Every individual idealizes some other individual and sees them as a leader. We often need some leadership figures in our lives because they motivate us to become better people and be more productive (Ramanaiah, Balaji, 2012). There are very different types of leaders with various leadership styles and they appeal to us for different reasons based on our personality traits and passions in life. One such leader that inspires me is Bill gates. In this paper, I will be talking about Bill Gates and his leadership style.


Bill Gates is one of the most well-known individuals on this planet and he is known for all the right reasons. He was born in 1955 in Seattle in the United States. His real name is in fact, William Henry Gates III. Today Bill Gates is a business magnate who has to build his empire through his love for software programming. Ever since a little kid, Gates loved computers and had a passion for them. So, at just the young age of thirteen, he learned about computers and started working on programming mainframe computers. While attending college at Harvard, Bill Gates was successful in creating his very own BASIC computer programming language. Soon afterward he began his venture of Microsoft with a friend named Paul Allen. By 1981, this partnership led to Microsoft becoming an incorporated company that sold computer operating systems that today we use in almost every personal computer by the name of Microsoft Windows and Microsoft office (Bellis, 2020).

Amassing this empire and becoming a billionaire wasn’t something that Gates achieved overnight. It took a lot of hard work. He was an amazing leader who led not only himself but his workforce to achieve the level at which they are today. He did not exactly start in a way we would picture a leader in our minds which only makes him more awe-inspiring. Bill Gates dropped out of college to follow his dream and took risks with only his knowledge and creativity to get by. Due to these qualities, I am inspired by him. We are often told to follow a strict path that is not only stereotypical but also not guaranteed to be successful. I applaud him for creating his path, breaking the norms.

Leadership style and strengths

From amongst the different leadership styles, the one most befitting for Bill Gates is that of a transformational leader. A translational leader is one who follows a powerful vision with fervor and passion for his work. The energy he surrounds himself with as a product of his passion is what inspires others to follow him as well. Transformational leaders encourage effort on a personal and individual level. So, motivation is more directly transmitted on an individual level from the leader to those below him. In this way, they reach the result with a clear path in mind (Mauri, 2017).

Transformational leadership came naturally to Bill Gates.He is an exemplary leader. He is very focused on what he is good at and made that into his business. he has clear goals and picture in mind that he works towards. He makes a clear line of action that he follows and preaches others to follow. All the goals he sets are practical and approachable. Progress is achieved one step at a time rather than a leap. He inspires a vision for others and models a unique way for them to follow. He promotes creativity and innovation on an individual level. So, he enables others to act and to face challenges rather than being laid back in comfort zones. At the same time, Gates is also compassionate and caring. This quality of his also one of my favorites. He supports not only his workforce and strengthens them but is also very charitable. He has contributed billions in philanthropic efforts for various worldly causes and yet he has a very down to earth and humble personality (The Lancet, 2005). So, he is not only a good leader when it comes to business but also as a teacher and as the head of a social charitable organization. He is always looking for something new to learn. In his leadership style, learning and acquiring more knowledge does not stop (Sahin, Cubuk, Uslo, 2014).


On the other hand, it is also important to understand that to err is human and after all Bill Gates is also a human. He has some weaknesses that he can work upon to become an even better leader. Identifying one’s weaknesses and working on them is a leadership quality in itself. For Bill Gates, arrogance is a weakness. Being as passionate as an individual he is, it is difficult for him to consider his ideas wrong or not the best. He should be able to consider other ideas for the betterment of his company. As a transformational leader, he is also very results-driven. He focuses on the end goal only rather than on the process that leads to the goal. This can cause losing track of the steps needed to achieve the result. lastly, Gates wants everyone to be on the same page as a transformational leader but this is not always easy to achieve and may cause conflicts. Gates needs to work on facing these conflicts heads-on rather than ignoring them (Patching, 2011).


All in all, Bill Gates is an extraordinary leader. It is underestimation to say that it is hard to be the kind of leader that he is. If only he could include a little patience in his leadership recipe, he would be nothing less than a perfect leader.


Bill Gates: a 21st century Robin Hood? (2005, March 12). The Lancet365, 911.

Şahin, D. R., Çubuk, D., &Uslu, T. (2014). The effect of organizational support, transformational leadership, personnel empowerment, work engagement, performance, and demographical variables on the factors of psychological capital. EMAJ: Emerging Markets Journal3(3), 1-17.

Mauri, T. (2017). Why leadership styles matter. Strategic Direction.

Patching, K. (2011). Throw away that leadership competency model. Industrial and Commercial Training.

Ramanaiah, G. (2012). Leaders and Managers: A Quality Perspective in the Corporate World. Journal of Entrepreneurship and Management1(2), 41.

Bellis, M. (2020, January 31). Biography of Bill Gates, Co-Founder of Microsoft. Retrieved from



Prompt 2

“The phrase ‘social distancing,’ which shows up in the film Contagion (2011), has dominated American reality over the past several months, leading to extraordinary modifications in our individual and collective behavior. But here’s a curious thing: when we look back through the works on our syllabus this term, it turns out that social distancing, in one form or another, has been with us for much longer that we might have realized–at least since Huck and Jim lit out for the raft in Adventures of Huckleberry Finn. Removing ourselves from specific ‘ill’ individuals and social groups, and from society as a whole, is a central American endeavor, in fact.”

Yes, I agree that the phrase ‘social distancing,’ shown in the film Contagion, has dominated American reality over the past several months, leading to extraordinary modifications in our individual and collective behavior. It has changed the way we interact with others. It has changed our overall attitude towards others. Workplaces have become remote, yet it is a fact if we look back through the works on our syllabus this term, it turns out that social distancing, in one form or another, has been with us for much longer than we might have realized yet this time it has become much more magnanimous as compared to older times. Unlike ancient times, this time, the people have reshaped their whole lifestyle, and the idea of social distancing is realized & accepted before the predicament is getting too complicated.

Yes, this is one thing that we were unable to remove ourselves from specific ‘ill’ individuals. That is a predicament that we most certainly are unable to comprehend. These ill individuals are a part of our lives in many different predicaments. The movie contagion is almost dangerously close to the idea of explaining social groups and social distancing. The concept of social distancing in the current predicament as a solution to this is not a Central American endeavor, as per the film as well as it started in China, just like the in global pandemic being faced by us across the world. The movie clearly communicates the epidemic transmitted through socializing.

The movie explains the importance of social distancing in a predicament as such. The film as an example of how it can spread, which the movie tells as well as how it’s covering can be minimized. It was eerie if we see the movie Contagion. One of the peculiar things about the film is that even though it recognizes all our fears, yet the idea that it is not a movie theater but watching it at home gives a different sense. The feeling that it could have happened to us, and we are sitting in a socially distant environment is highly comforting.

In the light of this predicament, they are concerning it as a movie that can make people germ-o-phoebes after the mess is over can occur. Hence the importance & relevance of the film is pertinent. Even the first sound from the movie is of the actress coughing. How relevant is that as corona starts with the same characteristics. It is true that this phobia impacted a great deal upon the American lifestyle & made them modify their lifestyles to a considerable extent in the light of the social distancing rule & regulations. These regulations, despite their relevance, have proven to be highly effective. While referring to the syllabus, there are a lot of relevant notions as well.

From the short story, “Soldiers Home,” there was a scene where Kerb came back to his town and saw girls already made up alliances. People had changed a lot & they were looking at him differently. This social distancing had made people make new friends. (Hemingway) Relating to that, it is integral to realize the impact it is going to leave on society. The Soldier came home after fighting in the First World War & saw that the whole predicament had changed. It is relatable to how I think the relationships will change over the coming few years. The world had turned into very socially active, yet there were communication gaps. Staying at home and keeping this sort of social distance will impact the whole society & people will realize the importance of having real-life relationships.

Kerb, upon his return, turned anti-social himself & the war had changed a lot in him as well, turning him into someone who stays at home a lot. The girls of his time had grown up, yet h decided to stay away from them. His whole idea of the world after the war had changed as he had lost all his interest in politics & court order. He was turning into this sort of a person with no goals & aims. His life had scattered. This is one aspect of the social distancing that I understand is harmful & unhealthy. It does make the person lazy & that is very dangerous considering the pace of modern-day society.

If the collective behavior of the society turns out to be negative, it can adversely impact the whole predicament & soon as the lockdown is over, the entire world would turn upside down. As per this example, Kerb’s story & the impact this social distancing had on him indicates how the fear of the world post the pandemic would turn out. How the people will act & how the overall situation will be is what fears the most. The psychology of the people living in the society might change & this will impact the whole lifestyle of each community. Removal of the ‘ill’ individuals and social groups is an element whose value is undeniable.

With the modern-day idea of social distancing, each one of us had a chance to take a break from the routine & rethink our choices. It helps us plan the coming years & with time as people have turned into strategists, our decisions have also become like these. The people that we want to stay away from can be listed skipped from our social groups and circles post this lockdown. It can e concluded on the notion that, Yes, this social distancing has impacted our lives in many ways. It has changed the fabric of our whole society and the impact that these extraordinary modifications in our individual and collective behavior will be more visible now. The contemporary moment and earlier historical moments evoked in our course texts have certain similarities & differences that can’t be denied. It is still mere speculation regarding how the world would be. Only time will tell regarding that, depict the differences in society from where it was till it comes to normal.

Works Cited


Contagion. Dir. Steven Soderbergh. Perf. Matt Damon. 2011. 8 5 2020.

Hemingway, Ernest. Soldiers Home. 1925.




 Annotated Bibliography


Camacho, M., & Palmieri, G. (2019). Do economic recessions cause inequality to rise? Journal

Of Applied Economics, 22(1), 304-320. doi:10.1080/15140326.2019.1620982

This study applies the local projection approach to analyse the economic recession’s impact on income inequality. It elaborates the difference created by the economic depression between the rich and the poor. This is also a major concern of most interviewees regarding how it can impact the overall wellbeing of the people in a society. The economic recession in the long run negatively impacts the lives of the people and it widens this divide amongst the rich and the poor. This study will help in understanding the reasons of rise in inequality due to recession. It will also point out towards the steps that need to be taken in order to minimize the damage of economic recession in terms of economic inequality.

THE, A. P. (2009, Sep 29). Recession widens gap between rich, poor. Charleston Daily

Mail Retrieved from

This study elaborates how the widening of the gap amongst the wealthy and the poor affects the society on a larger scale. This paper explains the effect upon the US middle-income households due to the economic gap that keep on growing. How the Household incomes have fallen across all income groups. It elaborates how some cities, were affected less as those cities are different in nature. Hence the gap varies from city to city. Big cities like Atlanta, New York, San Francisco Washington, Miami and Chicago were the ones with the most inequality. This article will help understand how there is more and less economic differences between these cities. Hence it elaborates how the economic recessions keep growing in some cities while not applicable in some other cities.




Burgard, S. A., & Kalousova, L. (2015). Effects of the great recession: Health and wellbeing. Annual Review of Sociology, 41(1), 181-201. doi:10.1146/annurev-soc-073014-112204

This study elaborates a gap as per the latest evidences linking recession to population’s health and wellbeing. Unemployment is one of the major problems brought on by the global crisis. This article is showing that employment losses since the recession are worse and how economic hardships and joblessness also contribute to poor health. Suicide rates have also increased in many parts of the country. Some studies indicate that people who undergo the issues in labor markets, housing that proliferate in the time of recession suffers adverse health effects. On the other handsome studies show that mortality rate declined soon as the economic predicament worsens. In the light of new results, this analysis synthesizes the evidence from distinct research and traditions.

Zorn, M. L., Norman, P. M. (2017). Cure or curse: Does downsizing increase the likelihood of bankruptcy? Journal of Business Research, 76, 24-33. doi:10.1016/j.jbusres.2017.03.006

Downsizing is a growing global practice, but researches done on the downsizing effects have generated mixed findings. To add to this discussion, they point out regarding corporate reforms in order to examine how the large-scale changes involved in downsizing have adverse effects on businesses. These effects are hard to reverse and eventually raise the risk of bankruptcy. Businesses are cutting jobs to cut costs. The approach will reduce the company’s chance of bankruptcy. Downsizing also raises the risk of losing the job. But downsizing may not be the right way to do it. The article notes that unemployment will also boost a company’s risk of bankruptcy.

Wei. (2019). International talent inflow and R&D investment: Firm-level evidence from China.

Economic Modelling.

Companies adopt the practice of Downsizing to reduce the impact of recession. Companies will rely on benchmarks for talent. This literature will reinforce my idea regarding the impact of hiring new talent for making the predicament better. Highly qualified workers with bilingual backgrounds may be able to improve productivity. Adding to that it plays a significant role in the process of specializing on cross-border knowledge.

Evidence for: The government should control economic development.

Camacho, M., & Palmieri, G. (2019). Do economic recessions cause inequality to rise? Journal of Applied Economics, 22(1), 304-320. doi:10.1080/15140326.2019.1620982

  1. Camacho conducted a systematic survey of 43 countries from 1960 through 2016; they used a local prediction method to examine the impact of economic recessions. Even though they recognize both the business-cycle and the growth-cycle recessions, yet once controls are applied to the model, yet fail to find evidence of substantial impact of recession on income distribution. The Great Recession sparked a renewed interest in the possible actions of inequality in the business cycle. Atkinson and Morelli, among others, realized that banking crises appeared to end up with increases in income inequality. The economic recession in the long run negatively impacts the lives of the people, and it widens this divide amongst the rich and the poor. The unequal distribution of income, regardless of the efforts made by anyone, disrupts society. This study will help in understanding the reasons for the rise in inequality due to recession. It will also point out the steps that need to be taken to minimize the damage to the economic downturn in terms of economic inequality. (Camacho, 2019) Hence the government should correctly control the economic development and make efforts to reduce the financial problems caused by economic inequality. The predicament can’t suddenly become perfect for everyone yet fact of the matter is, governments need to take control over the economic policies.

THE, A. P. (2009, Sep 29). Recession widens gap between rich, poor. Charleston Daily

Mail Retrieved from https://search-proquest-


Associated Press conducted a study that elaborates on how the widening of the gap amongst the wealthy and the poor affects the society on a larger scale. The recession has hit particularly the middle-income groups and those that are low-income families the hardest. It widens the economic divide between the wealthiest and poorest Americans as an immense amount of cuts have ravaged the household finances. Hence the economic downturns keep growing in some cities while not applicable in some other cities. The wealthiest American’s are just 10% of the economy. The ratio increased to 11.4 from 11.2%, which depicts the fact that the recession makes the more prosperous wealthy. The Median of incomes as compared to the previous years for middle-income groups also decreased from 52,163 USD to 50,303 USD. This negatively impacts the overall predicament and hit the bottom level back in 1997. Findings also depicted that people earning over 180,000 USD showed an increase of 3.58 the median income of the middle-income groups that was higher as compared to the other parts of the country. (A.P, 2009) These findings lead to the federal government making new rules for executive pays leading to the higher number of taxes to be implemented on these high-end income sources in health care. If government across the globe make reforms and the tax system is rectified, these issues can be reduced from occurring. The economic imbalance can be reduced from where it is now. This economic instability in the long-run negatively impacts the whole society.

Evidence of:  Business Failures

Zorn, M. L., Norman, P. M. (2017). Cure or curse: Does downsizing increase the likelihood of bankruptcy? Journal of Business Research, 76, 24-33.


M Zorn in this article elaborates that Downsizing is a growing global practice. Researches done on the impact of downsizing have generated mixed findings. To add to this discussion, these searchers did a viewpoint regarding corporate reforms in order to examine how the large-scale changes involved in downsizing have adverse effects on businesses. These effects are hard to reverse and eventually raise the risk of bankruptcy. Businesses are cutting jobs to cut costs. The approach will reduce the company’s chance of bankruptcy. Downsizing also raises the risk of losing the job. But downsizing may not be the right way to do it. The researchers also investigated what factors, if any, could minimize the probability. To do so, they build a resource-based view to imply that valuable resources will minimize the risk of bankruptcy triggered by downsizing. We consider support over a selection of publicly traded companies for our theorizing. With the unemployment rising, companies won’t be able to sustain as skilled workers will be leaving companies and this would end up making the whole predicament. As per the results of the study, downsizing companies are much more likely to declare bankruptcy than companies that are not engaged in downsizing, and that intangible resources are helping to minimize that possibility. The physical and financial capital is also very important in finding out the outcomes of the predicament yet there was no solid evidence found regarding these that aid in helping sort the predicament.

Evidence of:  Combating recession by hiring new talent

HaoWei. (2019). International talent inflow and R&D investment: Firm-level evidence from China.

Economic Modelling.

HaoWi in a study discusses the companies adopt the practice of downsizing with an aim to reduce the impact of recession. These companies rely on talent as their benchmarks. Highly qualified workers that have bilingual backgrounds may be able to improve productivity. Hence, the research found evidence that supports the idea of breaking barriers across the globe. These results stem from two mechanisms: getting talent from across the world & improving the development of human capital. It is also an integral to create a diversified labor force. Furthermore, the impact of promoting R&D is greater if companies are based in Eastern China rather than in other areas, that where there are small and medium-sized companies. The suggestion was regarding the inclusion of international talent that can aid in introducing innovation and creativity. (HaoWei, 2019) Immersive ideas will be generated that will ultimately impact the whole predicament in the long-run. Another element highlighted is the inclusion of R&D department. This department can aid in creating breakthroughs towards strategizing to generate maximum output from minimum budget. More and more skilled individuals can be introduced that aim to create a difference with their idea. This will not only help in fight predicaments such as recession by creating new jobs but also stop the overall system from collapsing.

Burgard, S. A., & Kalousova, L. (2015). Effects of the great recession: Health and wellbeing. Annual

Review of Sociology, 41(1), 181-201. doi:10.1146/annurev-soc-073014-112204


  1. Burgard, in its study, elaborates on the impact of the great recession: on the health and wellbeing of the people. Unemployment is the cause of stress and depression that negatively impacts the overall wellbeing of the general population of the country. Some studies have assessed the correlation between recessions and health by analyzing how the various patterns in measures of the economic cycle follow changing mortality or sickness levels. Reviews from the 1920s revealed the very counter-intuitive silver lining with lower average death rates during the times of recessions. Until then, a trend has been observed in the United States — through which the death rate rises through expansions and decreases in recessions. Unemployment is one of the major problems brought on by the global crisis. Suicide rates have also increased in many parts of the country. Hence serious measures need to be taken to control the overall predicament from worsening. Another element is that the economic downturns also affect government and local revenues, increasing pressure to curb budget deficits and reducing borrowing. Hence unemployment should be controlled by hiring new talent that can make a positive impact on the overall economic predicament. (Burgard, 2015) Unemployment should be controlled by hiring new talent that can make a positive impact on the overall economy.


Economic recession stands as one of the most devastating issues across the globe. The recession has many consequences that lead to overall economic instability in the country. It broadens the divide within society between the wealthy and the poor. The great recession that occurred in the 1930s had an overall impact on the economies across the world. The crises cost millions of people their jobs, and they lost their whole life savings. There was a decline in economic growth to an extent where people became bankrupt. Companies cut staff off to lower the expenditures. This approach will ease a financial problem for the client, yet this is a temporary solution, and leads are significant consequences of overall economic growth. The recent recession that started in the US from December 2007 had an adverse impact on the global economy. The unemployment rate has increased by 10%. (mlr, 2018) and many financial institutions also go bankrupt due to income disparities. The biggest problem with this crisis is unemployment & fresh students find it challenging to get a job. Employment pressures continue to rise that reduce the impact of the recession. Young talent that gradates is uncertain about the economic predicament and how it will impact their future. This study will explore how to reduce financial instability, the gap between rich and poor, and suggest solutions to counter unemployment.

Working thesis

Economic depression is inevitable in the course of economic development. Economic inequality, corporate financial crisis, and employment difficulties come side by side with economic depression wherever it occurs across the world. To minimize the challenge of business growth induced by the economic crisis, the government should be active in economic development activity, the university should allow the students to take internships in advance, and the organization should promote and use talent.


As per the findings, recession creates a difference between the rich and the poor. The research done by Atkinson and Morelli depicts the realization that the financial crisis appeared to end with increasing income inequality. In the long run, the economic crisis has a negative effect on people’s lives, and this divide among rich and poor is widened. The uneven distribution of wealth, regardless of anyone’s efforts, destabilizes the whole society. This research helps to explain why inequality is soaring, and it also points out the steps that need to be taken to minimize the damage due to the economic downturn in terms of economic inequality. The role of the governments should be to focus on improving the life quality of the masses. There is a need to control the economic development for only a few numbers of people. The distribution of wealth needs to be equal. The governments need to make efforts to reduce the financial problems being faced by the masses due to this economic inequality.

The recession has struck Middle-income groups and low-income families. It has widened the economic gap between the wealthiest and poorest Americans, as a large number of layoffs devastated household finances. Hence the economic downturns in some cities tend to rise while in some other cities they are not relevant. The wealthiest Americans are just 10 percent of the population.  The percentage rose from 11.2 percent to 11.4, which reflects the fact that the crisis is making the wealthy affluent. Compared to previous years, the median of income for middle-class classes also dropped from USD 52,163 to USD 50,303. This has a devastating impact on the prevailing situation and reached the lowest stage back in 1997. Hence recession helps in making the lives of rich people better. This is a point that needs to be addressed that the economic system should be made to strengthen the financial predicaments of the non-privileged as compared to the ones that already have a considerable amount of resources available.

Highly skilled new talent with bilingual experience can turn out to be a perfect addition to the economy. The impact of promoting R&D is more significant if companies are based in Eastern China rather than in other areas, that where there are small and medium-sized companies. The suggestion was regarding the inclusion of international talent that can aid in introducing innovation and creativity. With the inclusion of new and creative minds, the overall production quality can increase. Immersive ideas will be generated that will ultimately impact the whole predicament in the long-run. More and more talented young talented individuals that wish to make a difference with their concepts need to be hired. This would counter the issues such as unemployment and help generate new jobs but also deter the deterioration of the economy.

Unemployment is the cause of stress and depression, which adversely affects the overall health of the country’s general population. Any researchers have examined the link between unemployment and wellbeing by reviewing whether the changing trends of economic cycle indicators match increasing rates of death or illness. In the United States, a pattern has been identified so far — in which mortality rates increase across increases and decreases in recessions. Unemployment is one of the significant issues that the financial economy is producing. In other parts of the world, too, suicide rates have risen. Therefore drastic steps need to be taken to mitigate the aggravation of the overall situation. Another factor is that economic downturns can affect national and municipal budgets, rising pressure to reduce budget deficits. Unemployment also has an adverse impact on the health of the people that leads to psychological and other health issues as well.

In the long run, the global crisis has a negative effect on people’s lives. It is also adversely affected by the unfair distribution of income, irrespective of any effort made by everyone. There tends to be a rise in inequality due to recession. The disparity between rich and poor creates by the economic downturn is leather. It may affect the overall health of people within a community. The financial recession has a devastating impact on the lives of people in the long run. It is also adversely affected by the unequal distribution of profits, irrespective of any effort made by all. Despite the recession, inequality continues to increase. Hence steps need to be taken to make the overall economic predicament better.

Entrepreneurs need to fill in with their ideas and how the overall world economic predicament can be made better. The number of billionaires has increased over the years, yet so has the percentage of low-income groups. Adding to that, talent management is the key in order to make the best use of their skills. If talent is not hired and appointed for the skills that they are best at, that can also go to waste. Universities need to play a role in making it happen and send the students for internships to learn the business and make the best use of the knowledge they gain at schools to be applied to their jobs. The need to emphasize on shaping their minds as creative entrepreneurs that can end up generating new employment opportunities for others.


It can be concluded on the fact that the difference created by the economic depression between the rich and the poor is leather. It can impact the overall wellbeing of the people in a society. The economic recession in the long run negatively impacts the lives of the people. The unequal distribution of income, regardless of the efforts made by anyone, also affects it adversely. There tends to be a rise in inequality due to recession. Taxes need to be imposed in order to impact the whole economy. Unemployment is one of the significant issues that the financial economy is producing. In other parts of the world, too, suicide rates have risen. Therefore unemployment can be managed by hiring new talent who can come up with entrepreneurial ideas. It will also point out the steps that need to be taken to minimize the damage to the economic downturn in terms of economic inequality.

Furthermore, the widening of the gap amongst the wealthy and the poor affects the society on a larger scale—the US middle-income households due to the economic weakness that keeps on growing. The R & D department needs to be formed, fully incorporated, and their role should be designed in alliance with the skills of the team. This will help in maximizing the value of the team’s efforts. Yet the gap varies from city to city. Hence the economic recessions keep growing in some towns while not useful in a similar fashion in some other cities. Therefore extreme steps need to be taken to mitigate the aggravation of the situation caused by the recession.  Another factor is that economic downturns can have an effect on national and municipal budgets, rising pressure to reduce budget deficits. New talent needs to be incorporated in order to cater to the challenges, and entrepreneurship needs to be promoted in order to face and counter this predicament. This divide needs to stop; otherwise, it will keep creating a significant amount of unrest in the society.




A.P, T. (2009). Recession widens gap between rich, poor. Retrieved from

Burgard. (2015). Effects of the great recession: Health and well-being. Annual Review of Sociology, 181-201.

Camacho. (2019). Do economic recessions cause inequality to rise? Journal of Applied Economics, 304-320.

HaoWei. (2019). International talent inflow and R&D investment: Firm-level evidence from China. Economic Modelling.

mlr. (2018, 4). Great Recession, great recovery? Trends from the Current Population Survey. Retrieved from

Zorn, M. (2017). M. S. (2017). Cure or curse: Does downsizing increase the likelihood of bankruptcy? Journal of Business Research, 76, 24-33.




Executive summary

Punishment and degrading treatment are collective in jails and prisons. Some studies and courts view degrading treatment against human rights. This research essay entails the degrading treatment notion important to discard for some prisoners, an exception to severe criminals. The research about human rights, dignity, and respect illustrates key concepts about societal freedom, justice, and peace that should be followed. The current essay discusses the foundations of human rights and values required to maintain human dignity, even in prisons. The constitutionality of imprisonment is determined underage by the supreme court, no matter what is the sentence, offenders are to be treated with respect and provided due rights.

The research essay illustrates the role of degrading treatment in certain prisons of the UK and the US, where overcrowding is contributing to this notion. Imprisoned people are facing unhygienic conditions and no proper system to get food and medical aid. Judiciary favors human rights and highlights that if infliction of pain or excessive force is in good faith and not in a malicious way, it may be constitutional.


Degrading treatment is supposed to increase the social value of punishment. According to traditional research, this is true, and the punishment that comes from prisoners, any physical illness, or resentment of guards is not considered in the criminal justice system (Bersani& Doherty, 2018). In English criminal law, punishment is not explicitly defined. It is also not possible to determine the effective punishment ways. In literature, there is a long debate about criminal punishment. It is related to offenders’ perceptions and experiences. Criminal punishment is the correct amount of punishment imposed on criminals under different justifications.  A precursor to this issue is what counts as punishment or degrading behavior for prisoners (Liebling, 2008). The paper will investigate the issue that prohibition on degrading treatment and punishment should not extend to all prisoners. The paper will discuss some background information, issues of imprisonment, and the impact of prison sentences.

Research Question

The research question for this paper takes on the side, i.e., the prohibition of degrading treatment and punishment should not extend to all prisoners. The possibility of an exception is made to punish serious criminals, safeguard society, and help to improve the wellbeing of individuals.

Q: Should the prohibition on degrading treatment and punishment extend to all prisoners without exception? If so, why? If not, why not?


According to international laws, torture is an accountable crime. As per all the applicable instruments, it is completely forbidden offense, and under any conditions, it can’t be justified   (Snacken, 2015). Traditional international laws can be formed due to this prohibition, which implies it is compulsory on every individual of the global community, in spite of whether a country has endorsed global treaties in which torture is specifically prohibited (Sharp & Budd, 2005). The widespread or systematic activity of torture develops an offense against humanity. The global community criticized torture and other inhuman, degrading, and cruel treatments in United Nations General Assembly by adopting the Universal Declaration of Human Rights in 1948  (Wright, Jasinski, & Lanier, 2012). Furthermore, in 1975, in response to the dynamic practice by non-government organizations (NGOs), the General Assembly took up Declaration on the Protection of All Persons as of being dealt with torture and other inhuman, degrading and cruel treatments  (Mowry, Pimentel, Sparks, & Hanlon, 2013).

For the purpose of successfully address the core causes of ill-treatment and other forms of torture, a straight deterrent policy should start with a comprehensive study of risk factors, such circumstances that develop the torture arising possibility (Thomson &Bernath, 2020). The common political atmosphere is a significant factor to understand, as an absence of political determination to forbid torture, the absence of clarity of governance, the absence of respect for the abidance of law and corruption of high level can be the reason of increasing the torture (Ginneken& Hayes, 2016). For the cultural and social atmosphere, the case is the same. If there is a customs of violence, or high support from the public to deal with the crime with strong hands, the torture risk can also be increased. The societal, legal setup should also be examined.

In such countries, where the law and constitution prohibit the torture, also it is taken as a particular crime under the criminal rules; the possibility of torture can be lesser as compared to the countries where no such law is present (Mowry, Pimentel, Sparks, & Hanlon, 2013). The study should also emphasize on the law and order that implement on the areas where individuals are deprived of their freedom, also, the availability of the suitable lawful safeguards. Furthermore, the process by which the legal system is applied should closely be examined. The functioning and organization of the criminal justice framework is another significant element to consider (Zimring, 2001).Human poise is the key thought behind the disallowance of debasing treatment since it just applies to individuals and grounded to the unmistakable limits. This hypothesis allows that every single person are equivalent, in which profound quality equivalents worth for all. The hypothesis stretches out to expound that mental capacities permit people to obtain unqualified worth.

The independence level of the judiciary, also the confidence level of confessions in the criminal system of justice, can have a direct effect on the increasing torture risk (Hannah-Moffat, 2003). As the torture risk is increased in the initial phase of custody, special attention should be given to the authorities of law enforcement. In this case, the institutional background, the role, and system of the law enforcement agencies and employment and training activities of the officers can all directly influence the torture risk. Also, in general, the environment of the institutions should also be analyzed to understand the increasing risk of torture (Gilabert, 2018).

The level of transparency and accountability of the authorities, the presence of public policies to deal with prevention of crime and the efficiency of complaints system are the core factors that can decrease the torture risk, with the help of external independent actors like public organization and NHRI (Simon, 2015).

Situations of risk

Any situation in which an individual denied of his or her freedom and while there is a difference of authority, where the individual is completely reliant on another, develop a condition of risk (Shapland& Bottoms, 2019). The risk of being ill-treated or tortured is increased at specific times through the period of custody, like the initial time of arrest and police detention, also at the time of moving from one place of custody to another (Hannah-Moffat, 2003).

In such situations, the risk of ill-treatment and torture increases when individuals denied of their freedom is not allowed to be in contact with others, especially incommunicado custody or solitary confinement (Ginneken& Hayes, 2016). The torture risk and other types of ill-treatment happen inside the closed facilities, not only police stations or prisons but also, for instance, juvenile custody centers, psychiatric treatment centers, immigration detention facilities, and transit regions in international ports.

Potential victims

It is quite difficult to recognize groups or individuals that are at a bigger risk of ill-treatment or torture, as it can differ considerably as per the national context. Actually, any individual can possibly be at risk  (Rights, 2007). Generally, disadvantaged and vulnerable groups in culture – like as minority groups (ethnic, racial, linguistic, or religious) minors, women, disabled persons, the homeless, poor, and the migrants normally are at higher torture and ill-treatment risks(Gilabert, 2018).

A preventive policy requires special political support to be effective in combating the torture, which should be publicly presented and available for the monitoring. In such conditions where torture is especially used for political purposes, prevention programs are expected to be unsuccessful or used against the political opposition (Shapland& Bottoms, 2019). It is significant to understand that no country is free from torture risk and ill-treatment.

Punishment Impact and Imprisonment

An opaque institute of a state is the prison where a person is kept due to its crimes. If a person goes to prison, four main factors arise in the decision. These are retribution, safety, rehabilitation, and deterrence  (Ogbozor, Schoeny, & Baer, 2017). Retribution is punishing the offender, and safety is keeping threats away from the community; rehabilitation is to correct the problematic behavior, and deterrence is to ensure that the offender is scared to break the law in future (Hannah-Moffat, 2003).  Criminal prosecutors often believe that a long prison structure and punishment is necessary. For example, the US attorney general is pushing on harsh sentences to restrict drugs and violence off the streets. Tough sentence advocates put it that long punishments are the most fitted ones, so it allows prisoners to think about how they have done wrong, and when they will be free, they have to stay on the track (Foster, 2016).

The long sentences produce overcrowd prisons and also costly for taxpayers. According to a report of the New York School of Law in 2016, the US can save $200 billion in ten years if a 40% inmate population was decreased. Research indicates that long prison sentences are arbitrary. As such, it presents that giving long sentence punishment to offenders deters ex-prisoners from committing offenses because criminals value future less than non-criminals (Liebling, 2008). Less-educated criminals apparently less put off under harsh sentences. There are many theories, and theoretical evidence underlie the purpose of punishment. The main aim of the prison was to provide social equilibrium, and in studies, it is shown that prison has failed to deliver it. For example, the valid proposition in this regard is, prisons damage people on different factors and different degrees, and prisons only serve a meager purpose for keeping society safe (i.e., less than 5%) as compared to the internal threat to society.

Prisons that operate for disciplinary hearings deal allegations of rule-breaking. These adjudications are disrespect, disobedience, and property offenses (Criminal, 1981). A prisoner involved in adjudication has to face different punishments. In 2014, 438 years were imposed as imprisonment for adjudications. For children, the number of additional days imposed was increased, though the number of children imprisoned has halved. Imprisonment is the main punishment considered effective for criminals, and it should be kept for offenders to restrict future crimes (Bersani& Doherty, 2018). According to the justice policy institute 2011, it was found out that sentencing time for the same crime can be different in the world, such as, in Finland, robbery convicted people suspects in jail for 16 months, but in Australia, it was 72 months. Similarly, for assault in England, 15 months were decided and in US 60 months.

Since 1970, a number of prisoners in the US have quadrupled, so now prison is getting longer, and most people are punished an incarcerated for violence or drug-related offenses.  According to the US constitution eighth amendment, people who are accused of a crime have the right to be free of unusual punishment, no matter if they are in jail (Criminal, 2015). This situation can be explained as if criminal defendants are sentenced, and the constitution can guarantee them fundamental human rights regarding confinement conditions. The punishment that violates basic human rights and dignity is deemed a cruel and degrading treatment. In case of a challenging confinement situation, a correctional institute can provide medical and foodservice, and its officials are to act with deliberate indifference (Bridges, Crutchfield, & Simpson, 1987).

Most offenders have a common perception of excessive force. A prisoner may allege that officials use physical force against them; however, the use of physical force and restraints are common to preserve safety and order. According to the US Supreme Court, inmates do not have to show any significant beaten or injury, but excessive force should be claimed that how it was applied. For instance, if excessive force was not used in good faith, not a part to restore rule or it was based on malicious intent, this will not be permitted. Degrading treatment of punishment is commonly used by the administration, yet the process differs because it needs a form of submission about events or issues.

Why Prohibition on Punishment Should Not Extend to all Prisoners

Prohibition on punishment may not work for all kinds of prisoners. For instance, offenders involve in serious crimes should be provided punishment and sentencing in order to safeguard societal interest. Punishment to children and individuals involved in slight offends should be prohibited. For example, in local English prisons, 31% of prisoners locked in cells for more than 21 hours per day. In addition, poor conditions are increasing overcrowding. According to HM inspectorate of prisoners, 21,000 prisoners in local English prisons are in overcrowding conditions. These prisoners are facing unhygienic unsanitary and degrading treatment due to overcrowding. Universal Declaration of Human Rights and Geneva Conventions prohibited inhuman conditions, torture, and degrading treatment. Charter of UN considered inherent identity for all members of society because the human family is founded on justice, freedom, and peace (Bridges, Crutchfield, & Simpson, 1987).

According to the European Convention on human rights, no one can be subjected to degrading treatment due to socioeconomic rights. An instrument developed by EC claims to the socio-economic services to increase the standard of living and medical care for prisoners (Matthews & Richardson, 2005).  Human dignity is the key idea behind the prohibition of degrading treatment because it only applies to human beings and grounded to the distinctive capacities. This theory that all human beings are equal is, according to Kant, in which morality equals worth for all. The theory extends to elaborate that psychological capabilities allow humans to acquire unconditional worth. The idea of dignity relates to incomparable value and absolute. According to Zellick, degrading punishment is inescapably debasing or humiliating a person that reduces the essential dignity or humanity of the victim.  Degrading the dignity of humans can lead to denying the idea of human beings. Extreme punishment or severity for the human race should be discarded because it is not consistent with fundamental human rights (Bersani& Doherty, 2018). A prisoner can positively adapt the imprisonment so its status cannot be degraded. Children and people involved in fewer criminal offenses are to be confronting dignity when officials of corrective settings are treating them under human rights. In Furman vs. Georgia case, the Supreme Court of the US said that severe punishment is not acceptable because it indicates that it is not supporting human dignity. To that end, while involving in degrading treatment, the judicial objective should be considered.


In most of the countries, imprisoned people face degrading treatment and punishment. The degrading treatment should be prohibited to some prisoners, for instance, less serious crimes, drug-related, or violence. Prison buildings often face inhuman living conditions, poor hygiene, and sanitation, the treatment with prisoners, needs to be oriented on human grounds to maintain dignity. Different kinds of criminals, under trial, unconvinced, women, children, lifers, and young offenders, need maintenance of human rights and dignity. Human rights foundation and dignity is foremost significant to consider for prisoners.



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  1. Please explain Corporate citizenship as part of the business model

  2. Please explain Measuring corporate social responsibility

  3. What makes a multinational company a global citizen

  4. Please explain Managing the interests of stakeholders

  5. Please explain Mutual benefit and responsible business practice

  6. Please explain Corporate governance, best practice

  7. Please explain Human rights in the global marketplace

  8. Please explain Environmental risk management

  9. Please explain Corporate social responsibility as part of the business

  10. Please explain CRS practices in the organisation of your choice




Corporate citizenship relates to the social obligations of business to society. Corporate citizenship is critical, considering the stake of both the owners and the employees in brand image building and being a responsible member of the community. Businesses across the world have significant ethical and legal responsibilities; the best institution builds up a solid formation of corporate citizenship, and professed an assurance to ethical conduct by making peace between the priorities of shareholders and the needs of the community. These CSR exercises help the firm to present themselves as socially responsible companies that make efforts towards society’s betterment.

Interchangeably, Philanthropy is used in place of corporate citizenship. A firm’s apprehension of public benefits and managing their business activities in line with the rules based in alliance with corporate citizenship is necessary. Terri Williams from the economist refers to the 2018 Delotte survey of 11 thousand HR’s and business leaders from across the globe, and 77& of the respondents realized and focused on the importance of CSR and Corporate citizenship. (Williams, 2020) Hence all across the globe CSR practices are being valued and followed.

Occasionally, companies operate alone in the community or towards the betterment of the environment. They work closely with different businesses and NGOs that are facing issues or influence. The approach of corporate responsibility and corporate citizenship are mostly replaceable to each other; corporate social responsibility (CSR) is also the idea of corporate citizenship that can be changed or in various forms depends on the company’s structure and type. It is integral to making it a part of the firm’s plans towards the betterment of the community.

Adam Hayes refers to it as a social responsibility of businesses across the globe that (HAYES, 2019)

Corporate Citizenship needs to be a part of the business model as then it will become a necessary thing to do. CZ provides benefits as companies leverage their core competencies to tackle the challenges, make priorities, and measure the organizational background that concerns the financial, social, and governance aspects of the (ESG). Research shows that excellent social and environmental performance in companies is no longer merely “nice to have” as a part of the overall strategy of an organization. Hence it can be concluded on the fact that it recognizes that it is not possible to reach the maximum benefit of the corporate obligations in isolation; companies need to aid all those organizations and individuals that are working for the benefit of the global environment.

There is a need for continued dialogue between businesses and community partners, managers, and individuals within the value chain of an organization. Each is an essential component for recognizing the impact that corporate citizenship can build. All stakeholders need to join hands to make the overall predicament better. The value of corporate citizenship needs to be realized by all businesses, and they need to focus on the global plight. They need to explore alternatives sources of minimizing the impact their product could have on the environment and the society as a whole.


Corporate Social Responsibility stands as one of the most common and widely appreciated business practices at every level all across the globe with every brand and company aiming to support sustainability and other methods. It has become a necessity in the modern-day business world, not just as an image-building tool but also as a responsibility towards the betterment of society. Social investment funds are allocated that has emerged as one of the integral elements in modern-day businesses. To measure the impact of any CSR activity, KPI’s can be set that need to be met for the CSR activity to become successful and prosperous. (Indonesia, 2009)

Social guidelines are integral in order to view the parameters set for measuring and evaluating a patchwork of national guidelines, and global understanding has built up that currently forces businesses to consider the social and environmental implementation of their exercises. Reports are then arranged and marketed to interested parties (consumers, investors, and other companies). Sales of these reports become the primary income source for these companies. Extra incomes originate from customized studies as assumed for customers, for which field analysts visit these organizations. For example, Calvert Group depends on an internal team of specialists in labor relations, environmental sustainability, and defense-related issues, worldwide human rights organizations, organizations for the protection of wildlife that help them.  (Hopkins, 2005)

Michael Hopkins, in an article, defines corporate social responsibility and puts forth a procedure to measure CSR of a company. Prior to this KPI’s set were merely the Indicators that were chosen as per the whims rather than actual meaningful procedure. As per his understanding, CSR can be measured at three levels. A) Principles set forward of Social Responsibility that includes legitimacy, Public responsibility as well as managerial direction given by the company. Secondly, the process of social responsiveness that has adapted at the company can also be measured that includes Business Environment, Managing the stakeholder, and identifying the issues that determine the critical motivating principles of the company. Lastly, the outcomes of social responsibility are also integral that aid in seeing how the internal and external stakeholder is affected by it and finally, how much external institutional effects impact upon it. (Hopkins, 2005)

In terms of vital elements that need to be measured include,

  • Working environment
  • Product safety and effect
  • International operations and human rights
  • Public relations.

Formulating a strong CSR strategy is clearly in the excitement of an organization. A good score will yield grants, adulation, deals, and popularity. It diminishes the probability of ‘stir’ as shoppers, finance professionals, against the organization. Nonetheless, even suitable CSR activities do not guarantee stakeholder recognition. In the case of a poor strategy, it can shake the economic foundations of an organization’s operations. Then again, they will also carefully inspect the assessment methods used to ensure that the stakeholders and the companies being assessed regard them as both credible and suitable. There is a discernible rivalry between the agencies responsible for measuring the rating and the businesses that they rate.  (Márquez, 2005)


Companies take an interest in the happenings across the world in other countries. Simultaneously, these companies are confronting new requests to address global issues such as environmental concerns and poverty. The nature and extent of moral obligation inside partnerships change after some time that should improve as both the companies of the company and the general public wherein enterprises implanted develop. Earlier, when corporate organizations were no more intertwined than individual family arrangements or game plans for small companies, one might typically interpret the corporate values of an independent company as being covalent with individual entrepreneurs’ moral commitments. (UNO, 2008)

Corporate social responsibility is an idea that endeavors to carry a more extensive moral comprehension to the subject of business association. Since corporate businesses are essential to the social orders in which they exist, their management takes responsibility towards the wellbeing of society by and large just as to the interests of those maintaining the business. Responding to concerns like sustainability, companies have willfully started applying worldwide corporate social responsibility methodologies to guarantee that their business is conducted while following environment-friendly practices. (Ort, 2004)

They may create sets of standard rules or observing procedures to ensure that their subcontractors produce merchandise without abusing laborers or the earth. There is, in any case, no all-around shared meaning of global corporate responsibility. Business for Social Responsibility characterizes worldwide corporate social duty (CSR) as “business dynamic connected to moral values…and regards for individuals, societies, and the environment.” (Ort, 2004)

Most business leaders want their organizations to act responsibly wherever they work. However, like most policymakers and activists, they don’t force its implementation across the board. There is no guide for worldwide corporate behavior. Also, numerous administrators accept they are just market entertainers who meet their corporate responsibility by expanding investor esteem. Others, in any case, allow that they should discover approaches to deal with their activities in a socially and environmentally capable way. (Ort, 2004)

In light of these events, governments across the world are attempting to assist businesses with advancing global responsibility towards sustainability. Citizens can’t depend entirely on advertise powers to develop moral conduct. Even though business sectors have urged more firms to act dependably in the global economy, showcase powers have not been adequate to guarantee intelligent behavior always. The correct blend of clear strategies can ensure that market powers don’t penalize responsible firms for advancing human rights and practical turn of events. (Aaronson, 2003)

Significant reforms have been made across the globe regarding CSR. Many different governments highlight the corporate prerequisites to enable corporate social responsibility. The French government, for example, updated French corporate laws in 2002 and ordered the disclosure of social and environmental organizations that towards its execution. Also, Europeans are beginning to consider whether CSR systems and that it applying the techniqueswill enable them to minimize the harms caused by such business practices. Hence across the world, not only that CSR’s value is being reconsidered but also that it has its value across the globe.


Stakeholders across the world influence the accomplishments of an association’s goals. They are directly influenced by the achievement of an association’s targets and goals. Creditors, customers, directors, employees, government, and its organizations – proprietors & shareholders, suppliers unions, and the community from which the business draws its assets are the key stakeholders in a company.Managing the interests of organization stakeholders and adjusting the business practices with respect to the benefits is integral for the greater good. Corporations can be gradually receptive to society’s interests all in all by incorporating stakeholder investment into their chieftainship sheets.

The primary stakeholders have vested interests as consumers, creditors in every organization that concerns CSR implementations. Corporate directors are responsible for coordinating and negotiating with stakeholders in the light of genuine concerns across the globe regarding sustainability. Stakeholders are equally accountable in aiding to realize and emphasize upon the need and understandings regarding the CSR policy of a company. What steps need to be taken to run a company, and what part the stakeholders have to play as their part in making sure those rules and duties are being fulfilled is necessary? (Foundation, 2013)

Secondary stakeholders are indirectly affected by the organization’s steps taken towards evaluative the efforts of the organizations towards supporting the organization’s efforts of corporate social responsibilities. Significantly, CSR works in the form of self-regulation, and the secondary stake holder’s need to monitor the practices of a company. They need to make sure that the company is not breaking the rule and regulations set by the government in following the fundamental principles to ensure that CSR is possible. In the stakeholder views, the source for the obligation concerning the association’s stakeholders depends on their reality and position.

Sustainability has become a phenomenon, and even multinationals recognize that there is a concern for the atmosphere and inefficient corporate activities by stakeholders. As customers have been increasingly conscious of air pollution, as well as the eco-friendly use of the Business resources, several businesses have taken steps to keep in line with the engagement of the customers. This move by companies makes a negative impact on employees as well as the entire business sector, as demand for environmentally friendly products has been increasing with the realization of its needs. More and more big companies are being held accountable by the stakeholders in order to make them obey all the legislation regarding the environment and to help enhance the quality of life or at least not reduce it.  (Roanhorse, 2020)

The stakeholders should take an interest because these corporate practices need to be composed of the stakeholders’ commitments and understanding regarding managing these hazards. Businesses across the globe are increasingly implementing strategies that include not only the critical needs of the operations and enterprise of the company, but also comply with all the regulations put forth regarding CSR. Sustainability recognizes the potential impacts of sustainable growth. Understanding that sustainability is vital to preserving natural resources and human life is integral for the stakeholders. (Roanhorse, 2020)


Ethical business practices tie-up with taking a positive approach towards following the guidelines, and stakeholders’ wishes in making an organization’s brand image better. The practical approach forward on this is to search for mutual benefit, an answer that offers the advantage to both the organization and the other stakeholders. The CSR supporters have progressively perceived that responsible companies can make a more committed to the community that they work to expand these incentives for the environment and society, and if they utilize their skills, aptitudes, and assets, they can attain the goals set forward regarding sustainability management.

In South Africa, a variety of initiatives for helping the process of sustainability have been taken by contractual workers to levels where they can fulfill the needs of running a responsible business. In one mining organization, for instance, huge amounts of hardware have been disposed of when realized that it was causing pollution and harming the natural environment.

P Ducker, in an article, discusses about the business being socially responsible and become an agent of creating benefits for the world. More and more companies are now discovering the truth regarding this assertion from management expert Peter Drucker across the globe. As per the study, Research shows a significant increase in concern among corporate leaders for connecting company practices with social and environmental issues consistently. A survey of 1200 top-level U.S. company executives was conducted, and 81 percent of them said that resolving social and ecological problems is vitally important for companies. 84 out of 100 said that it was related directly to economic competitiveness. More than 60 of 100 said that the company is obligated to behave like a socially responsible entity, and’ 73 of 100 said that these practices are an expression of values. All these facts highlight that it is integral to become socially responsible. (FRY, 2016).

For instance, a direct stock management system can help guarantee that the distributor or retailer isn’t overloaded on certain things while being unavailable on others. What’s more, adequate stock control will cause the wholesaler to have a more grounded system to make their stock management better. For example, the elements in an organization, including the activities, human relationships, or promotion, all play a mutually beneficial role in the execution of a CSR strategy. Nevertheless, one of the attributes of corporate citizenship that makes it both satisfying and test simultaneously extends to all the framework set forth. Thus, it is frequently most effectively valued by the CEO and the senior administration gathering and can discover challenges in coming through all the various capacities at the central administration level. The common advantage is a practical methodology and apparatus for the dependable company both for accomplishing more in formulating business activities and as a method for utilizing resources for corporate community inclusion.  (Fontaine, 2013)


Corporate governance is the structure, rules, practices, and procedures that co-ordinate and regulate an organization. Corporate governance involves balancing the interests of various stakeholders in a business, such as shareholders, senior management, clients, vendors, financiers, administration, and the network. Corporate governance also gives the framework to achieve the objectives of a corporation; it encompasses every circle of the managers, from business strategies and manage the internal controls to business estimates and corporate disclosure.

The appropriate governance practices will emphatically affect long haul corporate performance – but companies must plan and actualize those that both conform to lawful prerequisites and meet their specific needs. Here are the leading five corporate governance best practices that each Board of Directors can connect with – and that will profit each organization.  (Subramanian, 2015) They need to,

Build a stable professional executive board and review execution. Committees should include competent and business-related managers who are qualified and capable and have ethical values and uprightness, diverse foundations and skill ranges, and ample time to reflect on their responsibilities. (Subramanian, 2015)

  • All business executives must be autonomous: not a part of management and with no direct or roundabout material relationship that could meddle with their judgment. Educate them and offer the new executives guidance to familiarize them with the company, their responsibilities, and the desires of the Board; keep time in Board meetings for the continuing company and governance training.
  • Define all the jobs and assigned duties. Build up away from of responsibility among the Executive Officers and management, create documented orders for the Board, and every council setting out their responsibilities and the terms of accountability.
  • Separate all the roles entrusted to both the company chairman and the CEO: the chair guides the board and ensures that it works in the ultimate gains sought out by the organization; the CEO controls the management, develops and reviews corporate strategies and reports to the board of directors.
  • The Board will analyze, conduct, and resolve choices about the concept of remuneration. Set the charges of the directors that will attract inappropriate up-and-comers, but do not appear to claim in the autonomy of the director or discharge his / her responsibilities.
  • Set quantifiable execution goals for officials (counting the CEO), regularly survey, and evaluate their presentation against them and attach performance remuneration.

Companies should always distinguish and study the dangers they face that are related to any department of the company and suggest appropriate solutions. The Board is answerable for the critical initiative in building up the organization’s hazard resistance and building up a structure and clear accountabilities for managing risk. Management will regularly audit the magnitude of systems and controls management puts in place to identify, assess, mitigate, and screen chance and the appropriateness of its description. Directors are able to understand the present and establish short and long haul chances facing the company and the suggestions for the show. They will challenge the presumptions of the business executives and the sufficiency of the organization’s risk management, their procedures and methods.


The most impressive and refined roles at the world stage today aren’t being played by governments but by NGO’s and other companies. While some worldwide businesses show thought for the individuals whose lives they contact, many don’t. Regardless of inadequacy/plan, some companies genuinely hurt the communities around them and impact the quality of human life. A lot of the obligation to forestall and address organization driven human rights misuse lies with governments. As organizations keep on broadening their worldwide come to, their activities influence the human rights of progressively more individuals in significant manners. Governments have neglected to keep pace.

Most nations have laws, as well as the books requiring companies to stick to essential human rights gauges on their dirt. In any case, global companies work far and wide in nations that can’t or don’t give enough oversight or guideline for their human rights practices.  History straight up through the current day shows that ineffectively directed businesses can destroy the lives of the individuals and networks they sway. Human Rights Watch explore in places as various as Eritrea, Papua New Guinea, India, Bangladesh, and Nigeria has demonstrated this very obviously. Governments should haul their heads out of the sand and acknowledge their obligation to manage and control organization human rights practices.

The reasons organizations give for restricting extraterritorial human rights oversight or guideline by their home governments don’t stand up well to examination. (, 2020)

One of the most widely recognized is the thought that such control would put them at a severe burden against deceitful firms from nations with less dynamic governments. However, in all honesty, organizations ought not to put resources into business sectors where they can’t viably contend without being complicit in particular human rights mishandles that they have to escape their governments and shareholders. Those feelings of trepidation are reasonably justifiable while numerous nongovernmental associations are pushing for sensible principles, a few activists presumably might want nothing better than to see the mining business, for example, squashed by over the top guideline. However, those voices shouldn’t direct the provisions of this conversation or blamed them for abstaining from having it.

Organizations may never wind up preferring the administration oversight they need, and they might be right in figuring that it isn’t in their rare personal circumstance to have it continually investigating their shoulder. Yet, extraterritorial oversight and guideline of organization human rights practices should be possible such that organizations can live with and get the benefit. (Cassel, 2001) Government activity need not be unduly difficult to be successful, and there is, to an extreme degree, an excess of avoidable human enduring on the opposite side of the scale to legitimize inaction.

Likewise, the possibility of human rights due diligence, which holds that businesses should find a way to distinguish, moderate, and address human rights dangers connected to their activities that would be a more grounded apparatus if governments make it required. Governments need to discover the fearlessness to make regard for human rights by corporations that must be compelled to follow the rules and regulations set by others. Human rights activists can help structure the functional administrative systems that are reasonable for organizations.


Around the world, there is a clear risk in life in an acculturated culture, where people do not understand the risk, and its consequences are expected. As in every project, though, before treating threats, it is essential to know what is being dealt with. Few may claim that companies owe no non-creation duty to society; however, there is plenty amount of risk that needs to be seen, and it is the responsibility of the business community to manage all the environmental dangers being caused at their hands. In every case, the individuals who embrace CSR feel companies can fulfill a broader purpose beyond simply amplifying benefits.  (, 2017)

Risk management is based on for points

1) Hazard Identification.

Sort the cause of hazard, and find the source of risk characterized it and make the detailed document.

2) Analysis

Before taking any action for eliminating the risk or controlling it, keep in mind the consequences and other outcomes. Determine the plan of action on how it will happen.

3) Control the risk

Assign all the necessary measures to mitigate and overcome the threat.

4) Review of control measures

At this point, review all the steps which will take place for risk mitigation and keep an eye on the residual risks and problems if more effort needed timely action shall take.

Environmental Hazard Definition

An environmental hazard is a state or event which has the potential to threaten the natural environment and also affect the health of the public. The process and method of identifying the hazards are described and all the elements of risks which can be the cause or source of hazard that needs to managed.

Job safety environment assessment

Particular procedure to work at risk or likely to the hazardous workplace, it mostly in the form of a document, many of big country now introduce the software for it.

Work Methodology

There is always a map to act about the risk or likely to hazardous; all the necessary precautions shall be adopted. Supervise every department and its role.

SWOT Analysis.

Strength Weakness Opportunity Test should be taken of the entire project that, in the future, such incidents can be tackled efficiently and effectively. Keenly understand the plan of action, complete all the legal and official formalities, mark the area in which the mitigation work will perform, and place the barrier. Take research before the operation of how the other companies managed the risk what their benchmark of work was, what measures they adopted.

Environmental risk management must be the same as all the other departments of business management or any of the different departments that make up the administrative capacity of a business. Specifically, the environmental risks and the management of the environment itself are firmly associated with that risk management is a piece of ecological management. Ecological risk assessment and management ought to be a component of each part of the business. From production to marketing to distribution and transport, the ecological effect of the company is significant.


CSR means that organizations and their workers act `to the best benefit of their community and society at large. Social responsibility is known as corporate social responsibility (CSR), where it relates to companies. This also highlights the need for businesses to become suitable corporate citizens. CSR includes going past the law’s prerequisites in securing the environment and adding to social government assistance. It is broadly acknowledged as a commitment to the present-day business. (Rangan, 2015)

CSR goes the extra mile, getting money for shareholders. CSR protects the needs of all stakeholders that are included in the business, such as suppliers, consumers, staff, and the networks in which organizations operate. CSR models include getting charitable work, caring about the world, and participating in noble undertakings. (Rangan, 2015)

Some people are arguing that companies do not own any responsibility to society outside of creation; nevertheless, there is a lot of cash inside the law that could be anticipated. In either case, the individuals who support CSR agree that companies will pursue a more profound purpose beyond simply amplifying benefits. Social accountability has increasingly become important for financial professionals and consumers searching for lucrative projects as well as providing social and environmental support to the government. At the same time, the critics contend that the underlying business concept does not accept culture as a partner.

Four kinds of corporate duties.

  • Environmental efforts: Environment is a critical subject of corporate social responsibility. Organizations, paying no attention to their production techniques, lead to having an immense amount of carbon emission is highly destructive. They need to minimize these experiences and enhance their production techniques to help build both the organization and society.
  • Philanthropy: Businesses across the world practice CSR by providing finance, products, or services to philanthropic activities across the world. Organizations, in general, have immense amounts of resources that they can use to maximize the benefits of their services. It will be highly beneficial to communicate the benefits of these businesses to help them understand the value of their services.
  • Ethical labor practice: Organizations may show their social obligation by treating the workers fairly and morally. They should devise these business strategies to compete on a level playing field, which will also make them socially responsible.
  • Volunteering: Being a part of volunteer activitiesis integral and it can aid in making a great of deal of impact on the organization’s vision. Consequently, companies may express their concern for specific issues by doing beneficial things without expecting something and commit to particular associations.

Grabbing social responsibility in that capacity will support the primary mandate — an improvement in investor appreciation. There is an ethical imperative for organizing business practices that do not impact the environment. Additionally, various corporations across the globe are expected to participate in socially responsible practices before making a venture or purchase. Depicting of being socially responsible is an appropriate image practice across businesses, so is the power to be able to do so can have a negative impact on the financial record. Social accountability is usually highly successful when willingly practiced.


CSR stands as an activity that evolves with the evolution of Business, integrating rational the change into the business model of a client. It is having a positive effect on the social, economic, and environmental factors. CSR encourages environmental development for both large and small businesses. If businesses seek to make the best decision for a primary interest as well as a financial profit by building trust with customers, consumers know they are supporting a brand that is socially responsible in terms of its products. CSR aids the people to invest in jobs, bring problems to light, and foster social change. (DMI, 2020)

And though hundreds of thousands of organizations do their part, the activities of large global companies have excellent effects that end up impacting all the major problems across the world that include global warming, public health, and other issues. Here’s an example of how a brand makes CSR effective. Millennials & Generation Z, socially conscious businesses, are considered progressive and vital. It is agreed that companies should invest in the search for solutions to making the world better in their overall self that supports such changes. Making efforts is essential for targeting Millennials, as these efforts can affect Millennials’ decision-making as consumers. Millennials would also like to take part in programs, such as having the option of engaging in humanitarian activities or giving donations to charitable organizations. (DMI, 2020)

If an increasing number of businesses across the globe begin to see the effect of their socially and ecologically responsible activities on a consumer’s acceptance, the higher is the likelihood that they will start taking measures on their own. Millennial activism of all ages will also affect changing CSR fashion toward workplace abuse of discrimination; diversity will continue to grow throughout the work world, welcoming individuals of all races, genders, communities, and cultures. Companies should also place their voices in response to social inequality and legislative shifts that impact the world in the opposite direction. Companies that socially more responsible can end up having more sales due to the support of all those customers that are learned about the impact of sustainability. The company is a shining example for other organizations to follow. They have become more immersive in their ways of conducting business portraying as socially responsible.

Indeed, all protection techniques can turn out to be active, and all the CSR trends need to be followed as well when an increasing number of information is being shared compromising of each data. This is only a small example of how corporations use corporate social responsibility to protect the world and make a commitment to improving the quality of life and happiness of the people they affect.  For companies across the globe, concentrating on the issues that consumers are keen about, and the impact thattheir efforts can have on the communityaround the world is essential. Companies around the world who work for the society in compliance with their obligation end up productive, and this also impacts the brand identity.








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Cassel, D. (2001). Human Rights and Business Responsibilities in the Global Marketplace. Business Ethics Quarterly, 261-274.

CMI. (2011). Stakeholder Analysis and Management. Retrieved from

DMI. (2020). 16 BRANDS DOING CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY SUCCESSFULLY. Retrieved from (2017). Risk Management. Retrieved from

Fontaine, M. (2013). Corporate Social Responsibility and Sustainability: The New Bottom Line? International Journal of Business and Social Science , 110-122.

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HAYES, A. (2019, 6 12). Corporate Citizenship. Retrieved from c/terms/c/corporatecitizenship.asp

Hopkins, M. (2005). Measurement of corporate social responsibility. International Journal of Management and Decision Making, 213-231. Retrieved from (2020). World Report 2013: Without Rules. Retrieved from

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Lin, C.-P. (2010). Modeling Corporate Citizenship and Its Relationship with Organizational Citizenship Behaviors. Journal of Business Ethics, 357-372.

Márquez, A. (2005, 1 1). Measuring Corporate Social Responsibility . Retrieved from

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Roanhorse, E. (2020). Effect of Sustainability on Stakeholders. Retrieved from

Subramanian, G. (2015, 3). Corporate Governance 2.0. Retrieved from

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Williams, T. (2020). Corporate citizenship: Your company’s role in society. Retrieved from





Sartre wrote for existentialism in a philosophical way. His main slogan was “existentialism precedes essence.” Freedom and personal space are some of the essential themes in his theory. For Sartre, freedom is that man has his own choices to work or to do something. To be free does not mean sitting useless. Because this causes distress feelings in a person’s mind, and the individual thinks that he is nothing. In his mind, the sense of nothingness arouses, which leads to the inauthentic life of a person. (Fieser, 2002)

According to Sartre, freedom is to make a purpose of life and then work freely by one’s own choice for that purpose. As an atheist, Sartre does not believe in “human nature “kind of thing, which he called “essence.” He believed that man is not created for a purpose, or God created the world. For him, a person is what he is, and he is full of himself. In his view, a person can become what he is not and not become what he is, as in his words, “being what it is not and not being what it is.” Man is free to make his character and image in this world. (Fieser, 2002)

He believes that freedom is limitless. His concept of freedom is” freedom entails something like responsibility, for myself, and my actions.” Freedom is that man is free for making decisions, making and fulfill wishes, and getting knowledge. He is free to make choices of work but also responsible for consequences. (Fieser, 2002)

Plato’s understanding of the relationship between God and morality

According to DIVINE COMMAND THEORY, good and bad happenings in the universe are to be done by God. Plato was against this theory. For Plato, God us perfectionist, supernatural and ideal one who runs the universe in an unapproachable way. His orders and motives to run the world are pure of imperfections. (Evans, 2018)

According to him, God is not responsible for evil happenings. He has not written everything occurring in the universe. We can say that God is the author of punishments of moral wrongdoings as the punishments are beneficial for wrong things. For Plato, God is a source of mortality. Otherwise, whatever is good or bad is of itself. God must be a source first time, but after there would generate countless causes of good or bad things. Plato seems not a true monotheist, but he believes that there is a divine and powerful soul behind the planetary motion. He called these gods, The divine theory rejects the idea of religion. Platonism says that morality is not possible without faith. If there is no religion, then how is it possible to decide whether someone is doing good or evil deeds? (Evans, 2018)


Evans, S. (2018). Moral Arguments for the Existence of God. Retrieved from

Fieser, J. (2002). Jean Paul Sartre: Existentialism. Retrieved from



Critical Reflection

The lesson plan for second language teaching aimed at helping students learn the English language in the most comfortable way that can help them adopt fluency in daily routine. Learning a second language is different in many ways for a young student, for instance, in terms of environment where language acquisition is taking place. The process is unique and different that allows students to develop inherent abilities to understand new vocabulary as well as the content. This experience allowed me to know the essential characteristics of students and offered me a chance to know students better in their speaking and listening.

The lesson plan helped me acquire an understanding of writing skills and how it is significant for students. When they practice short speaking stories with families and peers, it enhances their ability to learn family-oriented vocabulary. The second language learning experience is significant in the sense of participation in a new world of vocabulary, words, and exposure (Montero-Melis, Jaeger &Bylund, 2016). The need for language learning to young students is related to the short and long run. The language approach help students keep motivated to produce output and internalize a language that is not related to memorization. These outcomes have a positive effect on students’ learning, so encourage them to attain fluency.

The language approach made me think about self-motivation. Under this process, students can better understand communication problems. According to language research studies, learning a language is critical to acquire the necessary skills and expertise that help in expressing own personality. My experience of language teaching allowed me to pass an integral concept of learning to students and practice more and more to get rid of mistakes. Most of the students feel shy when they mistake, but the purpose of this lesson plan was to help them gain confidence. The gained knowledge and acquired learning create short term planning of skill development for students when they interact with their families (Lightbown&Spada, 2012).

In my experience, my students in previous lessons listen to stories, when teachers described different people of the community and their interaction. Students learned from this kind of sties about their interaction purpose, family behavior, and community. Due to this practice, students get to know about classroom activities, community-based learning, and understanding of family norms. With the best method, students acquire new words, new meanings, and unique attributes to display emotions and describe themselves (Sahragard&Mallahi, 2014). I believe such understanding to students is significant to move forward in life and explore new things.

A focus on information in LMS is the basic level for students. With the common understanding of classroom practices, students developed attention, listening skills, and knowledge about family (Lightbown&Spada, 2012). The imagination trees helped students gain knowledge of the family. I learned that the role of the teacher is significant in assisting students in learning with fun and engaging them in carrying out certain practices. My assessment for learners was based on their activities, which was related to their understanding of vocabulary, pronunciation and written practices. From this process, I gained the insights that making mistakes is a basic need, and by this weakness, all students will acquire strengths.

Teaching a second language to allow teachers to equip them with competency required to perform in this modern world. (Gibbons, 2014)  The dynamic patterns of this world need well-established concepts of students about knowledge and understanding. English, as a second language itself, needs the expertise to perform with diligence. Learning and second language acquisition are based on language acquisition models. This process is significant in processing new information and conduct tasks in the secondary language (Gibbons, 2014). To enhance the learning of students, language learning strategies are used, and I believe these strategies have affected students in many terms; for instance, career choice, nationality, age, gender, and motivation are some factors that impact secondary language learning acquisition.

My experience allowed me to assess the level of involvement and understanding that every student had with its syllabus. I think teachers’ interaction plays a crucial role in developing concepts. During the lessons and after it, student’s involvement allows teachers to know about their involvement style and learning aspects (Bagheri, 2015).

Being a teacher of the second language, my focus of understanding and delivery is related to capable students. I acquired knowledge that the degree of mistakes and vocabulary pronunciation should be focused much when students are directed to memorize a new concept. I also gathered the idea about student’s participation in how much is necessary to get involved in a new lesson to gain new knowledge. If students participate with confidence and act in a new session, it is most likely that they are enjoying their learning and ready to get into the modern world (Alimirzaloo&Hashemnezhad, 2015).

Many studies have focused on second language teaching practices and requirements to help students gain more understanding; I believe that it is crucial to involve students by instilling them need to interact with others. I think cognitive techniques by teachers should be applied in the classroom to understand students more. Teachers should improve their level to make students aware of a new language, its role in life, its importance, and the significance of communication. Thinking skills also matter a lot and facilitate new language learning because unfamiliar language reflects some issues that students face. Still, thinking skills can increase students’ awareness and develop their language autonomy.  To me, this secondlanguage teaching experience is significant to gain new insights about transforming knowledge and practical to learn ways to improve my skills. I monitored students while writing, speaking, and reading, and it helped me get to know where they are weak and what their strengths are. I also got an understanding of improvement in how I should improve to support students’ performance better. For example, family tree understanding is common for some kids but difficult for others, so I helped them with specific real-life examples to understand the idea.

Current lesson plan is weak in terms of parents’ interaction and logic making steps that can manage learning difficulty. These weaknesses are hindering the way of improving students’ learning. One of the approaches to improve the teaching plan would involve developing a rich curriculum and developing a learner focused partnerships with parents. The teaching plan could be improved by incorporating these strategies. In future teaching plan, I could consider sequence steps to improve students’ learning and incorporate parent opinion. This will help improving the lesson plan.



Alimirzaloo, E., &Hashemnezhad, H. (2015). An investigation on the relationship between critical thinking skills, language learning strategies, and thinking styles of Iranian EFL learners. International Journal Of Research Studies In Language Learning4(5). doi: 10.5861/ijrsll.2015.1106

Bagheri, F. (2015). The Relationship between Critical Thinking and Language Learning Strategies of EFL Learners. Journal Of Language Teaching And Research6(5), 969. doi: 10.17507/jltr.0605.08

Gibbons, P. (2014). Scaffolding language, scaffolding learning (2nd ed., pp. 23-48). Heinemann.

Lightbown, P., &Spada, N. (2012). How languages are learned (4th ed., pp. 35-74). Oxford University Press.

Montero-Melis, G., Jaeger, T., &Bylund, E. (2016). Thinking Is Modulated by Recent Linguistic Experience: Second Language Priming Affects Perceived Event Similarity. Language Learning66(3), 636-665. doi: 10.1111/lang.12172

Sahragard, R., &Mallahi, O. (2014). Relationship between Iranian EFL Learners’ Language Learning Styles, Writing Proficiency and Self-assessment. Procedia – Social And Behavioral Sciences98, 1611-1620. doi: 10.1016/j.sbspro.2014.03.585

Differentiation in Teaching a critical appraisal of the literature

Different methods of assessment in educational systems

Educational Inequality Issues in China



Should Parents Assist their Children in Selecting Major Choosing a particular subject as a major is one of the vital decisions that decide a child’s future. Some parents want to make their children pick a carrier that they best see fit for them and look for the majors in studies that are relevant in that particular field. Imbalance in any of these predicaments could lead either the parent to impose something the child doesn’t want that would lead the child to become wholly misguided and stressed out. On the other hand, if the child chooses a major of their own without parents’ consent, that can lead to regret later. This essay will address whether parents should play an active role in making their children choose majors for higher education? 

When parents directly get involved in their children’s education and homework routine, they get to know their child’s actual interests and his likes and dislikes. As every child of the same parent has a different caliber, capabilities, and his or her own born talents. Some children are interested in Art subjects; some like to work on scientific projects, some like outdoor activities and games. When parents get involved in their kids day to day school activities, it gives them a clear understanding of their child’s weaknesses. Where the kids require improvement and need more guidance and help. Some scientific researches have proven that people are not born with any particular talent. As per Prof.Gill Crozier, Director of the Centre for Educational Research in Equalities of University of Roehampton, London, UK, “The notion of parental involvement tends to be regarded as a unified concept and accepted unproblematic as desirable by all concerned”(Crozier, 222)

Having a comparatively genius brain is one thing, but some capabilities need to be discovered. It’s just not enough to find any hidden talent or interest, but to polish, it further would make a difference.Darcy lyness in her study discusses kids with self-esteem as,feel liked and accepted, feel confident, feel proud of what they can do, think good things about themselves, believe in themselvesShe further says“Kids who feel good about themselves have the confidence to try new things. They are more likely to try their best. They feel proud of what they can do”(Lyness, 1)Hence, p0arents who try to make a healthy and friendly bond with their child can make their child more confident and of strong character. Parents supporting their children in their interests would help them become more passionate in their fields.

Parents who works in various professions understands all the implications of their work. “Parents influence the level of education or training that their children achieve; the knowledge they have about work and different occupations; the beliefs and attitudes they have to working; and the motivation they have to succeed. Most of this is learned unconsciously – children and teenagers absorb their parent’s attitudes and expectations of them as they grow up.(qualifax, 1) They  can do it so by gradually making them aware of their future responsibilities as an adult. They should teach them the benefits of choosing the right careers but, at the same time, pursue their passions side by side throughout their life.Mutual discussion is one of the most integral parts of choosing a significant subject for a child. The critical question that what you want to be is a half-hearted question asked by the parents as they have a carrier in their mind that they want the kid to have. It is wrong for either of them to cut the connection of thorough discussion while selecting a subject as a major as both of them have their concerns regarding the choices that the other one would have.

Career selection is the most crucial decision in any person’s whole life. Because wrong career selection would ultimately affect a child’s whole future in a very adverse way.Fizer in his study quotes “The people who most affect a student’s choice of major are friends,parents, teachers, and alumni. The people affecting a student’s career choice tend to provide more insight about the career field including factors such as how big of a salary it offers, how fast a student can advance, or the benefits that come with that job field”(Fizer, 12)

Experience is also another edge that parents have over their children as they have spent their lives and gone through good and bad choices. They know the consequences of wrong academic choices leading to life-long struggles and regrets. As research by Waterford “It helps to think of parent involvement as the first step to parent engagement. While teachers can advise parents on some things, parents also have important information about their child that teachers might not know. Both can bring perspectives to the table that enrich a student’s learning experience.  (Waterford,1)They can help the child choose wisely in terms of Academics majors and help the child avoid these hurdles. Yet the same experience can help them understand not to force their own choices on the child and help him/ her choose astutely.

If the parents aim their children to fulfill their unfinished/ incomplete desires, that certainly is a setback that can lead the children to have difficulties later. If a parent wanted to be an engineer, and couldn’t and want their child to be one, without asking his/ her interests, it is unfair and quite unjust. As per the study conducted by Eddie Brummelman,“From the early days of psychology, theorists have observed that parents sometimes transfer their own unfulfilled ambitions onto their child. We propose that parents are especially inclined to do so when they see their child as part of themselves, more so than as a separate individual.” (Brummelman, 1)  The parent should not force any decision on the child just based on their shortcoming on unfulfilled dreams. If the child had no interest in the carrier that they esteemed of choosing, it would be extremely unfair to force the child. If there is no freedom of choice, the child will suffer the consequences of the unjust decisions of the parents. The child must be given the liberty to choose freely from their perspective. They must be at least be discussed to have an understanding of their mind and choices.

Children are often under an immense amount of pressure regarding academics, and if the child is left alone in that regard, it becomes difficult for them to choose both. Hence, parents should take out some time to help the children with Academic choices. J.T. O’Donnell in an article writes “College graduates feel so much pressure these days to build an amazing career straight out of school.If they aren’t setting the world on fire with their greatness, then they are convinced something is wrong with them.” (O’Donnell, 2) In terms of choosing a major subject and opting in terms of both their interest, capabilities. It will build trust in them, as well. Parents who actively participate in the child’s education tend to realize their potential and understanding towards a particular subject.

Parents tend to have an understanding of strengths of their children. Prof. Lea Waters from Melbourne Graduate School of Education, refers to the importance of strength bases parenting. “Strength-based parenting is an approach where parents deliberately identify and cultivate positive states, processes and qualities in their children. It’s about connecting your kids with their inborn strengths such as strengths of character (eg. humor, kindness) as well as their talents such as writing or sporting ability.(Waters, 1) These strengths are the inner resources contained within our kids that help boost their life satisfaction. ” While children don’t know anything about the corporate world, parents understand the importance of children working on the studies that they have strengths in. They can guide them regarding the emerging roles and professions? What are the newly highest paying jobs? In some cases, children might go for such careers that are not worth paying.

So Parents can act the best guide to let him opt for his career after checking their child’s potential as well as the current job market scenarios. As per the findings of Prof. Lea Waters, research shows that children and teenagers who have strength-based parents: Have higher levels of life satisfaction, Have a better understanding of their own strengths, Cope with conflict in more pro-active ways, Use their strengths to help them meet homework deadlines, Have lower levels of stress.. (Waters, 3)Hence, parents should respond proactively to educate children for the best available options. They can do it so by gradually making them aware of their future responsibilities as an adult. They should teach them the benefits of choosing the right careers but, at the same time, pursue their passions side by side throughout their life. If the child aims to pursue a passion, as it can become difficult to follow a passion while pursuing a different carrier, both being the same aids in helping the child excel. Career selection is the most crucial decision in any person’s whole life.

Their involvement lets them excel and prepare them for the beginning of their life to seek all the opportunities so that they can easily choose careers and make it their passion in the long run.Kathleen Cotton in her article writes about the effect of parent involvement in schools. “Is parent involvement a valuable, if largely untapped, resource for schools struggling to provide state-of-the -art instruction with diminishing funds–a way to instill pride and interest in schooling, increase student achievement, and enhance a sense of community and commitment? Or is it one more responsibility to add to overburdened teachers and administrators–or even a threat to the autonomy and professionalism of the schools?” (Cotton, 1) Students, with this participation grow in confidence and become successful. Parents that carefully observe their child’s capabilities and their deep curiosities in the things they like the most. Being an adult and experienced parents are capable of analyzing a child’s passion and the best suitable job roles in accordance. Parents being passive at this predicament can negatively impact the child and also make them think as if the parent is not much interested in my choices.

Parents that ignore their children end up ruining their academic carriers. While others let them make their decisions on their own and not help them to choose the best ones. So that they can learn from their own experiences. Kendra cherry in an article describes about the effects of uninvolved parenting. “The children of uninvolved parents generally perform poorly in nearly every area of life. These children tend to display deficits in cognition, attachment, emotional skills, and social skills. Due to the lack of emotional responsiveness and love from their caretakers, children raised by uninvolved parents may have difficulty forming attachments later in life. (Cherry, 3)

It gives them a sense of protection that whatever they want, their parents will not punish them for making the wrong decision. It will make them more confident in making the right decisions in the future and will learn from there past mistakes. Just because the elder brother or parent chose a line of study isn’t reason enough for the child to make that decision as well. Studies have proved that people who tend to choose professions they love and are passionate about are more confident, Successful, and dedicated in their fields. As per the study conducted byABIGAIL BEALL from daily mail, Nurses’ daughters are more likely to follow in their parents’ footsteps, Scientist fathers have scientist daughters at 3.9 above the overall rate, Mothers who work in law are more likely to have sons with legal careers Twins had the biggest tendency to choose the same occupation, at 24.7% (BEALL, 2) Not letting a child excel as per their own passion is cruel. Choosing a career, according to passion, makes the individual feel free of stress and burden. It gives a sense of empowerment and personal freedom. Due to which that person does not bound to do the duties that he doesn’t really like at all.

Children that are gifted, their parents can guide them side by side, they won’t have to face the pressures of making tough choices alone in such predicaments. Some children are sensitive and are less confident in making the more significant decisions of their lives. As per a study Parents of gifted children are typically the single most important influence in their child’s development, outlook, and fulfillment of talent. In addition to being their child’s primary caregivers, parents of gifted children alternately function as “mentor,” “praiser,” “disciplinarian,” “playmate,” “teacher,” and sometimes “best friend”—to name just a few. Parents are truly the guardians and nurturers of their children’s talents. (Alvino, 1)Parents that tend to see that gift in their children and be their biggest support can help the child excel immensely.

It can be concluded that parents can be the best model in preparing their children more confident and build their personalities strong enough to face the demanding situations of their life bravely. Parents should always be supportive, encouraging, and backing their children in each phase of their life. It will make them self-sufficient. Choosing the right career is still a very confusing and risk-taking decision for some people with different career interests. It still confuses people that they are going for the right choice. Just because it’s their passion without knowing that it might not be the best career option in the long run. So Parents can act the best guide to let him opt for his career after checking their child’s potential as well as the current job market scenarios.

Similarly, there are a lot of more significant decisions that every individual has to make for himself during the different phases of their life Parents can aid children in improving their decision-making skills by guiding them to choose the most suitable major leading to a carrier. Career decisions can either make a person’s life or entirely ruin it forever. Hence parents can help and support children in making the right decisions at the beginning. This will gradually build their confidence in making the more significant decisions of their life on their own when there is no one to guide them.

Works Cited


Alvino, James. Considerations and Strategies for Parenting the Gifted Child . 1995. 10 4 2020.

BEALL, ABIGAIL. Taking over the family business: Children tend to make career choices based on what jobs their parents and siblings have. 3 2016. 10 4 2020.

Brummelman, Eddie. My Child Redeems My Broken Dreams: On Parents Transferring Their Unfulfilled Ambitions onto Their Child. 2013. 10 4 2020.

Cherry, Kendra. Uninvolved Parenting. 17 7 2019. 17 4 2020.

Cotton, Kathleen. “Parent Involvement in Education.” (1989).

Crozier, Gill. Parental involvement: Who wants it? 2011 17 4 2020.

Fizer, Darren. Factors Affecting Career Choices of College Students Enrolled in Agriculture. 2013. 10 4 2020.

HU, WINNIE. Forced to Pick a Major in High School. 2007. 6 4 2020.

Kohn, Alfie. Choices for Children. 1993. 9 4 2020.

Lyness, D’Arcy. Your Child’s Self-Esteem. 2020. 10 4 2020.

O’Donnell, J.T. 3 Ways Parents Can Help Their Kids Avoid a Post-Graduation Career Meltdown. 26 3 2019. 17 4 2020.

Page, Beverly A. “A parents’ guide to understanding the behavior of gifted children.” (2010): 39-42.

qualifax. The Parent’s Role in Career Selection. 2020. 9 4 2020.

Sandler, Howard M. “Why Do Parents Become Involved in Their Children’s Education?” (1997). How Parent Involvement Leads to Student Success. 1q 2018. 10 4 2020.

Waters, Lea. THE VALUE OF STRENGTH-BASED PARENTING. 2016. My research shows that children and teenagers who have strength-based parents:916. 10 4 2020.


No bold necessary.  Also, Major isn’t plural and does not contain a possessive ‘s [ME1]


You can simply call it an essay or paper, not a study. [ME2]



Need to directly quote your source and provide analysis.  [ME3]


This isn’t cited correctly and needs a direct quote. [ME4]


Who is this?  Also, do not begin with a quote but with your own idea.   [ME5]


Who is this?  Also, do not begin with a quote but with your own idea.   [ME6]


Topic sentences are needed before you bring in a source.  Also, are you paraphrasing the entire paragraph?  Why the author name and parenthesis at the end?   [ME7]


Who is this and what is their expertise?  What article did you get the quote from?  This all needs to be clear for the reader. [ME8]



Why is this an element in your essay and not typed by you?  Did you cut and paste this from somewhere else?  Confusing. [ME9]


Problems of Children Being Abused

Differentiation in Teaching a critical appraisal of the literature




  1. Introduction
  1. Introductory statement : God is Omnipotent and Wholly Good; His Creation of a world of contrast is as a result of His causal laws
  2. Thesis: God could have made people both free and incapable of wrongdoing.
    1. Body
  3. Mackie’s views regarding the cause of evil
  4. Freedom of free will from God
  5. Levels of evil
  6. Mackie’s views as a series of questions; Paradoxes and Dilemmas
  7. God’s choices and Men’s choices
  8. Van Inwagen’s views
  9. The world consists of dire evils
  10. God should have the ability to rid the world from these evils.
  11. Plantinga’s Free Will defense and Inwagen’s assertions
  12. Inwagen asserts that God does not exist
  13. Argument put forth by FWD that a perfect world can’t be real.
  14. Van Inwagen’s states reasons and explanations
  15. God does exist but He must have reasons to let evil happen
  16. His reasons are unknown
    • Conclusion
  • Inwagen clarifies Mackie’s concepts and provides an insight to the dilemmas posed by him and states reasons therein.


God could have made people both free and incapable of wrongdoing. Summarize and assess both Mackie’s and Van Inwagen’s views on this point. Does Van Inwagen help you understand Mackie? Does he adequately reply to Mackie? What would Mackie say to the usual believer’s idea that God is like a parent who lets children make their own mistakes.

God is considered to be an entity that is wholly amalgamated with goodness, benevolence, and mercy. He is considered to be an omnipotent being whose abilities are limitless, He can do what he wants, but His purpose, as analyzed by philosophers and theists is that of promoting goodness, rather than eradicating evil entirely from the world. However, God did create a contrasting world, whereby good and wrongdoing co-exist, and one’s existence complements the existence of the other. Similarly, evil has to exist as a counterpart to good which implies that if there were no wrong in the world, there could be no good either, that a world free of wrongdoing would be nothing but a false illusion that can only exist in one’s mind, because God has formulated causal laws that, upon analysis, prove that contrast enhances the beauty and therefore, a universe having both good and evil is better than one that is free of evil. (Feinburg,2015)

Regarding the cause of sin, famous Australian philosopher J.L Mackie is of the view that crime and iniquity exist because of the endowment of freedom of free will from God to human beings who are flawed and independent beings, and their actions reflect likewise. Hence, the existence of evil should not directly be attributed to God, because there are levels of evil, at the first level, sin is justified as an imperative component in goodness at the second level; however, evil at the second level is not justified but is still attributed to human beings, and as a result, God is absolved from the responsibility. If God being omnipotent and the epitome of goodness in His entirety did not create men such that they should be “innocent automata,” act right under all circumstances and not commit any act of wrongdoing whatsoever,  this rightfully argues that it is better for men to act freely, even if that means making mistakes. This makes freedom to be treated as goodness on the third level, higher than the preceding levels, which makes it more precious, and therefore, it is accompanied by its counterpart, the second-order evil.

Moreover, Mackie also puts forth the question that if God made men such that in their free choices they sometimes prefer what is good and sometimes what is evil, why could he not have made men such that they always freely choose the good? This question then brings to light the feature of choice, a choice that God made, to not create the world such that no evil existed in it. The actions and subsequent choices made by men can be free only if it is assumed that they cannot be predicted by their traits that God created.  This ultimately leads to paradoxical claims regarding freedom and poses several questions regarding the random nature and credibility of freedom as a higher-order good. Mackie demonstrates his views, hence, as a series of paradoxes and dilemmas where there is no right answer to the numerous questions that arise from God’s omnipotence and His preference of making the world and humans prone to evil when He is assumed to have both elimination and creation powers.
Nevertheless, Notre Dame, Professor Peter Van Inwagen believes that the world consists of dire offenses, some of which are too ghastly to be spoken of, and if a God existed, He would do whatever it takes to wipe those off from the face of the world, but since we see no proof of that, Inwagen altogether negates the existence of God. In his opinion, omnipotence and moral perfection are attributes of God, and keeping in view these attributes; He should be able to create a world free and incapable of wrongdoing and sinful behavior. (Feinburg,2015)

This leads us further towards Plantinga’s Free Will Defense, which states the argument that it is intrinsically impossible to picture the world as ideal, and hence a morally perfect universe cannot be actualized. God, in fact, brings such a world in reality where moral imperfections exist, even if that implies that the existence of wrongful acts and the existence of God is compatible. (Pruss, 2012). Coming back to Inwagen’s views, God’s non-negotiable attributes mainly omnipotence and moral perfection are also further complemented by Him knowing about everything and another argument is established which states that God must be aware of the substantial evil that exists and assuming that He is, that should be sufficient for the argument that since He is morally perfect, he must want the world to be free of these evils. And His omnipotence should overcome every obstacle there is to eradicate these horrible wrongs. But yet we witness longlasting, terrible wrongs, leading us to another argument; God does not exist.
However, Peter Van Inwagen asserts also that God must have reasons to let evil happen, and these reasons are called theodicy. Theodicy can take another form too, defense, in that also the content is fairly similar, but there are real possibilities that must cater as reasons for God letting human beings do the sins that they do and not refrain them from wrongdoing, that may be due to freedom, or that may be due to Him having a greater good in mind which will only come about by allowing for these evils.  (Feinburg,2015)

In conclusion, I hereby affirm that Inwagen indeed aids in understanding the views of Mackie better, and He also offers an explanation to the arguments and paradoxical claims put forth by Mackie. His views must not be considered a reply to Mackie, rather a clarification of things in his views that posed as a dilemma to Mackie, as well as the rest of the world. I believe that Mackie left off at an incomplete stance, and Van Inwagen not only completed his sentences but also offered apt explanations of his reasons via the use of stories and analogies, like any philosopher would do. Mackie would probably agree to a usual believer’s idea of thinking of God as a parent who lets children make and learn from their own mistakes, predicting that a greater good will come out of the lessons they learn from this freedom of theirs in the long term.

References :

  • Sie M. (1998) Goodwill, Determinism and Justification. In: Bransen J., Cuypers S.E. (eds) Human Action, Deliberation and Causation. Philosophical Studies Series, vol 77. Springer, Dordrecht
  • God and the Ethics of Belief: New Essays in Philosophy of Religion, Andrew Chignell and Andrew Dole, eds., Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2005, pp. 77-98.
  • Russ, Alexander. “A Counterexample to Plantinga’s Free Will Defense – Volume 29, Issue 4, October 2012.” Faith and Philosophy, 4 Apr. 2020,
  • Feinberg, Joel, and Russ Shafer-Landau. Reason And Responsibility: Readings in Some Basic Problems of Philosophy. Wadsworth Publishing Company, 2015.

Essay: idea of “fate”




The millennial generation in the world is growing, so there values, demographic needs, and habits. The changes in their preferences are sparking, particularly in the hospitality industry (Aleks, R. and Saksida, T., 2019). The specific generation is born between 1980 and 2000, the early 1980s or early 2000s generation is a rapidly growing population and engaging world business. This new wave of travelers has spread significant influence over the hospitality industry. The youngest generation wants to explore new avenues, explore new experiences, and want to interact with different destinations (Carpenter, M.J. and Charon, L.C.D., 2014). Designers and architects have used this opportunity to create design elements and offer space to incorporate valuable preferences of the millennial generation.  Industry sources have discussed that millennial travelers contribute to more than 50% of all the guests of the hotel in 2020 (Chen, P.J. and Choi, Y., 2008). This critical reflection intends to address the significance of catering to millennials regarding the hospitality industry. It will explore its impact, stakeholders, and cultural factors with related evidence.

Literature Review

Collective consciousness has proposed the impact of baby boomers as a new force, while copious millennials are found to be more vital labor force than any other generation. The significantly different values, lifestyles, and beliefs from baby boomers generation have made millennials to dominate the hospitality industry (Dev, C.S., 2012). According to Talent’s development at Stamford, Erin Haid discussed that “millennials want companies to work according to their values and get connected to their preferences. They need better opportunities to grow and a clear path to accepting challenges”. Another evidence about millennials’ effect on the hospitality industry is described by Mike Oshins, the professor of Hospitality Administration Boston, “millennials like transparency and they need to work on a broader level in the hotel industry, reflecting different values like self-help, etc.

The impact of millennials on the hospitality industry, in general, can be seen from different perspectives, such as their way of work and understanding. They look for challenging and exciting work, and their role in the hospitality industry is different than previous generations. Guelph funded study at Dalhousie University proposed a comparative study to find out the work values in X and Y Generation. The study found that the oldest millennials, on average, had seven jobs till their 30s as compared to baby boomers and X generations. The study identified different novelty for millennials and their role in hospitality. The generation appeared to be tech-savvy but committed to work (He, J., Morrison, A.M. and Zhang, H., 2019). The roles of millennials in the hospitality industry have proven their flexibility for different purposes, expertise in locations, and priorities. Their impact on catering is witnessed from their flexible schedules and accommodation of personal needs. The effect of millennials on hospitality can be seen from their passion for working; for instance, they are more likely to leave if they think they cannot develop at a specific place and vice versa.

The impact of millennials on sustainable companies is due to the community growth they are seeking. The accomplishment of standard job duties and spirit of work is developing as culture becomes enriched. The Star Wood management program evaluated the role and performance of the millennial regarding the hotel industry. In hospitality organizations, millennials’ expectations represent their decisions about hospitality technology. Brands are engaged in targeting millennials in every segment of life because their preferences drive leading brands to get the benefit of technology (Kim, D.-Y. and Park, S., 2019). Through new processes, new technologies, the scope of management will increase, and new engagement ways will develop, according to a study.  The hospitality industry is specific to discuss millennial consumer expectations because they appear best guests to guide hotels.

According to the US Census Bureau, millennials are the largest growing demographic segment is millennials. The reason behind this is the immigration surge in the US from abroad. Another reason is the decline in the baby boomer generation when they reach their golden age. Pew Research Center has presented that a high number of millennials in 2030 will be 8.11 million. In the hospitality industry, this reason will increase investment due to their value as consumers (Kostuch Media Ltd. and Kostuch Media Ltd., 2015). They are future and perceived as a vital changing force for the coming times since they possess a great experience to think like a guest and use technology. The distinct culture millennials are come up with aligns consumers’ expectations (Kostuch Media Ltd. and Kostuch Media Ltd 2015).

The hospitality business significantly considers the changed scenario to cater to this tech-savvy generation. The five-star hotel industries are rethinking their stuff according to the millennial’s demand. The hotel and travel industry is lucrative and hugely attractive. Global millennials are two billion, and from Asia, 60% of them belong, and in India, only 400 million reside (Mejia, C. and Lavendol, V., 2015).  They are strong enough and the highest spending power, so big corporate travels. The director of Deloitte’s travel hospitality discussed that the impact of millennials on hospitality is significant since they focus more on experience and genuinely care for the shared values.

Kim, D.-Y. And Park, S (2019) discussed the effect of millennials in the hospitality industry regarding stakeholders and organizations. The well being and employee performance in the hospitality industry is analyzed in this study that how central workforce and its attitude is drawing attention in research. The study examined prior literature regarding human resource practices and its influence on millennials that is influencing behavior in the workforce.  Responsible leadership contributes to a productive workforce, and employees can make a difference in the hospitality industry. The qualitative study proved that the practical value of hotels is due to millennials and their wellbeing fosters to develop a responsible leadership.

Sofronov, B (2018) proposed a study to identify change due to millennials in the tourism industry and the significance they made. The study undertook a broader picture of social media and technology-based framework as well as internet access. Millennials are affecting buying elements due to their informed approach to decision making and the whole influence of technology. The perceived authenticity was discussed by the author that symbolizes millennials significant and different from other demographics. Millennials are found to be more interested in the hospitality and travel industry due to sustainability and a sense of fulfillment that the hotel industry understands.

He, J., Morrison, A.M., and Zhang, H (2019) analyzed the impact of millennials on tourism and hospitality industries. The focus of this study was to highlight the significance of the latest trends and differentiated buying preferences of the millennial generation. The research surveyed different employees of the hospitality industry to know about the wellbeing millennials get when they receive favorable behavior. The assessment of employees’ experience through their perception has provided a clear insight for their commitment to work. The characterization of employees’ assessment was positively related to work experience and interest in the hospitality industry.

Warda, S.Y (2019) discussed the tourist behavior under the shift of a generation. The study facilitated the latest accommodation and anticipation trends in the hospitality industry. Due to the unique, influential segment of tourism, the millennial generation is in the spotlight due to their preferences. The impact of millennial behavior on social media and travel choices has also significantly impacted stakeholders and related organizations. The study investigated past literature and conducted a survey for Emirati travelers to know their travel patterns. This research has provided useful insights about valuable preferences of millennials¸ their influential activities, destinations, and leisure time. The scope of this influence is exemplary for the hospitality industry since it develops suggestions for future businesses.

Kostuch Media Ltd (2015) developed a discussion about the impact of millennials on the hotel industry and the values. The research focused on critical values millennials possess and their behavioral perspective, which is a differentiated factor.   Hotels are a vital body that targets this particular group specifically, to know their interests and values and offer predictable products. The experiential part in this regard is to focus on the critical behavioral aspects which are seen from self-help, challenging nature, and sustainability factors of millennials. The hospitality business for millennials is valuable and attractive because they are well versed in branding.

Different contextual factors influence the hospitality industry when talking about millennial impact. The youngest travelers today seek the opportunity to interact with others and explore a different destination. The contextual factors in terms of high five star hotels and design elements can be discussed concerning millennials. The property and geography location is a valuable factor that targets millennials, for example, Pasito Blanco Resort is engaging differential design patterns to get involve the traditional design looks to target guests with the feeling of early Spanish villages (Mejia, C. and Lavendol, V., 2015). Different shared areas involve diverse experiences for travel generation. The traditional lobby, hotel design, and communal spaces are key factors that engage millennials in various design elements.

The emphasis on wellness is another factor, millennials focus. For instance, in some studies, the significance of exercise for health is found as valued by millennials, so hotels put more emphasis on such programs and offer facilities to attract this health-conscious generation. Hotel designers undertake the scope of work and accommodation to millennials with a specific focus on millennials. The hiking trails, biking, and yoga pavilions are developed in hotels to target this generation. For example, Antigua Carlisle Bay is introduced for guests with a unique mind and a passion for excursion (Verity, C., 2016). The millennials are mainly catered to rethink traditional procedures because they can likely be pay off by focusing on their demographics. The hotel industry primarily caters to millennials by keeping in mind their preferences and presuming as a forward-thinking generation.

Millennials prioritize their experience over products, and this notion mainly works in five-star hotels. The demand and emphasis on offering unique products to valuable customers is also a big challenge for marketers because, due to transitioning social media, preferences change most often. The buying of a product is not simple, but it is aligned with the elements and contextual factors that motivate millennials to purchase. The hoteliers are shifting their approach of marketing to align with that of millennials’ perception. Earlier, customers were satisfied with the standard services, but now hoteliers have to undertake an extra mile to satisfy the new generation and provide an outstanding intangible experience.

The attractive point for millennials is justified when they are offered with an exceptional experience, not only the functionality of the product. The cutting edge technology today is a necessary value for money, not only an option (Warda, S.Y., 2019). The contextual factors today are mostly being appeared in the form of the latest technology, for instance, virtual reality, a personalized approach, and a digital concierge. The virtual reality in the hospitality industry is all about investing in technology by hotels to allure guests. These devices are equipped with the latest travel guides and postcards, thus offering guests a firsthand experience of their travel. The hotel industry tends to increase this experience, thereby creates a sound environment for millennials.

The value of a personalized approach is significant when viewed in terms of imperative factors. In the hospitality industry, the innovative way is used to customize products and services, so guests’ data is used. The usage of millennials’ data offers valuable insight to get them back and understand the routine behavior that would, in turn, be helpful to take a personalized approach.  Millennials also believe in technology more than any other generation, so a sharp rise in communication applications is seen. Hoteliers also take this opportunity to develop a primary source of communication; for example, IHG and Hyatt hotels employ third party channels for communication to provide specialized experience to guests.

Many contextual and cultural factors are on their way to impact the hotel industry under the particular influence of millennials. They also focus on aesthetic preferences and thoughts more than any other generation. In North America and Western countries, millennials are culturally diverse larger than in any other country. In the US, 42.8% of millennials are in minorities and speak more than one language. Only 24.6% speak English at home. This evidence suggests that millennials are sensitive to culture and languages more than generation X and baby boomers.  It also necessitates the influence of multiculturalism. Due to diverse backgrounds and language, their interest in experience is more significant than any other generation in the hospitality industry.

Pew Research Center described millennials as a generation that accounts for 2 billion people, and it is the most diverse generation in the US. These consumers are also the significant generational cohort showing economic growth, employees’ sourcing.  Chen, P.J., and Choi, Y (2008) discussed the work values of millennials in a study. The focus of the research was generational differences in relation to the hospitality industry. The study explored how different generations perceive benefits in hospitality work management. The survey was used to investigate hospitality organizations in the US. The work values defined by millennials were personal growth, security, and comfort, and work environment.  It was inferred that work value structure in the hospitality workforce is based on cultural factors that are persistent in millennials. The study was limited to US tourism destinations, and the managerial staff was investigated.

Aleks, R. and Saksida, T (2019) illustrated that the millennial generation is valuable in terms of their perception and viewpoints regarding business. The study discussed that millennials prefer their travel experiences, yet they are diverse in the case of culture. The selection of knowledge is deeply linked to the personal approach, and they develop a particular identity for them. Authors discussed the way of living, incorporating digital technology in daily life, and the ability to enhance life’s value. The notion of culture and its impact on millennials can be seen in education. Valuable experience and thinking style helps drive different perceptions and diversity.

Carpenter, M.J., and Charon, L.C.D (2014) mentioned the role of millennials in the hospitality industry. The study found out differences in thinking and adopting culture. In Brazil, 99% of millennials tend to use their smartphones in the restaurants, but a fifth of Japanese millennials are not involved in this activity.  In a report by Oracle, hospitality was discussed with a broader point of view for millennials. Their impact on the hotel industry was analyzed by their focus on technology and its use in hotel premises. It was found out that millennials willingly use mobile phones in restaurants, while only 6% reported that they do not use these digital devices in hotels. Mexicans and Brazilian millennials always keep their phones, and many of them use phones to interact with other hotels.

Taking into account the cultural factors, millennials focus on engaging with the latest brands and value the marketing approach. This structural significance provides the idea of value to traditions and culture. They also focus on creativity, knowledge, identity, and creativity (Mejia, C. and Lavendol, V., 2015).  This style of work and understanding engages more people and demonstrate the value of the hotel given guests. The method of understanding and reflecting identity is seen in the hospitality sector; therefore, it generates personal viewpoints about culture.

Conclusions & Recommendations

Millennials are operating n a modern digital environment, and it is safe to say that social media and technology are present in their DNA. The digital transparent world is getting engaged in the brand value with a broader sense of the hospitality industry. The high technology modern advertisement practices are significant in building brand value and generate bottom-up or top-down approaches. This massive information group of the consumer is transforming the whole framework that has provided a larger scope to marketers. In particular, in the case of the hospitality industry, the need to target millennials is catered due to their success in the hospitality and travel sector. The focus of the brand portfolio and need is tailored to the millennial’s demand, not their ancestors. This shift of thinking has provided a valuable approach to target millennials, in the specific context of the hospitality industry, due to the key features, they possess.

It is recommended that due to the intensive significance of millennials in the hospitality industry, they should be targeted with their preference. Since they grew up witnessing the global financial crisis, it will empower their thoughts, rights, and opinions.  The generation has a significant drive for innovation, and being appreciative and loyal; it can be productive for the hospitality industry when targeted accurately.

The hospitality industry can make adequate consideration of millennials by engaging them in management and valuing their perspectives. It is recommended that they should have a significant opportunity for career progression (Mejia, C. and Lavendol, V., 2015). They should be offered development and training opportunities.

The millennial generation is also more diverse ethically than any other generation so they can contribute well in economic growth. They should be valued in terms of identifying key focused areas. Advertisement can also effectively target them by knowing their interests and incorporating changes they want in the hospitality industry (Kim, D.-Y. and Park, S., 2019).

The food industry has a significant impact on millennials and the other way round due to the emergence of the culture of food. This influence has changed the traditional methods of food and hotel management because today, a more attractive approach is used to target customers. The emerging trends due to the latest technology have customized food patterns and beverages, such as black ice cream or rainbow food. The foodservice companies are significantly targeting millennial generation, so they offer a massive scope to the hospitality industry. Restaurants and hotels can provide brand experience enhancement programs to cater to more millennials. They love and discover new experiences, and this aspect can be captured by offering them a flexible approach and customized options. Unique and authentic quality brands can approach millennials. They cannot be segmented towards brands because they seek out unique experiences and have a massive quest to personalize. The reflection has provided me an insight to understand and map the preferences of millennials. This approach is significant for me to learn the behavior of the hospitality industry in segmenting a demographic on its interest basis.





Aleks, R. and Saksida, T., 2019. Hero or Villain? How Millennials’ Attitudes towards Unions Compare to Those of Previous Generations. Academy of Management Proceedings, 2019(1), p.15933.

Carpenter, M.J. and Charon, L.C.D., 2014. Mitigating Multigenerational Conflict and Attracting, Motivating, and Retaining Millennial Employees by Changing the Organizational Culture: A Theoretical Model. Journal of Psychological Issues in Organizational Culture, 5(3), pp.68–84.

Chen, P.J. and Choi, Y., 2008. Generational differences in work values: a study of hospitality management. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 20(6), pp.595–615.

Dev, C.S., 2012. Hospitality Marketing and Branding: Past and Future. Hospitality Branding, pp.2–12.

He, J., Morrison, A.M. and Zhang, H., 2019. Improving Millennial Employee Well-Being and Task Performance in the Hospitality Industry: The Interactive Effects of HRM and Responsible Leadership. Sustainability, 11(16), p.4410.

Kim, D.-Y. and Park, S., 2019. Rethinking millennials: how are they shaping the tourism industry? Asia Pacific Journal of Tourism Research, 25(1), pp.1–2.

Kostuch Media Ltd. and Kostuch Media Ltd., 2015. Catering to Millennials in the Hotel Industry. [online] Hotelier Magazine. Available at: <> [Accessed 1 Feb. 2020].

Mejia, C. and Lavendol, V., 2015. Who’s the Boss?:Millennials Managing Across Generations in the Hospitality Industry.

Sofronov, B., 2018. Millennials: A New Trend For The Tourism Industry. Annals of SpiruHaret University. Economic Series, 18(3), pp.109–122.

Verity, C., 2016. The Millennials and Catering In The Hospitality & Travel Industry. [online] Crown Verity. Available at: <> [Accessed 2 Feb. 2020].

Warda, S.Y., 2019. Emirati Millennials: A Catalyst for Innovation in the Tourism Industry. Transnational Marketing Journal, 7(2), pp.131–160.


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