot when it comes to work through grouping.

Leaders usually garner their position of relationship. The leader member exchange theory highlights the fact that a position by grouping is secured by trust and confidence. Most of the trusted person and supporters do this with responsibility under an inner circle. The inner circle is based on dyad linkage theory. Dyad means two, and it refers to leader and it is linked to others for whom it work. Linkage is about relationship that work for the coherency to build team. Leaders feel that team is the main adhering point for their productivity because it specifically work for the support (Spinelli &Pellino, 2020). If a leader allows it followers work according to the task, they would get substantial support in this regard.

The scope of roles under leadership is undefined because a supporter can assume a formal role. A subordinate and leaders’ relationship is preserved at some instances, due to conflict of power. Due to acquisition of power, a leader undertakes challenges and can relate to the lower status. The term ‘inner circle’ can define the power of a relationship when it comes to a leader and supporter (Stillman, Fletcher &Carr, 2007). In a team, multiple tasks, strengthening roles and supportive relationship allow greater performance. Better roles define better leadership so supportive leaders support more and acquire greater responsibility. The range of leaders can be different from a small discussion forum to large and this framework undertakes strong attributes to accomplish a task.

Leadership range differs, when it comes to manage teams, either small or large encompassing roles tackle groups (Somech, 2003). For the structural framework, the complex tasks can need more organizational and group dynamics to work. In leader member exchange theory, there are three stages of development. First is the organizational stage that can be performed under some approaches and help a person rise from a crowd while having intelligence and charisma. The second stage is role development that comes with many origins and answers the questions that how group was formed. In the third stage of development, the ‘good old boy network’ expression is developed. This leader led relationship needs consideration to work on general qualities that will develop groups. In these cases, the fundamental values are integrity, trust, and willingness that not only work on openness but also delegate power. In current working environment and situation, egregious routinized systems face challenges.


The methodology of this paper is qualitative. With the help of interviews, research question will be addressed. Qualitative interview will be evaluated under a thematic analysis approach.


The participant of this study is a 27 years old university student at her final masters’ year in Educational Leadership and Management at the University of Coalalambour. She was approached while she was about to leave Coalalambour and requested to be interviewed since her major requires her to do lots of group projects. Pre-interview was done followed by the final interview, she refused to do a third interview because she was busy with exams. She was interviewed to understand the grouping and leadership principles because her major was educational leadership. Understanding leadership and grouping allows evaluation of major differences in productive work. The participant involvement provided insights to know about managing team work and participation in productive workouts.


The procedure used in this study is use of thematic analysis approach like the one developed by Braun and Clarke (2013). The thematic approach allows familiarizing with the data by assigning preliminary codes. In this interviewing process, data familiarity will provide themes by jotting down different ideas. After this, coding will be implemented. Coding is about summarizing three lined of interviews as dialogues that will reflect images, words or accurate concepts. Coding is the iterative stage that will explain the work and ideas.

Procedure further extends to validate the codes. It is to work on re-examining data by authenticating the consistency of data to ensure if it is not misinterpreted. Set up of themes after code validation will allow clustering in themes. The creation of multiple themes will allow finalizing of on theme, later its illustration will be done with verbatim quotations. When coding process will be finalized, the report results will be composed.

The thematic analysis of qualitative data is a useful approach to analyze data effectively. This process is suitable and appropriately applicable on interview transcripts like the one used in this study. The process will allow examining further ideas and themes that are workable and provide a future dimension. The advantages of thematic analysis of qualitative data are finding a running theme, getting flexibility of fata and think about key ideas (Singh, Meera Bai & Pal, 2011). For instance, the issue of current age is coronavirus that is modifying existing leadership behaviors in countries. Changed behaviors in leadership are transforming teamwork hence grouping.

Under this thematic approach, a freedom is attained that makes research study flexible because it is modified under different research studies. Literature helps validating different concepts of theory so a rich and detailed result is attained. Current research will contribute in this way to discuss epistemology about leadership. Our research question about leadership and changing group behavior due to Covid-19 will be significantly answered by this approach. This method will help organizing, analyzing and in identifying themes appeared from a dataset. The collected data will be analyzed in the next section in light of interview transcript.

Data Analysis

Based on interview and methodology, data is divided into three parts. A first part is a good group, a second part is a bad group, and the third part is discussion.

The good group

The interview discussion was vibrant because participant explained about her group and leading person traits. She described two group leaders who exhibited different characteristics. The researcher was interested in Group dynamics, and God forbid that how wrong can work for group related tasks. Group dynamics is a group work that operates in small numbers. Participant described that good leader gathers its team and makes it healthy by telling everyone about their roles. The leader, who builds a strong team, is enthusiastic and has an incredible capacity to empathize. A leader is visionary and tolerant who understand the issues with group members and seeks a problem-solving approach (Safronova&Urubkov, 2017).

The information provided by the participant discussed the excellent attributes of a leader and group roles. The leaders’ characteristics are never-ending because he wants to see its team strong. He is unconventional and fun-loving, neither needy nor demanding. In addition, a good leader develops a good group and has a youthful spirit. It is researched that in the times of corona crisis, leadership should be more responsible, accelerated and ready to help (Petriglieri, 2020). The foundations in the form of a strong team allow better performance and develop good team ethics (Schwarz, 2014). It also helps employees and fellows to move smoothly and communicate effectively.

Good teams and groups focus on results and outcomes when work is done collectively. The leader offers them clear direction under a visionary approach to achieve organizational objectives. During a crisis, a leader has the responsibility to gather group members and lead them effectively, so that they get hope (Miao, Newman, Schwarz & Xu, 2013). According to participant, an enchantment with vision is a clear framework that helps individuals set up their directions and learn frequently. Visionary leaders promise a better future due to their sacrificing and productive nature. In the times of crisis like the current pandemic of Coronavirus, leaders have to show responsibility to control and direct the team. If vision is not set in crisis, motivation will not be achieved.

The bad group

A bad group face the bad side of a leader during a time of crisis, so team members face the worst experience. The participant in this study has elaborated the worst experience she faced with a bad leader. For instance, at corona times, the leader kept the same plan outside of what team wanted to change because of the corona, such as social distancing.Participant discussed “the leader was less appealing to team members due to her behaviour and display of different features like, she boosted her math abilities, tried to avert his eyes and showed intense behavior”.Some bad points in her views are “changed momentum quite a bit with the Corona outbreak, unexpected change and stability in the group and lots of arguments which is a wrong way of doing things”.Team members seem unsatisfactory due to this kind of approach. Due to reduced participation or no vision of a leader, a group may turn into bad and show poor contribution.

Bad group exhibits a lethargic approach due to work and show overburdened. There is less competency in the group, and they lack crucial skills like productivity, efficiency and performance (McFarland, 2014). This kind of situation creates a stressful work environment so the leader can be disrespectful to co-workers, supervisors and other mates. Lack of involvement is the key feature of a bad group because there is no vision and direction that help team members to get involved in team activities. The poor team members refuse to take any responsibility, so they always face failures.

More specifically, Adair theory is best suited here. It is action-centered leadership that was presented by John Adair in 1960. It is three circles model that overlap each other and elaborate about task achievement, managing grouping and managing individuals that form a team (Mango, 2018).


Overlapping circles highlight that these three elements work together, as elements of managing individual can overlap managing group and that in turn can overlap achieving the task and so managing individuals (Junker & van Dick, 2014). This theory illustrates that if a manager wants to be a good leader, all these features should be implemented. The model is itself simple yet needs to adapt to the situation.


The interview with the participant provided key themes of grouping, such as good group, bad group and their working dynamics. The way of working and involving group members into different tasks has been greatly changed due to the crisis of coronavirus. Groups are no more working together due to social distancing rules. Leaders follow key precautionary practices to help group members stay safe and spread awareness (Grint, 2020). According to research studies, group behaviour can guide individuals in adopting goods and bad ethics. Interview inferred that group behaviour is mostly workable with leader behaviour, for instance, a positive attitude of a leader develops positive roots of a group, so it turned into a good group and vice versa. Corona crisis has changed the notion of many groups and group leaders about work and work ethics. For instance, better and improved collaboration has been seen today than earlier to tackle the crisis. Improved support and value-added opinion have been seen in current times due to a positive group working ethics (Dörnyei& Murphey, 2009).

In the bad times, the good group can hold power, trust and mouldbehaviours of the team, so a leader can have influence over the entire team. A good group have a powerful sense of strength and an incredible sense of authority so the leader will be idealistic. On the contrary, “a bad leader can be a critical person and always try to be a perfectionist” discussed by participant, so this will create distance in team members. Popular and ideal leader work on social skills to gather a team and tries to resolve conflicts. For example, in the interview, the participant mentioned some weak points of a leader while working as a group in corona situation when no precautions were followed, and gathering was allowed.

The difference in the good and bad group is apparent from working ethics, following the current scenario and leadership approach. Different team leader perceptions allow team members to think and behave according to the situation (Chappelow, 2007). From the participants’ view, good leader values its members and work together during the issue of the coronavirus, since it is important to follow distance maintaining rules. Hence, a leader can focus on group members’ behaviour and modifies them. A behavioral theory of leadership considers the reactions and observable actions of leaders and followers in a particular situation, just like a corona. The theory focuses on leaders’ behaviour and assumes that whether the leader is born or made, successful leadership is based on learned and definable behaviour.

Participative leadership theory describes a style of leadership that is an idea on the basis of group learning (Davis, 2001). These leaders enhance contribution and encourage the participation of the team in a group so that they feel more accountable (Cardiff, McCormack &McCance, 2018). This process help group members to be more specific to adopt decision-making approach and use a decisive style. A leader in this way enhance communication and social skills and brings in teamwork format. The structural process of team and leadership needs to be updated with the current crisis such as Covid-19 situation to train and educate the team members.


Leadership during crisis interpret the ideal traits necessary to form a group and build skills. Leaders not only provide structural approach but also reassure people to participate in product decisions. Adapting to new challenges of current crisis like corona is attributable to leader because he instils need in the team required to tackle conflicts. Group behaviour is decided on behalf of the leader. The report discussed the key issue of coronavirus today and its impact on leadership. It is based on leaders’ guidelines and actions. Mostly good leaders develop good groups because they develop good habits in-group members that allow them to participate in objective accomplishment. Bad groups face declined morale due to less involvement and less participation. In view of the participant of the study, a good leader engages team members and encourage them to participate in activities.

Leadership defines group roles, and current pandemic needs leadership skills that develop good group collaboration. If a good group develops better collaborative skills in members, it’s evident to work in collective support during a crisis. Moreover, good leadership necessitates a trustworthy image and decision making power. This interview analysis illustrated that the current challenging situation needs effective leadership skills to monitor group behaviour as well as to educate people. A leader works as a mentor and educator to direct group fellows, thus enhance learning. The views of the participant about good group and leadership showed that the best leader is an ideal one because he/she supports its team in all respects, is trustworthy, exchange ideas and coordination.

The leader is an influential figure and encourages the team to spread positive influence, get educated and stay involved. The study is useful in terms of analyzing the role of a good leader in building the best team with all good features. The study is beneficial in terms of describing a bad leader that corresponds to a bad group. The study discussed that bad group behaviour not only discourages team members but reduce their involvement. Lack of involvement declines productivity. The study illustrated the practical experience of a participant in the current scenario of coronavirus and how important it is to maintain social distancing and rules to avoid contact with the public. The study provides an institutional approach in terms of understanding the good behavior of a leader that results in good group ethics and that positive group activity improves health.

Group dynamics-based approach discussed that group interaction is essential to maintain in an organization, which is attributable to the leader. The performance of a leader describes how effectively a group is being managed and what attributes are built in the group members. The attitudinal/behavioural and participatory theories are relevant to discuss in this paper because they define the attitude of leaders and foster skills that are necessary to implement in the team. The current paper is valuable in terms of analyzing team behaviour and leadership approach. It helps to learn key frameworks of leadership and its role in modifying team members’ attitude. The paper enhanced learning about standards a leader set for managing teamwork allows establishing productive roles and responsibilities. During tough times like corona, leadership supports teamwork and develops group behavior. This situation also invigorates competencies in teams and groups.


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Gender: Female
• Approximate age 27
• Nationality Colombian
• Current status
•Time and language of the interview : English

Appendix A The Actual Interview Transcript

Interviewer: Good Morning!

Participant: Good morning!

Interviewer: I hope everything is okay with you?

Participant: Yea. What about you.

Interviewer: Pretty good, I would say. Thank you.

Participant: You are welcome.

Interviewer: So, are you ready?

Participant: Ready when you are.

Interviewer: Okay. Just to recap, you said you were in two distinctive groups, good and bad.

Participant: Yes.

Group Nature

Interviewer: What is the description of the groups in your opinion?

Participant: Well for the good group, we were five from different countries. Our leader ‘R’ was enthusiastic throughout the project. Which was about a presentation on the effects of depression on managing the team. We decided early on that we should get together in [location of the gathering] and we were always there except for one guy but he had his own reasons. As for the other group, we had four members. The leader of the first group was just a regular member there in the second group. He was a bit shy at first. The leader ‘K’ was a bit older than all of us. She said that she knew him from somewhere, but I did not bother to ask. We had a pretty good start, since the leader knows how to figure her way through numbers because statistics was our issue in the first group!


Interviewer: What were the symptoms of the groups being good/bad?

Participant: As for the good group, ‘R’ gave each and every one of us our roles and was tolerant of our mistakes. I still remember his smile wherever he was waiting for us when we get together. Like we often asked where this guy actually gets angry or not! He was optimistic and often seeking to understand. One day, [name of one of the group members] was completely lost for like a full week. Then, he suddenly contacted us and said that he ran into an accident. Our leader quickly gathered us and we went to his place to check up on him. Our leader told him that he already did his job and all he wished for is his fat recovery! What a man! He was also fun loving and unconventional, which validates my need for freedom. He was neither needy or demanding. I felt I was there because I want to be, not because I had to be there, if that makes any sense? There other guys were a bit slow but with quick minds and youthful spirits. I think it helped stimulate my mind.

As for the bad group, the leader ‘K’ was pretty confidant of herself. She even boosted about her math abilities. Saying that it will be a smooth sail and all that and winked at ‘R’. He tried to avert his eyes. Anyhow, she gave us high hopes since we did struggle quite a bit. Well, let us just say it was our main pitfall! The momentum changed quite a bit with the Corona outbreak. There where periods of unexpected change and stability in our second group. We were meant to meet at the evening. She said that we can meet in her place. One of the girls said that we should not because of social distancing rules. But she said that nothing would ever happen and we should meet to get things done. Suddenly, one of the girls did not come, ‘K’ was somewhat angry because she met her in the grocery store that day and, according to her, she was fine. ‘K’ argued a lot with her on phone. I knew this way of doing things is wrong. Yet, ‘R’ did not do anything at all! Her intensity scared us. As if there was not outlet for what she was thinking about. All she had in mind is that the work needs to be done according to her plan. ‘R’ Had an unsatisfactory look on his face.

Q3. Do you think group activity helps i.e. positive or negative?

  1. explain if it is negative

It depends on how the group acts with its leader. I think the second group was negative because of its leader. She thought that she is more capable than all of us and therefore she bossed us all around. She came across as cold and critical. I mean she did not listen to any of us. All she wanted is that we gave our answers to whatever questions she had. Thinking nothing about the current situation, I mean Corona kept us doing nothing but work and work. I do not know why he did not say anything to her, though!

As for the good one, being understanding and supportive really elevated some of the pain. Like no one was able to go as deep as we could! We spent quite sometime together outside of what we had to do.

Interview: What is your opinion about working in groups can impact grade?

Participant: Well It did impact both our grades and our health!

For the good group, we got a lower grade, but we thought that all of our efforts were payed off. As for the bad group, we got a better grad at the expense of our mental health!

Interviewer: Do you think grouping allows everyone to put in similar effort?

Not always! I got this sense of inadequacy with the second group. Like I need to just follow her and that’s it.

Interview What are the reasons that attribute the group’s being good/bad to?

  1. please mention if there are bad attributes

Participant: As for the good group, ‘R’ was practical, trustworthy and could hold things for others. He gave some of his time and did one of the guys work!


Influence of the leaders

Interviewer: What influence of the leaders had on grouping?

Participant : As for the good group, although he gave powerful sense of power and an incredible sense of authority, he was idealistic and in touch with his soft side.

The bad group had a leader who was critical and perfectionist and I think it created a distance.

Interview:  Can you state three drawback of group work in both groups?

Participant:To be honest, I did not like ‘R’ helping the other member that much. It is good to be caring but not to the extent of doing his work! Secondly, he did not ask about our weaknesses. We know that no one is competent enough in statistics not until the end! I think it because we also spent so much time having fun together.

The bad group had a pretty bossy leader. She seemed like she did not need the help of others. She also trusted herself so much  that she went to the extreme trying to prove that she was right! Thank god no one got corona!  I also felt like we were in the group only to do the work.

Interviewer: Do you agree that group projects enable individuals to use skills which individual assessment do not?

Participant: Yeah. Social skills, for example. Humans tend to view the world through closed kingdoms. Group work allows us to see the issue from multiple angles!

Interviewer: You mentioned conflicts in the two groups, what do you think the main reason behind them? Could you please state some causes?

Participant: Hmmm. I will be honest. ‘K’ is highly independent but a bit hard-headed. We failed to persuade her to do the work via Zoom. She said that since we all live in the same area, we had to come in one place and do the work. The police noticed us and told us to disperse and she was about to fight with the saying that we do not have corona. She was also so wrapped up in the project that she never spoke to any one of us outside of what she told us to do. She did an outstanding job in her part. But the others were less productive.

The good group was about to fell apart at the end. We were quite weak in statistics. As a result, we had this thought that all of our work is in vain. Still, being together gave us hope that everything will be fine in the end.

Significance of grouping

Interviewer: can you describe your general feelings about significance of grouping min light of the two groups?

Participant:The bad group left a bad taste in my mouth. I really wanted to be myself. But ‘K’s’ Impulsiveness made us doubt ourselves. I felt like if I follow my gut feelings, there will always be unfavorable consequences. So, from my perspective, I could not take any actions effortlessly. Had to go back to her.

As for the good group. We had this sense of belonging that we did not do anything wrong. Rather than seeing this pattern, I mean us not knowing anything bout statistics, as punishment, we thought of it as a process of personal growth.

Interviewer: How did the leaders as the group leaders behave and how did this contribute to what the group was like?

Participant:The good group had a pretty down-earth leader. I felt like it does not matter how hard I worked because perfection is hard. We really had fun together and felt like family.

As for the bad group. I think, while her intensity could help her achieve success in this world, it would not be very helpful to her in the long run. I do not think that I would ever work with her again
Interviewer: What happened to the groups in question?

Interviewer: Do you think the two leaders exerted influence on group members?

Participant:A big yes! I wanted to be the good group because I wanted to. I had to be in the bad group because I had to!

Interviewer: How leader’s ideas forward towards a strategy in groups , mention two ideas?

‘R’ felt like he already embraced his kindness and desire to provide. When he helped our friend, I felt safe and take care of. I can depend on this leader. Yeah and he likes to work in cooperation with others. I felt like I can help anyone with anything and I learned new things! Unlike the bad group. ‘K’ was like a robot, she said that everyone should only do his job and I felt board the whole time! She also did not follow social distancing rules and we did not work like we should. I think her not following the rules by the government worsened our commitment. It is like we thought he was a perfectionist in everything.

Interviewer: Are the described phenomena common in the country the you come from?

Participant: Oh boy! A roller coaster of emotions! You can find both good and bad people in my country!

Interviewer: Can you make your assessment of team effectiveness, if yes, mention three characteristics?

Participant: The workflow was solid with the first group. The leader seed like he had a knack for knowing how to deal with people. He was fun-loving and approachable.

The second group was bad. She was intense, arrogant and a bit nasty. I tried to hide what I felt a number of times. One day, I woke up and saw like 23 messages from her. She thought I was ignoring her. I did not bother to say that I was feeling sick because I do not think she would believe me. I just said that I was away and I am sorry.

Interviewer: How perceptions of one team leader can be different from others?

Participant: Since we came from different backgrounds, we had some religious and language barriers. But we did not think of it that much. In the good group, we had fun. In the bad group, we worked like hell. So, each leader had his own qualities that resulted in new experiences.

Interview: What are the key values that are inherent in the two leaders, as a participant of the group?

Participant:  ‘R’ valued group work and fun above all. As a result, we felt close to him and everyone else. ‘K’ Thought that we only need to do our job and we were distant from each other.

Interviewer: So you think a leader need to focus on group behavior, how a leader connects all the team members together?

Participant: Exactly.

What can minimized the conflicts in group members


Interviewer: Can you specify two things that you feel work differently the minimized the conflicts in group members?

Participant: ‘R’s’ kindness. It worked like magic with the good group. But he was almost non-existent in the bad one that I felt like it was a bad trait!

Also, ‘K’s’ intensity could have been beneficial to us in the statistical part of the project. We were a bit carless. But it was bad in the second group because it but so much pressure on us.

Interviewer: What is the reason some people go off task at any point during the group work?

Now that I think about it, the way ‘R’ showed his kindness towards us and that everything is aright make us procrastinate a bit. Also, When my friend got sick and ‘R’ helped him, I had this satanic thought of doing the same thing. But with ‘K’, we went discussing trivial things like that we can do everything online and she said that she would never join us! We had to come, and I did not work elsewhere except when we got together.

Interviewer: Since one of your team member was absent from group work but role is assigned, what would you do if you were the leader?

Participant: I would compensate that member’s work and move on.

Interviewer:  In your opinion, which leader was best to in assessing the understanding of group member?

Participant: I think the bad one. She asked about what each excels at.

Interviewer:  How collaboration in group work can yield learning?

Participant: Through coordination and exchange of ideas

Interviewer: Based on your experience with the group work, how every participant behaves with it?

Participant It was different in both. As I told you, the leader is the most influential figure.

Interviewer: Is it important for all group members to show consent towards agreed goals?

Participant: Of course!

Interviewer: What are some other thoughts about group work?

Participant: Sharing is caring. You need to always let the other members feel that you are connected with them.

How team members behave

Interviewer: Do you believe team members understands one another’s’ role?

Participant: Yes for the bad group but the pressure was so hard for us we lost interest in doing our best.

Interviewer: Do the two leaders assume the responsibility to train their members and focus on effective collaboration, coordination and development?

Participant: The leader of the bad group did not. She said: “What do you excel most at?” and we decided on the roles. She than said that since no one said anything when she said the word “excel”, no one needs any help! That snake!

Interviewer: What about the good group?

Participant: He did the same but followed us through to the end.

Interview: I think this is it. Do you have anything else to say?

Participant: No, Thank you.

Interview: You are welcome, Thank you for your help.

Participant: No problem. Good luck!

Interview: You, too!

Appendix B Pre-Interview

Interviewer: Good morning [Name of the participant]! My name is George! I am a researcher interested in Group dynamics and God forbid what might go wrong during group work! All of your info will not be shared by anyone, including this recording.

There will be two interviews. The first one is to just lay the ground for the second interview. So, for now, let us just talk in general and not go too deep. We will leave it for the second interview. Is this alright with you? I may ask for a third one if there is something that would need any clarification. Do You Have any questions?


Participant: Ready when you are.


Interviewer: How are you coping with the corona outbreak? I hope you are doing fine!


Participant: I am fine, Thank you. It has been really tough for me.


Interviewer: I am really sad to hear this! I really everything is fine. Do you need any help?.


Participant: Thank you so much. No , I am doing fine. I hope you are, as well. Do you need any help?


Interviewer: No, I am doing fine. Thank you for asking!


Participant: Good! I heard your boss is trying to get in touch with you all.


Interviewer: Yes. They are Putting us in groups of small numbers to take us back.


Participant: HeHe. Group dynamics the right way.


Interviewer: Haha. I would not say this at such an early stage but thank you!


Participant: No problem. Wish for your safe travel.


Interviewer: Thank you. Speaking of Which, you did say that you had a very interesting experience in two distinct groups. May I know about them? Let us first start with the good one.


Participant: Yes. We knew our roles from the very beginning. [The group’s leader] was a very active guy. He was pretty enthusiastic and I was instantly into the mood. I must confess, though. He was a bit confrontal. But I always felt that it was never an issue.


Interviewer: Do you mind if I ask why it was never an issue?


Participant: He felt like my practical side. Like he was a maturing influence on me.


Interviewer: Interesting! So he felt like he had this energy that made you want to show up, right?


Participant: Yes.


Interviewer: Was this the same for everyone else?


Participant: Yes, I think so. He had this incredible capacity to empathize.He was able to see the good in all things and he was visionary and can see the world from both sides despite the differences among us. Ironik enough, He was a complete guy in the other group!


Interviewer:Was he the leader in both?


Participant: No, He was just another member in the second one. He disapproved of that girl’s intensity, that was apparent. But it felt like his will was somewhat diminished and he could not express himself. He even reacted quite recklessly. Typical man!


Interviewer: I completely understand you. But may I ask you to discuss the two groups separately? Just to avoid confusion.


Participant: No problem.


Interviewer: So, you said that, for the good group, you all were different from one another. May I ask how? what was so different about you all.


Participant: Well, since this is an international university. We all came from dramatically different backgrounds.


Interviewer: Yes. I see. Was this the same with the other group?


Participant: Yea, minus having one member I knew from the older group.


Interviewer: Oh this second group seems totally different, eh?


Participant: Well the start was actually better than the first one!


Interviewer: Seriously?


Participant: Yeah but with the spread of Covid-19, it went downhill.


Interviewer: Oh! That is too bad.


Participant: I know, right!


Interviewer: What was the main thing that made it the worst experience?


Participant: Despite the fact that she showed a period of struggle, she kept with the same plan outside of what we wanted to change because of the corona. We went through trials for no clear reason! Just when we thought we leveled off and found a solution, she said no and when I confronted her in private, she said I trust my intuition and we should not change the way things are! What the! And he just stood there Like a wall despite his experience as a leader!


Interviewer: I really feel you. You need to give reasonable reasons for your actions!


Participant: I do not think that I will be able to get that man *tch*.


Interviewer: He must have been a headache. But I think this is it. Thank you so much. I will get back to you in 5 days time. Just email me with times you are comfortable with. Is this okay with you? Do you have anything else to add?

Participant: Not that I think of. Okay. Thanks!


Interview: Your welcome! Thank you so much for the help! Talk to you later!

Participant: You, too! See you soon!




Appendix CCoding List

Description of Good Groups:

  • They are collaborative
  • They are trustworthy
  • They communicate effectively
  • They show involvement

Description of Bad Groups:

  • Groups that are less involved
  • They are not trustworthy
  • Lack of involvement
  • No vision, less optimistic

Group activity benefits

  • understanding and supportive role
  • Positive collaboration
  • Optimism
  • Improvement in grades and health

Influence of leaders on Grouping

  • Strength
  • incredible sense of authority
  • Better communication
  • Focus on decision making

Projects help groups than individuals

  • Team building approach
  • conflict resolution
  • Enhancing social skills

Leaders as the group leaders

  • They modify team behavior
  • They enhance decision making skills
  • They encourage members by fun and learning
  • They give ideas that forward towards a strategy

Team effectiveness

  • Approachable
  • Fun loving
  • People dealing

Group Behavior

  • Kindness
  • fun & learning
  • Collaboration

Benefits of Group work

  • Sharing
  • Understanding
  • Coordination












The art selected for the essay is Fishing by Torch Light by Paul Kane, which is an oil on paper sketch dating back to 1845 and is a rare piece depicting Canada’s history. The oil-on-paper sketch by Paul Kane is among Canada’s First Peoples art collections at Royal Ontario Museum. This essay will argue that in Fishing by Torch Light, Paul Kane’s use of color, line, and shape focuses on emphasis and movement in the composition. The formal elements, as well as principles of art, form an impression of mystery and foreboding.

The medium used for the artwork is oil on canvas, and the Canadian artist sketched the western landscape to denote the lives of the Natives. This artwork was undertaken during his voyage from 1845 to 1848 as he traveled far west. While observing the artwork, one notices that the hues in this sketch have been used mainly on the fishermen rowing the boat as well as on the outline of the boat and torchlight. This emphasizes the importance of the torchlight and its impact on the fishermen. This emphasis makes the torchlight along with the fishermen, the focal point or center of interest for the observer. The dark hues used correlate with harmony as a large amount of area within the artwork has been painted with limited hues (Field, 2018). The relatively simple arrangement of yellow, black, and brown are distributed throughout the artwork and ties the parts together to forge harmony. At the same time, the pop of color makes the torchlight appear more pronounced. This contrast of light and dark values aid in emphasizing the torchlight and the fishermen, but also the river, trees, and the night sky. It should be noted how the light of the torchlight is shown in the water against the dark background. This clearly establishes the importance of torchlight. On the other hand, the light values of the fisherman, boat, etc. make them stand out against the darker values.

The element of line can be observed within the painting, and it can be tied to the principle of movement. The diagonal lines within the sketch convey a feeling of movement. For example, the movement of the boat moving forward is depicted through the torchlight, which is neither horizontal nor vertical. It is imperative to note that the oil on paper sketch also contains characteristics of impressionist painting as it captures the essence of the subject matter, which is fishing aided by the torch lights (Webster, 1944). Paul Kane thus manipulates the use of line to create a movement which the observer channelizes through observation. A sense of intrigue is created in the backdrop of the night as the boats are shown to move forward through diagonal lines, however, the path forward is not clear because of dark hues surrounding the light emitted by the torchlight(Brommer, 2000).

In addition, the diagonal lines within the artwork are creating the potential effect of confusion surrounding the space. The thick and thin, long and short, curved and straight lines across the river and on the trees tie the element of the line to the principle of variety as well. This is because the curved line of the torchlight, vertical line of the fishermen, and the curved outlines of the trees provide the variety which is necessary for generating curiosity in the onlooker as well as a sense of mystery within the realm of the painting.

Furthermore, the elements of shape and form, along with the principles of emphasis, create a gradual change from darkness to light. It can be noticed how the transition of light from the torchlight to the surroundings, i.e., boat, water, etc. overlaps, which in turn overlaps with the fishermen. This overlapping draws the eye of the observer to the trees as well as the river. The illusion of depth is created by the reflection of the light from the torchlight into the dark water that creates atmospheric tension and mystery(Brommer, 2000). The opposing element of light and dark water creates a sense of foreboding. The emphasis on light, as well as the changing of light as it passes through deep water, creates an impression of uncertainty. The theory of impressionism can best describe the judgment on this formal analysis as the fleeting effect of light on the surface of the water is captured in such a profound way that it is emphasizing on color and tone rather than on outline and shape (Brommer, 2000). Kane has mixed hues with opposite colors, such as shadows of yellow, to create atmospheric tension. Furthermore, the mystery does not have to be depicted visually as it can be felt.

The uncertainty of where the fishermen are headed to or what might lay in their path creates a metaphysical scenario that cannot be measured. The shape of the torchlight, boat, and fishermen range differently, and the directions of the lines enclose them diagonally, which projects visual interest because of unequal proportion(Field, 2018). For example, while looking are the waving torchlight one is drawn towards the image of the fisherman rowing the boat in forward direction creating a sense of ease while the small shape of the boat ahead and a potentially deep river ahead creates a sense of foreboding as it denotes the relatively minor impact of the efforts of the fisherman in comparison to the vastness of the deep dark water or the night. The shape of the trees is a circle and in an equal proportion, which creates less interest and the emphasis, which is why they amount to a large void encompassing the deep river.


Brommer, G. F. (2000). Elements and Principles of Design. Crystal Productions.

Field, J. (2018). An Illustrated Field Guide to the Elements and Principles of Art + Design. Hot Iron Press.

Webster, J. C. (1944). The Technique of Impressionism: A Reappraisal. College Art Journal, 22.





Theme: Events that character go Through Change and Impact their thinking and Behaviour

Executive Summary

This essay explores the theme of whether events in characters’ life in the epic novel War and Peace by Leo Tolstoy affect the thinking and behavior of the character. This essay explores arguments related to historical context of the novel and vastly analysis the character development of Nikolai Rostov to understand the stance taken by the novel on this theme.

The Russian novel War and Peace by Leo Tolstoy is a recognized epic that was initially published in series but was later released in its full form in 1869. The novel is extremely profound in its nature as it does not encompass a single theme or adds to a single idea but explores human sublimity by mentioning topics such as psychological themes, philosophy, historical commentary, social dilemmas, ideological conflicts, and political struggles. Like other intellectual pieces of Tolstoy, this work as well gives an insight into the great mind of the author who made his mark in establishing the nuanced nature of a human mind. As expected from Tolstoy, the novel has many interesting and timeless themes such as individual desires versus the worldly “right”, the dynamics of social classes and many more. Ones of the most important themes explores the human tendency to be affected by what goes through their lives and how the events they go through effect and change their thinking. This theme is important because understanding this enables the readers to realize why this novel came to be about.

The historical context plays an important role in the plot, character development and thematic concerns of the novel and how the events affect the character is a major theme in the academia of history. It is important to note that this novel is fundamentally a thrilling example of history as much as it is an interesting story. It is important to note that it was in 1863 that Tolstoy endeavoured to write about a political dissident who was returning from exile in Siberia. The process took him five years, and he came up with a book that looked nothing like what he had planned initially. The story was instead spread around themes of love-stories, battlefields, economic strife, and religious teachings. This stemmed from his fascination of the Decembrist Revolution of 1825, whereby around 3000 Russian soldiers protested against the Nicholas I’s ascension to the throne after Tsar Alexander I. So his ideas tilted towards the events of 1825. Then he realized how can he comment on the events of 1825 without mentioning the story of 1812 when Napoleon’s tremendous invasion of Russia helped propel authoritarianism that the Decembrists were primarily rebelling against. Even after this, he realized how could he talk about Napoleon’s invasion without mentioning 1805 when the Russians first learned about the danger Napoleon posed after their defeat at the Battle of Austerlitz. This ordeal of what to incorporate led him to come up with something that would integrate his initial aspiration of mentioning the individual struggle and do so in the background provided by the significant historical context.

The starting of the novel is significant in establishing its overall stance as it opens with the scene of war between France and Russia. While he also mentions the tales of Aristocrats at the cocktail party and their indifference concerning the war. Their conversations subdue to money, sex and all the lavish niceties of life. This indicates the norm set by the author as he considers the upper class to have such conversations. This sheds light at the aspect of the events in people’s life affecting their behaviours as here the aristocrats are affected by the luxuries nature of their status so much so that it consumes them and blinds them to the real pains, struggles and actual reality of the world that they live in by large. The aristocratic conversations that take place in Anna Pavlovna’s salon serve as a microcosm of the upper strata of the society (chapter 1-6, pages 3-52).

Moreover, the historical significance of the novel is established as it questions the idea of the “great man”. Tolstoy is famous for bringing about the elephant in the room into the highlight. The nineteenth-century witnessed a boom in wars and invasions, whereby the cult of Napoleon was extremely prevalent. He was a recognized great man and was also an opportunist. The novel is set in 1805-1820 and describes the war between France and Germany. In doing so, a commentary on leadership is also given, and Tolstoy rejects the notion of the “Great Man” by mentioning the Battle of Borodino that was fought between Napoleon’s 130,000 troops, about 500 guns, versus Russians’ 120,000 men and about 600 guns. About 30,000 French men lost their lives, and 45,000 Russians were killed. The concept is stated brilliantly in Book 10, chapter 28, pages 1848-1849, “And it was not Napoleon who directed the course of the battle, for none of his orders was executed, and during the battle, he did not know what was going on before him. So the way in which these people killed one another was not decided by Napoleon’s will but occurred independently of him, in accord with the will of hundreds of thousands of people who took part in the common action. It only seemed to Napoleon that it all took place by his will. And so the question whether he had or had not a cold has no more historical interest than the cold of the least of the transport soldiers. Moreover, the assertion made by various writers that his cold was the cause of his dispositions not being as well planned as on former occasions, and of his orders during the battle not being as good as previously, is quite baseless, which again shows that Napoleon’s cold on the twenty-sixth of August was unimportant. The dispositions cited above are not at all worse, but are even better, than previous dispositions by which he had won victories. His pseudo-orders during the battle were also no worse than formerly, but much the same as usual. These dispositions and orders only seem worse War and Peace 1849 of 2882 than previous ones because the battle of Borodino was the first Napoleon did not win. The profoundest and most excellent dispositions and orders seem very bad, and every learned militarist criticizes them with looks oks importance, when they relate to a battle that has been lost, and the very worst dispositions and orders seem very good, and serious people fill whole volumes to demonstrate their merits, when they relate to a battle that has been won. The dispositions drawn up by Weyrother for the battle of Austerlitz were a model of perfection for that kind of composition, but still they were criticized- criticized for their very perfection, for their excessive minuteness. Napoleon at the battle of Borodino fulfilled his office as representative of authority as well as, and even better than, at other battles. He did nothing harmful to the progress of the battle; he inclined to the most reasonable opinions, he made no confusion, did not contradict himself, did not get frightened or run away from the field of battle, but with his great tact and military experience carried out his role of appearing to command, calmly and with dignity.” This lengthy quote gives an insight into the author’s mind that he believes that history is not only shaped by great men, but rather other cultural, social, societal and economic factors come into play. Also, the events of the past are so significant that they affect the people who later change the way events happen as hinted in this quote. This quote largely brings out Tolstoy’s way of criticizing people who believe in the “Great Man” concept. It is Tolstoy’s effort to highlight the importance of “ordinary” people that sort of cement the concept that people’s experiences shape people, shape them to become who they inevitably become. Hence, by that logic, they should not be given special attention, treatment or titles such as that of “Great Man” as Napoleon was recognized as.

This novel is a literary genius of Tolstoy’s imagination and sheds light on his own ideas of what causation means for him. The natural metaphor of a bee’s activity used is reflective of his own ideas in the complex novel War and Peace. In the First Epilogue, pages 2692-2693, it is mentioned, “A bee settling on a flower has stung a child. And the child is afraid of bees and declares that bees exist to sting people. A poet admires the bee sucking from the chalice of a flower and says it exists to suck the fragrance of flowers. A beekeeper, seeing the bee collect pollen from flowers and carry it to the hive, says that it exists to gather honey. Another beekeeper who has studied the life of the hive more closely says that the bee gathers pollen dust to feed the young bees and rear a queen, and that it exists to War and Peace 2693 of 2882 perpetuate its race. A botanist notices that the bee flying with the pollen of a male flower to a pistil fertilizes the latter, and sees in this the purpose of the bee’s existence. Another, observing the migration of plants, notices that the bee helps in this work, and may say that in this lies the purpose of the bee. But the ultimate purpose of the bee is not exhausted by the first, the second, or any of the processes the human mind can discern. The higher the human intellect rises in the discovery of these purposes, the more obvious it becomes, that the ultimate purpose is beyond our comprehension.” Hence, this quote proves that Tolstoy does not necessarily believe in the process of causation or he believes that the human mind is not enough or sufficient to encapsulate the entire process that goes behind an action and even though many of Tolstoy’s characters exhibit change after experiencing formative experiences, he also believes that one cannot truly understand or point out what is actually the decisive watershed moment.

Tolstoy also comments on the human tendency to find an answer in Book 13, Chapter 1, page 2324, as he states in an omnipresent tone, “Man’s mind cannot grasp the causes of events in their completeness, but the desire to find those causes is implanted in man’s soul. And without considering the multiplicity and complexity of the conditions any one of which taken separately may seem to be the cause, he snatches at the first approximation to a cause that seems to him intelligible and says: ‘This is the cause!’” Thus, it must be established that Tolstoy did not reject absolutely the notion that causation must not be made, but rather he pointed out the human weakness in the process of coming to a conclusion in a hasty manner whereby many important details are termed as unimportant.

Book 7 is highly important in demonstrating the theme that events shape character developments. The character of Nikolai (Nicholas) Rostov although had impactful moments in his life before book 7, it is here that his changed self is shown to emerge. However, book 4, chapter 2, pages 690-691, also marks the beginning of his change in character from an immature child to a young mature adult, “He felt that he had grown up and matured very much. His despair at failing in a Scripture examination, his borrowing money from Gavril to pay a sleigh driver, his kissing Sonya on the sly- he now recalled all this as childishness he had left immeasurably behind. Now he was a lieutenant of hussars, in a jacket laced with silver, and wearing the War and Peace 691 of 2882 Cross of St. George, awarded to soldiers for bravery in action, and in the company of well-known, elderly, and respected racing men was training a trotter of his own for a race…” It is important to note that the first six books prepare Nikolai’s transition from his war values into peace values. This also shows the strong connection between the entirely opposite concepts, and perhaps explores that the existence of one causes the other. But coming back to the importance of Nikolai’s character development, the pattern is evident in book seven during the scene of hunt and Christmas games. In the hunting scene, Nikolai is shown to develop a fascination for the land, and in the Christmas scene, for the first time ever, he decides to marry. The following sentence from book 9, chapter 12, page 1510, mentions his change, “The autumn in Otradnoe with the hunting, and the winter with the Christmas holidays and Sonya’s love, had opened out to him a vista of tranquil rural joys and peace such as he had never known before, and which now allured him.” This decision to marry has been visible in the metaphors used in the novel. In book 7, it is clear that despite the arrival of Christmas, the atmosphere is gloomy and sad, but things change on the third day of Christmas. This all can be seen as a precursor to the romantic meeting of Sonya and Nikolai in the upcoming chapter. It is important to note that this meeting marks a stark change in his character and this can be viewed in the light of an event changing the course of a character’s life as book 7, chapter 13, page 1246, mentions, “Firmly resolved, after putting his affairs in order in the regiment, to retire from the army and return and marry Sonya, Nicholas, serious, sorrowful, and at variance with his parents, but, as it seemed to him, passionately in love, left at the beginning of January to rejoin his regiment.”

Nikolai arrives at his first-ever win when he captures the young French Officer but rather than feeling good about it or feeling an air of victory; he feels “moral nausea” (book 9, chapter 15, page 1533). The cause for this can be traced back to book seven as his values were changed then during the hunting experience. The author reminds us of that by comparing war with the hunt and Nicholas in his soldier state with a huntsman by mentioning in book 9, chapter 15, pages 1529-, “Rostov, with his keen sportsman’s eye, was one of the first to catch sight of these blue French dragoons pursuing our Uhlans…He acted as he did when hunting, without reflecting or considering…With the same feeling with which he had galloped across the path of a wolf, Rostov gave rein to his Donets horse…” Now from this point ahead, the usage of comparing the French to the hurt animal and the Russians to the hunter becomes a recurrent theme in the novel such as stated in book 11, chapter 2, page 1941, “For five weeks after that there was not a single battle. The French did not move. As bleeding, mortally wounded animal licks its wounds, they remained inert in Moscow for five weeks, and then suddenly, with no fresh reason, fled back…” Hence, the events in Nikolai’s life are moved and shaped by his experiences in the past, and his feelings too are overshadowed by the working of the past. Similar to Nikolai, many other characters of this novel too face the same destiny of being moved by the events that have occurred, and their actions are shaped by the happenings in their life.

However, it must be pointed out that Tolstoy does not take a single stance on the debate under consideration of whether events shape character’s life as he mentions the complexity that lies in giving a distinct answer. It appears that the themes and the characters of this novel, such as Nikolai, indicate that human and living being’s behaviour is not merely dictated by the actions of the past. Instead, it is important to highlight that there are many reasons that lead to behavioural changes. By subtly communicating that “Great” people like Napoleon are not the supreme reasons that led to supreme happenings, but rather the happenings were a combination of environmental factors as well, including cultural, social and many other factors. Hence, the denial of “Great Man” theory in this novel sheds light in the belief that characters are more than the events and experiences that they endure as they actions that come as being attributed to them may not be only there doing as lots go behind an action that is undocumented. To respond to this quandary, the author Tolstoy also wrote a note to historians to improve on their work, but though this might not be directly related to the thematic discussion at hand, it is, however, interesting that he recognized the importance of historians and that in itself proves that he does believe in some sort of causation relationship, though a blind trust is not to be found.

So, conclusively it can be said that the theme of past events shaping people’s thoughts and lives is mentioned in both ways in the novel, both it is agreed upon, but at the same time it is discredited as well. This is the genius of the profound author Leo Tolstoy who managed to communicate the nuanced version of this debate in an understandable manner by fully mentioning the attached complexities of the theme at hand. It must be recognized that he is in no way discouraging humans from refraining from establishing such causal relationships but is, in essence, offering his view and conveying the nuances he thinks exist in dealing with such a complex theme.







Karl K. Karlson has an idea of starting a website called Aryans R Us. Amongst many other plans on how we want to run this website the one major project is to use it a platform for promoting the ideas he has in his mind. White supremacy, attitudes and theories that assert inherent dominance over other ethnic classes of the lighter-skinned, or “white,” human races. John Philip Jenkins redefines the term “white supremacy” used in this eraby such organizations that espouse ultranationalist, imperialist, or authoritarian ideologies. He is a white supremacist & he has some friends that also share the ideas that he has. (Jenkins, 2020)

He wants to use this website as a platform to post articles that they have been write to promote their cause of making the white people understand their place in the race. Another point of making this website is to call out and arrange the meetups of the white Supremacists mindset. He wants them to meet each other and discuss all the issues they feel are essential. Lastly, he wants to make an eBay type websites on which he wishes to sell Nazi and Neo-Nazi memorabilia. He wants to execute all these three ideas on his website. In this paper,I would argue if a website with such motivations of creation should be allowed to go live.

Keeping in mind that white supremacy movements have a history of frequently focused on aggression to achieve their goals, the website can’t be allowed to go live. The reason why I say this is that it would promote hate speech. People that feel they are racially superior to others they do not say it to hurt people. It could become a movement that attracts like-minded people and destroy the overall fabric of society. Even with a constitution protecting the rights of freedom of speech, there are ethics that need implementation.

The use of digital mediums like “websites” is exercising of Freedom &each individual has the right to do so as per his or her ideas. In this manner, if the website is leading to any movement that would lead to harm humanity and create unrest, these are reason enough not to let it go live.

It should be illegal for a website promoting ideas and memorabilia tied to hate speech to exist. Hate speech leads to creating unrest in society. If its popularity grows, it will ruin the peace of the community. The consequences of running such a campaign are dangerous. As per the harms principle, the only purpose for which power can be rightfully exercised over any member of a civilized community, against his will, is to prevent harm to others. (1978, 9) (, 2017). This website is likely to create a divide in the society as it reflects the pseudo mindset that despite so much struggles to condemn such ideals that promote injustice or unrest in the community can lead to creating harm.

Karl, should not be allowed to make his website, as hate speech is unacceptable in the modern-day world. Most liberal societies have set limitations to freedom of speech crossing the boundaries of hate speech (Stanford, 2017). The US has proven to be a promoter of freedom of expression over the years & the Nazi march through Skokie was one of its examples. Yet if anyone in America should be living their lives feeling safe and happy. Instead of white nationalists and other racist actor’s immunity target refugees, minority groups and religious minorities.

Despite understanding the value of freedom of free speech, the negative consequences of hate speech can’t be denied at all. Racial supremacy as a full-fledged philosophy is much more complicated than pure bias or bigotry. Moreover, most white supremacists today believe that the white race is in danger of extinction because of a growing “flood” of non-whites dominating society. This sort of mindset is hazardous in the log-run and their belief that drastic intervention is required to “save” the white race from being effected by other sports.

People with extremist mindsets always abuse freedom of speech. By definition, hate speech means degrading a person based on race, color, gender, faith, age, disability, or some other related grounds is hateful. (ALA, 2020) Allowing this website to be formed is equal to allowing Karl to gain access to so many like-minded people and spread hatred in the name of white supremacy is not just condemnable but unacceptable. This could lead to rage war between the white and the people of color leading to a violent movement.

Peter Hopkins, in an article, describes the violence spread by the white supremacists against Muslims. They are racially motivated towards shaping the minds of the followers that leads to hate speech that further leads to hate crimes. White supremacists show this attitude publically now near places like religious centers and community buildings where they focus on the teachings of their leaders. The researcher explored the modern types of religious and culturally based abuse that leads to further violence. (Hopkins, 2016) Hence, if this website is allowed, their policies will be aimed at communities who are victims of religious and ethnicity-based abuse. They will be motivated to abuse the rights of people from other races and religion, and they will refuse to accept co-existence of people from all religions and races.

Apart from the argument that how much of it is true, it is extremely dangerous to provide support to such mindsets who have historically chosen violence as their means of expression. The falseness or immorality of Karl’s views is another significant reason not to let this site go live. The message that these sorts of ideals bring, initiate violence in the mind of the viewers and even those who didn’t have any such beliefs start having such thoughts. This aggression is not coming out of thin air. When these loyalists employ racial language and enforce discriminatory policies such as the Muslim Ban, family splitting, silencing colored voters are amongst some of their actions that fuel the minds of their followers. Aggressive actions beget acts of aggression. (, 2019)

After careful consideration of the motives of Karl that include posting articles they have written on white supremacy, using it for white Supremacists to meet and discuss issues of importance to them and selling the things Nazi and Neo-Nazi collectables, I don’t think this website should be allowed to go on air. It clearly can lead to promoting hate speech and develop all sorts of negative mindsets that are unacceptable in the modern world. If they employ racial language and enforce discriminatory policies.

This could lead to campaigns such as the Muslim Ban, silencing colored voters as well as other hate crimes. Adding to that Aggressive actions beget acts of aggression that are also not acceptable at any cost. There should not be any such campaigns running that negatively affects the overall fabric of society. They should not be allowto run this website at any level and giving them the freedom to express their hatred against all other non-white people would only spread hatred and violence in society. Hence my verdict after analyzing all the outcomes of this campaign is no; they should be banned rather than allowed.


ALA. (2020). Hate Speech and Hate Crime. Retrieved from (2019). Here Are 10 Things You Can Do To Stop White Supremacy. Retrieved from

Hopkins, P. (2016, 7 22). Gendering Islamophobia, racism and White supremacy: Gendered violence against those who look Muslim. Retrieved from

Jenkins, J. P. (2020). White supremacy. Retrieved from

stanford. (2017). 2.3 Mill’s Harm Principle and Hate Speech. Retrieved from (2017, 5). Freedom of Speech. Retrieved from





Section 1

  • The Roman Empire: In what ways did Roman emperors use coinage/art/architecture to communicate their message?

The Roman Empire is famous for its art and architecture. It represented an important part of their society, culture, and intellectual value. The Roman emperors used the art, coinage, and architecture to deliver or send out messages. The whole concept is also known as “persuasion and propaganda.” These messages were to create certain impressions in front of the local public about the emperor such as his power and influence. For example, Augustus, the roman emperor showcased the Ara PacisAugustae. The name of the sculpture itself means “The Alter of Peace” and was dedicated to the roman goddess of peace, Pax. He implied that he has long connection with the Romans and hence, he was the rightful heir to the throne, after three years in Hispania and Gaul, to Julius Caesar. In this way, he told the people that he was rightfully ruling over them and dominating them. The presence of the emperor was felt everywhere. He had begun a new age (Kleiner, pp 202).

Another example of the emperor Trajan can be given here as well. He was a really powerful general and during his time the empire was all over Europe, West Asia and North Africa. To showcase his success in battles, he also used art and architecture. He put the Column of Trajan in Rome to show the defeat of Dacia which we know as Romania today. The 625 feet column documents the battle against the army of Dacia. He personally directed how this column was to be made (Kleiner, pp 213).


  • Byzantine Empire: What are the main ways Byzantine art changed if you were to compare a work from the beginning and final years of this empire?

The Byzantine Empire started as the Eastern continuation of the Roman Empire. While West of the Roman Empire was lost, it was ruled by Constantine who made some changes to the otherwise roman culture and values in the empire. While historians later called the empire Byzantine, back then the natives still considered themselves as roman. In the Early Byzantine era, Christian culture was getting more and more portrayed in the art. Architecture was also centered to Christianity with the building of various churches such as the famous Hagia Sophia. The early age shows the integration of the Greek and Christian cultures through the art of that time. As time progressed and the empire had to face a lot of enemies such as the Arabs, changes were seen in the expression of art as well. So, down the lane the art was influenced by Persian and Islamic cultures. The HagiaSophia was built under the rule of Justinian and it was the largest church in the world. Eventually, as the Byzantine era ended and the Ottoman Empire took its place, the Hagia Sophia was converted into a mosque (Kleiner, pp 268).

Icons, and art of manuscripts became popular in the early era such as the Sinai Icons and the manuscript Vienna Genesis. Then in the middle era icons were replaced by mosaic figures Empress Theodora (Kleiner, pp 279). Decorative walls with exquisite carvings and wall paintings became popular. In the late Byzantine Empire mural paintings depicting Christ were the representation of art such as the painting in the Church of Christ in Chora (Kleiner, pp 288).

  • Ancient Greece: What is the Canon of Polykleitos, and how does it shape the representation of the body in classical art?

In literal terms canon here means a rule (of proportion). The ancients Greeks were of the mindset that anything can be made “beautiful” if it was constructed with accurate proportions and size. So, they needed a canon of proportion to make the accurate human figure and for buildings too. The fifth century sculptor then wrote a disquisition (or “treatise”) called the Canon of Polykleitos where he described his formula for the perfectly proportionate human statue. Another ancient philosopher, Pythagoras of Samos, also believed that beauty lied in harmony of numeric ratios. Polykleitos then followed the same reasoning to come up with the perfect statue which was based on mathematical formula (Kleiner, pp 131). Symmetry played a huge role in his philosophy, every body part was in some sort of symmetry to each other. He built a statue on the basis of his formula and called it Canon(Kleiner, pp 131).

Hence, the human body in Greek classical art is viewed as a product of perfection and precision of design and mathematics. After a Polykleitos, Lysippos followed the same footsteps and sculpted the human body which were slightly slender than Polykleitos and also their heads one-eighth the size of the body rather than one-seventh as it was previously. Lysippos work was also very well celebrated so much so that he made the portrait for Alexander the Great. Overall, both sculptors showed athleticism energy in their statues where Lysippos were more about showing different angles (apoxyomenos) rather the Polykleitos (Doryphoros). so, conclusively, the depiction of the human body is one that is athletic and perfectly balanced in terms of physical, mental or spiritual aspects (Kleiner, pp 146).



Section 2

  • New Media and Technology: With reference to three illustrations from three different periods covered so far in the class, how do media and/or specific technologies make innovations in art/architecture possible?

Media and technology have always played an important role in the betterment of how things are conducted or structured. Technology helps in bringing innovation. It has been doing so since the beginning of time. From cave men till the present day, we all have been influenced by different kinds of technology which have updated the life around us, mostly for the better than not. Similarly, emergence of new technologies had the same effect on art and architecture throughout various historical periods. Technology helped art and architecture evolve.

Neolithic Age

The first example of this can be seen from the new stone age or the Neolithic Age (9000-2300 BC), where people learned the art of making stone temples, like the GobekliTepe in Anatolia, and sculptures. Unlike previously when most of the art from the Paleolithic age wasn’t able to survive because it comprised mostly of small figurines and images on cave walls. In the new stone age, art is seen to be taking a more solidified form large sculptures and life-size skulls. It was the age of tools such as the ax, adz heads, chisels, and gouges which were made up of stones. They even learned how to polish the tools with abrasives. Pottery art emerged as well which brought the technology of metalworking. Eventually metal tools and weapons emerged as well such as copper and bronze. This technology spread fast. Today we still use evolved and modernized versions of these tools in our daily lives and they have contributed a lot, obviously, for art and architecture (Kleiner, pp 24)

The Roman Empire

The second example can be given from the Roman Empire. Amazing buildings and architectural masterpieces that were built during the Roman empire were the product of technological innovation and advancement in concrete technology. Such as the Pompeii Amphitheatre, it is the oldest example of Roman concrete technology (Kleiner, 192). Another is the Hadrian’s Pantheon which is another marvel of concrete technology and also the largest ancient dome (Kleiner, pp 216). France was known to be the center of innovation in these regards. It is said that the architects of the Holy Roman empire have led the way when it comes to extraordinary and exquisite large buildings. Ever since the romans introduced the world to the use of concrete, we have been dependent on it ever since. It has become an integral part of architecture. Not only this but romans used concrete also to build marine structures to safeguard their harbors which withstood erosive salt water for over 2000 years. Even in the present day, it is difficult to recreate such masterpieces or to even land with the type of concrete romans used. Science is trying to explain its resilience. The recipe romans used to make their concrete was such that the product could with stand harsh environmental conditions such as seawater that our present-day concrete cannot. The mixture included volcanic ash, seawater, lime, and volcanic rock. Traces of another mineral called aluminous tobermorite was also found in it. This mineral is very difficult to create in lab settings even today and is thought to be responsible for the resilience in the concrete.

China in 1200s

The emergence and evolution of paints has also of course, been very relevant and important to the world of art. Some of the earliest forms of paintings can be dated back to the 13th century China. Mural paintings were found in caves (Kleiner, pp 485). They used round tapered brush, soot-based ink, and silk or paper to either write or draw. They were very skilled when it came to contouring and interior details. Furthermore, the Chinese also used richly colored minerals as substitutes for pigments, “finelyground and suspendedin a gluey medium, and watery washesof mineral and vegetable dyes.” (Kleiner, pp 489) They used handscrolls, hanging rolls, dry leaves and holding fans to make drawings. The paints made with naturally occurring materials such as minerals, saps et cetera have now been replaced by synthetic paints.

The technology that we are surrounded with today can all be related back to the ancient periods. Ancient people were the ones who came up with the ideas and inventions that we have evolved and bettered for our use today. Technology and media are constantly evolving and with them so has art and architecture.


  • Group and Personal Identity: With reference to three illustrations from three different periods covered so far in the class, how have art/architecture aimed to consolidate group and/or personal identity?

Art and architecture play an important role in showcasing the identity of a group or a society. Throughout history we have seen how different eras had distinctive features and characteristics in their way of expression which was in the form of different types of arts whether it be writing, paintings, sculptors or architecture. In fact, it is through their art that we know them today and we are able to make judgements regarding their societal structures and cultures. Some of the identities that can be understood through art are related to gender and religion. Examples of their depictions can be seen through various historical periods such as the Roman Empire and the Islamic world.

The Roman Empire

We will talk about some characteristics of the Roman Empire that can be extracted from particular sculptures. For example, in Republican Rome the noble families (patricians) or more particularly their men, were differentiated from the common roman masses if they had self-sculptures and portraits. Which is why many unique statues can be found dated back to even the first century BC such as the statue of a man wearing a Toga and holding thebusts of his father and grandfather. The toga represents the badge of citizenship in Rome(Kleiners, pp 187).

Another important observation was that most portraits were of men of older ages. This shows that women were not associated with the same levels of nobility as men. They were found only occasionally. This also shows that only elder men had power in the Roman Republic. The sculptures also do not appear to be making those men any handsomer. In fact, they often exaggerated their less attractive features such as baldness and wrinkles, or just their actual distinctive features. For example, the portrait of the head of priest. It is highly detailed with all the unique facial features. Such portraits also show that traits such as seriousness, determination, loyalty were admired virtues in the Roman empire(Kleiners, pp 188).


Apart from noble man, sculptures and portraits were commissioned by ordinary people as well especially slaves. This depicts how slavery was common in the roman empire. Rich people owned hundreds of slaves but even the poor people could afford to have one or two as well. The practice was really common in the roman world. Some of the slaves were freed but many died in the service of their owners old or new. Some prominent artworks were those that were commissioned by freedmen or freedwomen. One such relief shows two men and one woman, all called Gessius. In the centre is their owner. The slaves are the property of their owners and even after they were freed, they could not serve in the Roman army despite earning the title of people. The relief portrays their gratitude to their ex-owner for granting them freedom (Kleiners, pp 190).

The Islamic World

The Islamic world also has forms of artistic expressions that portray the image of different aspects of Islamic society and identity of muslims. The rise of Islam brought a whole new world of art and architecture and traditions. So much so that it replaced the old Greece-Roman art in the Middle East and North Africa. While in India, Islamic rule brought Islamic art and architecture in South Asia. One of the most famous buildings of Islamic architecture is in fact the Taj Mahal in Agra, India (Kleiners, pp 293).


Moreover, most of Islamic architecture is focused on mosques which entails that the muslim faith and religious practices were very important and celebrated. Mosques were more than just centres for worship. They were also the place where social gatherings and meetings were held. Islam brought about a completely new unique way of life as compared to its predecessors and that reflected in the art and architecture created by Muslim artists. Calligraphy (of Quranic verses often) is a very prominent part of Islamic art. It was seen in paintings, carvings, on walls et cetera. One would not find a lot of human sculptures of paintings in Islamic art as they Would in, for example, Roman art. This is because it was discouraged in Islam to draw or recreate the human form according to the belief that this ability only lies within the hands of God. A lot of copies of the scripture of the Quran were made as a form of art as well. they were made exquisitely with gold and other patterns (Kleiner, pp 305).


Section 3

In a reflective paragraph (100 words or less) describe how your position on, or feeling about the history of art has been altered by what you’ve seen and read so far in the class.

We often tend to underestimate the importance of history because we are too concerned about the present or the future. We forget that our presents and our future have been derived from historical events in the first place. History of art allows us to enter the culture and society of those whose history we study. It allows us to join the pieces together regarding the past and its people. Previously I did not see its relevance as I do now after having studied it. It is not only intriguing but mind-opening towards undiscovered perspectives that go unnoticed by the naked eye.


kleiner, fred s. Gardner’ s Art Through The Ages: A Global History. Boston : Cengage, 2020.





In your discussion-topic paper, identify the page number of the passage you are writing about and then explain what caught your interest and why, your impressions of what’s being conveyed, and even if you are only trying to understand something confusing about a passage and would like to raise questions about it to follow up on later in class. Write informally, there being no rigid structure to follow, and write in a conversational style appropriate for academic communication, i.e., no cursing, slang, texting shortcuts, emoji, etc. So, despite the informality, do write with a sense of logical purpose and concentration, communicating clearly, precisely, and effectively in standard English prose. I’ll see how you fare with this Monday’s batch, and, as needed, will provide further instructions to the group or to individuals. 

  1. 2. Part 2, chapter VII, page 253-278

Chapter seven starts a new turmoil on the protagonist Raskolnikov as he is reminded of his own accident when he sees the incident that happens to Marmeladoy. Here it is very interesting to note that Raskolnikov’s compassion overshadows his other selfish worldly desires as he helps the man and even pays him money to help Katerina. This part is highly important as it reveals that even though Raskolnikov is a murderer but despite that, he is compassionate and is actually very tender from the inside as he despite being in an economically hard position, still helps the poor family out and from the money that his mother gave him for his own expense. This part humanizes Raskolnikov’s character and strengthens it by adding dimensions and showing that he is not just a heartless being but is actually far more than that.

This also reveals a universal message that the author Dostoyevsky wanted to convey to his writers that humans are not simple beings who are merely good or bad but are profoundly complex in their behaviors, values, thoughts and ultimately actions as well. For instance, the protagonist can make sense of the murder he committed but cannot face seeing the suffering of another human being.

The metaphorical importance of the part when Raskolnikov is drenched with blood while aiding Marmeladov is very significant. It is important because it draws interesting parallels between the blood that granted him a moral dilemma and the blood that gave him life in a way. The former being the blood on his hands from the murder of Alyona and the latter being when he decides to commit to an extremely good deed that brings back life to him to an extent.

The dialogue, “Life is real! haven’t I lived just now? My life has not yet died with that old woman!” reveals these feelings of his and convey the recurring theme of the dual nature of a human being who is a combination of both good and bad.

The ending of part two is important as the surprise visit from Raskolnikov’s mother and sister overwhelm him so much that he faints.

  1. Part IV, page 397-506

Part four reveals the protagonist’s views on religion and familial ties. This part brings with itself uncertainty for Raskolnikov as he cannot differentiate if he is dreaming or not because his sense of morality has clouded his reality of the world. This part plays a crucial role in developing the character of the protagonist as despite the fact that he leaves his family, mother and sister behind, he asks his trusted Razumikhin to take care of them in his absence. This shows that the protagonist Is actually sincere from the inside but still has some weak spots and it is this dual nature of the character that makes him realistic and this portrayal is possible thorough the genius of Dostoyevsky’s writing.

It is important to note that this part also marks the redemption of Raskolnikov as he leaves his family behind and goes to visit Sonya. Although this part shows us that Raskolnikov mocks Sonya’s faith but it must be kept in mind that what marks his character arch towards redemption is his absolute choice to go in the first place. He makes fun of Sonya’s faith because he does not really understand it. His condescending bahavior is also eveident when he talks to Porfiry but this exchange also reveals the protagonist’s inner change towards finding the path of change, towards salvation and redemption. Despite feeling superior in the starting conversations, his tone changes when he realizes that Porfiry knows much more than him and thus his air of superiority sheds.

It is when Nikolai discloses the fact that he brought about the murder, Raskolnikov understand what really is happening that Porfiry might be intellectually superior than him, but they have no solid evidence against him in the role he played in carrying out the murder of the old lady Ivanovna. This changes Raskolnikov’s behavior again but it must be acknowledged that this is the first time his character broke and hence although it might not be one hundred percent evident that Raskolnikov has redeemed himself, he definitely begun his journey towards a better path or at least had a glimpse of the right path.




Prompt 2

“The phrase ‘social distancing,’ which shows up in the film Contagion (2011), has dominated American reality over the past several months, leading to extraordinary modifications in our individual and collective behavior. But here’s a curious thing: when we look back through the works on our syllabus this term, it turns out that social distancing, in one form or another, has been with us for much longer that we might have realized–at least since Huck and Jim lit out for the raft in Adventures of Huckleberry Finn. Removing ourselves from specific ‘ill’ individuals and social groups, and from society as a whole, is a central American endeavor, in fact.”

Yes, I agree that the phrase ‘social distancing,’ shown in the film Contagion, has dominated American reality over the past several months, leading to extraordinary modifications in our individual and collective behavior. It has changed the way we interact with others. It has changed our overall attitude towards others. Workplaces have become remote, yet it is a fact if we look back through the works on our syllabus this term, it turns out that social distancing, in one form or another, has been with us for much longer than we might have realized yet this time it has become much more magnanimous as compared to older times. Unlike ancient times, this time, the people have reshaped their whole lifestyle, and the idea of social distancing is realized & accepted before the predicament is getting too complicated.

Yes, this is one thing that we were unable to remove ourselves from specific ‘ill’ individuals. That is a predicament that we most certainly are unable to comprehend. These ill individuals are a part of our lives in many different predicaments. The movie contagion is almost dangerously close to the idea of explaining social groups and social distancing. The concept of social distancing in the current predicament as a solution to this is not a Central American endeavor, as per the film as well as it started in China, just like the in global pandemic being faced by us across the world. The movie clearly communicates the epidemic transmitted through socializing.

The movie explains the importance of social distancing in a predicament as such. The film as an example of how it can spread, which the movie tells as well as how it’s covering can be minimized. It was eerie if we see the movie Contagion. One of the peculiar things about the film is that even though it recognizes all our fears, yet the idea that it is not a movie theater but watching it at home gives a different sense. The feeling that it could have happened to us, and we are sitting in a socially distant environment is highly comforting.

In the light of this predicament, they are concerning it as a movie that can make people germ-o-phoebes after the mess is over can occur. Hence the importance & relevance of the film is pertinent. Even the first sound from the movie is of the actress coughing. How relevant is that as corona starts with the same characteristics. It is true that this phobia impacted a great deal upon the American lifestyle & made them modify their lifestyles to a considerable extent in the light of the social distancing rule & regulations. These regulations, despite their relevance, have proven to be highly effective. While referring to the syllabus, there are a lot of relevant notions as well.

From the short story, “Soldiers Home,” there was a scene where Kerb came back to his town and saw girls already made up alliances. People had changed a lot & they were looking at him differently. This social distancing had made people make new friends. (Hemingway) Relating to that, it is integral to realize the impact it is going to leave on society. The Soldier came home after fighting in the First World War & saw that the whole predicament had changed. It is relatable to how I think the relationships will change over the coming few years. The world had turned into very socially active, yet there were communication gaps. Staying at home and keeping this sort of social distance will impact the whole society & people will realize the importance of having real-life relationships.

Kerb, upon his return, turned anti-social himself & the war had changed a lot in him as well, turning him into someone who stays at home a lot. The girls of his time had grown up, yet h decided to stay away from them. His whole idea of the world after the war had changed as he had lost all his interest in politics & court order. He was turning into this sort of a person with no goals & aims. His life had scattered. This is one aspect of the social distancing that I understand is harmful & unhealthy. It does make the person lazy & that is very dangerous considering the pace of modern-day society.

If the collective behavior of the society turns out to be negative, it can adversely impact the whole predicament & soon as the lockdown is over, the entire world would turn upside down. As per this example, Kerb’s story & the impact this social distancing had on him indicates how the fear of the world post the pandemic would turn out. How the people will act & how the overall situation will be is what fears the most. The psychology of the people living in the society might change & this will impact the whole lifestyle of each community. Removal of the ‘ill’ individuals and social groups is an element whose value is undeniable.

With the modern-day idea of social distancing, each one of us had a chance to take a break from the routine & rethink our choices. It helps us plan the coming years & with time as people have turned into strategists, our decisions have also become like these. The people that we want to stay away from can be listed skipped from our social groups and circles post this lockdown. It can e concluded on the notion that, Yes, this social distancing has impacted our lives in many ways. It has changed the fabric of our whole society and the impact that these extraordinary modifications in our individual and collective behavior will be more visible now. The contemporary moment and earlier historical moments evoked in our course texts have certain similarities & differences that can’t be denied. It is still mere speculation regarding how the world would be. Only time will tell regarding that, depict the differences in society from where it was till it comes to normal.

Works Cited


Contagion. Dir. Steven Soderbergh. Perf. Matt Damon. 2011. 8 5 2020.

Hemingway, Ernest. Soldiers Home. 1925.




The word metaphysics is derived from Aristotelian works and is defined differently by many. Generally, it means the stream of the academia of Philosophy that deals with the reality’s nature. There are many differences and similarities between the concept’s modern and contemporary approaches.

One of the significant differences is that where the modern metaphysics might be limited to “obstinate attempts to think clearly and consistently” (James), the contemporary metaphysics is harder to define as it encompasses more areas such as actions and behavioral patterns that make the term harder to frame in a limited way. Moreover, the evolution of metaphysics expands to a vast period, and the contemporary philosophy’s “hyper-specialization” of presenting a big picture of the concept poses an issue (Moore). The modern version delves into lesser oversimplification. On the other hand, one of the significant similarities between modern and contemporary is the intention behind studying the branch: getting to know the nature of the world and the present humans in it. This similarity unites the different periods’ version of metaphysics firmly.

The renowned German philosopher Martin Heidegger left a mark in the field of philosophy, especially about hermeneutics, phenomenology, and particularly existentialism. His existentialist concepts reject the notion of dualism while focusing more on holism by disregarding the duality between body and mind, including the theories of “consciousness,” “experience,” and “mind.” He stressed the concept of Dasein that is a German word meaning “being there”. His work primarily deals with finding authenticity or Eigentlichkeit that is German for “own-ness” by taking an ontological approach.

His work “magnum opus Being and Time” searches for the meaning that is given to the concept of “being” and its connection with a human. He posits that this search only occurs because of the personal questions. Dasein exists because it is the “place” where the Being is found. This idea is different from the traditional school of thought that proposes that the existence of Being is possible as the “substantial” pulls together all the bodies and entities (Aristotle). The idea of Dasein encompasses the “way” human being is, as Heidegger mentioned, “The essence of Dasein lies in its existence.”

Moreover, the theorist argues that the concept and the manifestation of Dasein are unlike that of any substance in the sense that the former is not fixed while the latter is. This can be evidence using a human being as they acquire unfixed variable places and locations. It appears that the site Dasein acquires might be virtual, and that is not to say that it is not real or empty. Here virtuality entails that the place and space consist being that ontologically permit for Dasein. Dasein and the world we live are interconnected: Dasein cannot exist absolutely without the world, and neither can the world exist without Dasein as it allows for the experience that is necessary to feel the existence.

The existentialists look towards feelings such as anxiety to enhance their points. Anxiety isolates the Being as it builds up “angst” that triggers the feeling of loneliness, and that leads to the Being individualizing itself. Heidegger believes that a significant method to grasp the concept of Dasein in its original form is to expose it in the field of human being “moods.” This entails that Dasein is embedded in the idea of moods. Existence is not merely confirmed by the fact that human beings can think (Descartes) but is actually cemented by the fact that human feelings such as anxiety suggest the existence of self and being. Hence, human moods are given sheer importance in the concept of explaining existentialism.

The teachings of Heidegger are recognized in academia, and the French philosopher Jean-Paul Sartre has some similar teachings, but there are some areas of dissimilarity as well. The similarities in their works are there as well. Both appeared to be inspired by the great philosopher Edmund Husserl. Sartre encountered his writing in his youth and got attracted to phenomenology. Likewise, the works of Heidegger are suggestive of the fact that he too was a follower of Edmund Husserl, but the views of Sartre and Heidegger diverge when the latter’s works omit the usage of consciousness. Where the concept of consciousness can be traced in Heidegger’s works, he never utilized the direct usage of this word. However, on the other hand, Sartre rigorously used this concept, especially its offshoot idea of “intentionality.” Sartre’s view of the idea suggests that “consciousness is not to be identified with a thing (for example, a mind, soul or brain), that is to say, some repository of ideas and images of things. Rather, consciousness is nothing but a directedness towards things”. He believes that the notion of consciousness is not a substance; that is a bit similar to Heidegger’s ideas. Sartre recognizes the existence of humans as “for-itself” and the beings as “in-itself.” This puts his ideals forwards that consciousness might be considered as “nothingness” as it does not encompass the idea of “being conscious of.” This elaborates that if it is established that consciousness is not a “thing,” usual natural laws do not apply to it, particularly when it is not limited by the restrictions of “identity” and is not a “substance.”

Sartre believes that “Intentionality” exhibits itself. He points out the distinctive features of the passive, “static,” and “active desire and want of a being to not only observe and see the world but also be a participant and project him/her self. He gives the example of marriage: if one intends to commit in matrimony, then a commitment is required that becomes the part of life, but it works in two ways: by becoming a part of oneself and by becoming a part of the partner. However, the act may appear to be authentic. There is underlying inauthenticity involved concerning the act of projecting one’s own self. The person displays him/her self as being “married” in the future, such as being a fixed entity. This is where the tension arises. The act of projecting oneself in the future entails absolute freedom that is actually not there. Hence, this proposes the view of imbalance that the person appears to be what he/she really is not. However, contrarily, the projection also entails that “something” is being projected, and the fact that it is a thing that suggests the insufficiencies in the projection. The projection is indicative of both freedom and otherwise. Here, the act becomes preposterous, and the concept of “existential anxiety” surfaces because the being tries to contradict itself by aiming to become “for-itself-in-itself” as the act of freedom is proclaimed by a thing that is limited by its very nature of being a “thing.” Hence, Sartre believes that the existence of humans is in a persistent state of disconnection by delving towards its inauthentic self. Another similarity is found in the points of Sartre and Heidegger as the former’s ideas resonate with the latter’s ideas of inauthenticity being present.

The extent of their dis-similarity can be proved by the exchange of letters they had in the 1940s. Sartre, in his famous lecture titled “Existentialism is a Humanism,” suggested that the actions of humans are the definitive factor that defines his/her humanity. When another theorist, Jean Beaufret, wrote a letter to Heidegger inquiring about the connection he suggested existed between the existence of human beings, Heidegger’s response suggests that he denied the French form of existentialism that suggests the great divide between Sartre and Heidegger’s ideological conception of the concept. It is important to note that although Heidegger rejected to be recognized as an existentialist in the letter, it is commonly understood that he was addressing the French version of it as his many works and lectures point in the other direction as he gives the examples of moods, “anxiety,” “existence” and “crowd” to prove existence.


Sartre and Heidegger also disagree on the nature of the existence of Being. Sartre’s views are in sync with the traditional aspects of Descartes. It is to be noticed that from the view of Heidegger, Sartre’s view on existence resulted from the ideals and values presented in the humanism movement of the Renaissance era that propelled the human feelings to stick to a supreme level. Sartre’s definition of existence entails that a human is whereas Heidegger’s definition incorporates the language of Dasein that is in a state of connection with the world, and the nature of that connection is inseparable. “Man is not the lord of beings. Man is the shepherd of Being” (Heidegger 1993:245). This confirms the difference in the philosophers’ differences in the way they perceive existence, and hence their differences in the theories of existentialism arise.


It is interesting to note that even basic knowledge about human existence is still a hot topic in philosophy, and the transition from modern to contemporary metaphysics might seem subtle, but when looked carefully is reflective of the changes brought by time. The content on existentialism is essential in understanding the human world and can help in answering many crucial debating topics, including the necessity of material things for a thing. Also, the ideas discussed to shed light on the broader debate surrounding God and Immortality as the ideas of internal and external appearances and presences are brilliantly described by both Heidegger and Sartre. Hence, we can study these debates and teachings not only for their intended purpose but also for solving individualized daily life dilemmas efficiently.


Moore, A.W., (2012) The Evolution of Modern Metaphysics: Making Sense of Things

Hazlett, Allan, Contemporary Metaphysics

Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy

Encyclopedia Britannica

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