This paper aims to show that during the Great Depression, which started on October 29, 1929, and continued until 1939 when the second World War began, was a period of massive suffering for the citizens. The country suffered at all fronts; there was an exponential increase in poverty as exports and imports fell, investment in local industries reduced dramatically, and output was at a recorded low, the rate of unemployment became extremely high which contributed to the decrease in consumerism. As the condition worsened, the municipal and provincial governments, as well as the volunteer organizations, could not do much to help the citizens. Therefore, the federal government stepped in to solve the problem through the implementation of several acts, provision of relief and by creating employment opportunities. The role that the government played during the Great Depression eventually led to Canada becoming a welfare state.

First of all, it is necessary to understand Canada’s context during the 1920s to understand why it was so devastated when the stock market in New York crashed. When the first World War ended, the whole world—except the United States—had suffered massively. However, Canada soon propelled out of the slump as it began to export minerals needed in the production of goods such as automobiles and electronics increased. The mining industry saw a boom as more and more US investors became interested in mining of minerals such as zinc and copper. Not only this, “US carmakers had plants in Canada able to produce half a million automobiles a year” (Clements, 2012, p. 210) which also stimulated the Canadian economy. Added to this, the agricultural yield in the year 1928 was record-breaking. All these profited the economy, but it is imperative to note that the Canadian economy was heavily dependent on the economy of the United States. Unsurprisingly, when the New York stock market crashed in October 1929, the effects were felt profoundly by the Toronto Stock exchange as well. The Great Depression that followed was extraordinarily severe, and its effects continued to be manifested in every domain for the next many years to come, so much so that Canadian authors have termed the 1930s as the “ten lost years” and “the dirty thirties”.

During the Great Depression, Canada saw dramatic deflation as “from 1929 to 1933, Gross National Product fell by 42 per cent in current, and 29 per cent in constant dollars,” (Horn, 1984, p. 3) income in 1933 dropped to being just 51 per cent of what it used to be in 1929, and “imports by volume were down by a huge 56.7 per cent from 1929 to 1933” (Horn, 1984, p.3).While the whole world was suffering, Canada was pressed at several fronts. Trade deteriorated as well; “average export prices for all Canadian goods in 1933 were only 62.6 per cent of what they had been four years earlier…[while] import prices were still 71.3 per cent of what they had been in 1929” (Horn, 1984, p.5).It did not help that one of the economic warfare strategies employed was the placement of high tariffs and export subsidies. This caused the exports to decline and therefore, Canada that relied heavily on exporting of raw and semi-produced good suffered substantial economic losses.

At the same time, different parts of the country fared differently. Western farmers, especially the Saskatchewan—who were heavily dependent on the export of wheat—suffered most. Not only were their crops plagued by droughts and grasshoppers, but now they also had to compete with Argentina, Australia, Russia, as well as the United States. During the Great Depression, prices had fallen, and the currency was devalued, so all these countries were trying to export their surplus crops. “Prior to the Great Depression, exports of wheat and wheat flour were between 7 and 8.5 per cent of GNP, roughly a third of total exports” (Amaral &MacGee, 2016, p.6). However, “wheat exports (in bushels) fell by 25 per cent between 1927 and 1933 and the price fell by over half. The fall in our exports was due to both the quantity exported and the price falling in half by 1933” (Amaral &MacGee, 2016, p.7).Their loss can be assessed by the fact that “the total provincial income was little more than one-quarter in 1933 of what it had been five years earlier” (Horn, 1984, p.5).

A decline in agricultural export is only one component of the larger picture, but one thing was connected to a multitude of other things. As the demand for wheat declined, it negatively impacted the functioning of railways. Firms that produced capital goods such as tractors could neither continue to maintain the same output, nor did the people have the same power of buying and saw meagre sales. “Export-oriented areas and industries, miners in Cape Breton and on the British Columbia-Alberta border, forest workers in Quebec, Ontario and British Columbia: these and others like them suffered severely” (Horn, 1984, p.9).Workers in sectors such as those of finance, services or retail were usually still employed, but many of the blue-collar workers fared worse-off and were laid off. Average unemployment rates in 1933 range from 19.3 to 27 per cent, whereas in 1929, the unemployment rate averaged between 2.5 to 4.2 per cent. In May 1933, one-third of wage earners no longer had a job.

It was not just the earners who suffered. One-third of these unemployed meant that not only them, their whole families suffered. Not being able to pay for education meant that many children were taken out of schools. At the same time, fresh graduates were stepping into a world where there were no jobs. Doctors, engineers, lawyers were depressed as there were not enough people who would be able to pay for their services, especially when highly experienced practitioners were also competing. All this meant that the country was forced to take a step back in technology. Poverty in rural areas was not lesser, but it was relatively easier to bear that when you could sustain yourselves through growing your own food. So, the rural to urban migration that gained momentum in the nineteenth century stopped, and more people were likely to move to western provinces or the farmlands basically.

People in the cities had to be fed and kept alive. The population out of work and unable to feed themselves was so high that neither the provincial governments nor the non-profitable organizations could provide food and shelter to them for more than a few days. Therefore, it was “only government that could keep thousands of Canadians from starving or freezing to death. Relief, by 1935, cost the Canadian government a total cost of $173 million” (Horn, 1984, p.7).By 1933, around 1.5 million people were dependent on the government for basic needs. This number increased to 1.9 million in 1934, which shows that even though the Great Depression is said to be ended by March 1933, people were still devastated in Canada. When people could not even afford food, they went “on the pogey.” “Pogey,” that was relief provided by the government in the form of cash or vouchers.

  1. L. Mackenzie King was Canada’s Prime Minister when the Depression broke out. He took a lot of time even to acknowledge that the country was in a state of economic crisis. When he did, he made little measures to provide relief to the people. He had the mindset that the responsibility of creating jobs to reduce unemployment fell on the provinces. His unwillingness pushed him out of government, and R. B. Bennett was elected as the Prime Minister. Bennett, a Conservative, also held the same beliefs. Both King’s and Bennett’s “reluctance to tackle unemployment contributed to a fiscal collapse in the four western provinces and in hundreds of municipalities” (Struthers, 2013).However, once in office, Bennett allocated $20 million for relief programs. Work camps were part of the relief system Bennett had devised in the early 1930s. These work camps were operated by the Department of National Defence and were aimed to help young men who were otherwise ineligible to receive relief. Far from city centres, these men would get a room, medical care, and a meagre amount of $0.20 for their daily expenses, in exchange for their manual labour on projects. However, “in 1935, a protest against conditions in the camps culminated in the Regina Riot. This was Canada’s most violent episode of the Depression” (Struthers, 2013).

As a response to the federal government’s persistence that providing jobs was the responsibility that laid on the shoulders of the provinces and that people are responsible for their well-being, several reforms from opposing parties sprang out. Occurring at a provincial level, these movements’ main objective was that it was the government that initiates recovery. One of these was these were the Social Credit theory, proposed by William Aberhart. He “sought to increase consumer spending by issuing credits worth $25 a month to citizens. Not wishing to encourage idleness, these dividends could be suspended if people refused available employment” (Clements, 2012, p.218).Unsurprisingly, farmers of Alberta were thrilled by this promise. Others who proposed alternate strategies to revive the economy included,“the British Columbia Premier T. Dufferin Pattullo, the democratic socialism of J.S. Woodsworth and the Co-operative Commonwealth Federation (CCF) as well as the Union Nationale in Quebec, led by Maurice Duplessis” (Struthers, 2013).

Along with these, other groups such as “the Workers Unity League, the League for Social Reconstruction, the Relief Camp Workers Union, Jeune-Canada and the National Unemployed Workers Association” (Struthers, 2013) which used the unemployed frustrated population to participate in marches and protests did push Bennett into taking a number of measures. The Canadian Wheat Board was set up to provide shelter to prairie farmers and design strategies to market their wheat to the world market. Other acts—such as the Farmer’s Creditors Arrangement Act and the Prairie Farm Rehabilitation Act—were implemented to help ease the debt of farmers and to propose solutions to the drought their lands faced. Following this, the Bank of Canada was set up to formulate the government’s monetary policy. Moreover, Bennett proposed the New Deal, that finally reflected an aggressive approach to tackle the economic crisis, contrary to what his beliefs had been. Bennett’s new deal was supposed to deal with wages, hours of work, natural resource marketing, as well as provide unemployment insurance. Before it could be implemented, Bennett lost office, and King was re-elected who was not in favour of this act. He realized the need for the state to provide long-term relief to the citizens and in 1940, “the federal government assumed responsibility for the jobless by introducing a national unemployment insurance scheme and employment service” (Struthers, 2013).

The transition of the state to provide public investment to create jobs so that the rate of unemployment could be decreased as private investment failed to do so, were in line with the economic theories of British economist John Maynard Keynes. Keynes’s ideas influenced the National Employment Commission report (1938) and the report of the Royal Commission on Dominion-Provincial Relations (1940). When World War II broke out, Keynesian economics actually became integrated into the government policy, only to shape the country as a welfare state. Through active measures by the government and “the massive state expenditures necessitated by the war finally reduced unemployment to minimal levels by 1942” (Struthers, 2013). In the long run, the Great Depression directed the government into taking more active roles in providing people with relief, grants, employment opportunities and facilities.

Conclusively, the years during the Great Depression were extremely difficult for the citizens as well as the governments in power. Its impacts were continued to be faced for successive years. However, during these testing times, the government was pressurized by opposing parties, groups, and the public to take a more active role to think about their well-being and to create jobs through the investment so that the economy could retain its economic footing. In retrospect, “some of the developments that made Canada one of the most robust welfare state systems can be traced back to the 1940s,” (Vivekanandan, 2002)to the time when the country had successfully come out of the “bitter thirties” with the “vision to build a new Canadian society based in equal opportunities and equal facilities, with employment security for everybody in the country” (Vivekanandan, 2002).






Amaral, P. S., &MacGee, J. (2016). Trade, Relative Prices, and the Canadian Great           Depression.

Brady, A. (1940). Report of the Royal Commission on Dominion‐Provincial           Relations. Canadian Historical Review21(3), 245-253.

Clements, P. (2012). The Great Depression and the Americas 1929-39. Hodder Education.

Horn, M. (1984). The Great Depression of the 1930s in Canada (No. 39). Canadian Historical       Association.

Purvis, A. B., & National Employment Commission. (1938). Final report of the National   Employment Commission, 26th January 1938.

Struthers, J. (2020). The Great Depression in Canada | The Canadian Encyclopedia.               Retrieved May 20 2020, from              

Vivekanandan, B. (2002). Welfare State System in Canada: Emerging Challenges.             International Studies, 39(1), 45-63.




ARTH 1130 Research Essay Outline (one page, double-spaced, 12 pt. font), due February 3, 2020 (10%)


The purpose of this exercise is to give you a chance to plan a coherent research project. The project is to be comparative (involving two works of art/artifacts/monuments from the same period). We want to see that you’ve chosen material to work with in your research essay that is both interesting to you and relevant to the class. In this proposal you will show that you have carefully selected artworks and texts to begin to answer a guiding research question. While your answer to this research question will come together in the course of reading, thinking and writing, for the proposal we would like to see you attempt an answer or a thesis statement.


Write in paragraphs where applicable and label the sections of the proposal following this breakdown:


  • Name two objectsfrom one period(artworks/artifacts/monuments) that you will compare/contrast in your essay. Use the periods in the Kleiner texts as a guide or, if you are choosing objects from a non-Euro-American tradition make sure your two objects were produced within 100 years of one another. You are free to choose something not included in the textbook, but make sure you have access to information about the objects you choose. You should include images of your objects and their titles where applicable, the names of their makers if they are known, the date of their production, and their current place of display. (2%)
  • A research questionand thesis statement (or answer to your question)that is aimed at clarifying a relationship of some kind between the objects. Here are the broad outlines of some possible research questions: On what grounds can we compare/contrast the quality of the objects (why is one better or worse than the other, and by what standard)? How do the materials used in these objects, or the technologies involved in their making determine their form? How have the makers of these objects been steered in their creative process by the (social, political, economic) forces of history? How did these objects steer the course of the histories of which they are a part? On what grounds are these objects included by art historians in particular national traditions or cultures? How do the objects contribute to a group or personal identity? How do the objects deliver a social or political commentary? To what end do the objects enlist techniques of representation and/or abstraction? How do the objects interact with or function in their sites of display? After posing your question, venture an answer to it in the form of a thesis statement.This should be a paragraph long in total. State your question and tell us how you arrived at it. (3%)
  • A brief description of intrinsic and extrinsic aspects of the objects and their histories that you will explore in your essay. Intrinsic factors are material or formal features of the objects. Extrinsic factors are aspects of the social, political, historical, technological context surrounding the objects. This should be one paragraph long. (3%)
  • A bibliography of at least 5 sources (not including Kleiner) you will consult in your research. Include all the information you can find on your sources: author, title, date and place of publication, etc. Consult a style guide for this bibliography (MLA or Chicago are preferred). A maximum of 2 of your sources may be non-academic (i.e. magazine articles or reviews; exhibition or curatorial statements; statements from artists or curators in recorded interviews or presentations). The remaining 3 sources should be academic (i.e. articles from peer-reviewed journals; books; conference proceedings or recorded academic lectures). (2%)



Built between the 14th and 15th Century, the two grand mosques of Turkey, stand as monuments representing architectural excellence across the globe. Sultan Bayezid II Kulliyesi developed in 1488 by the Ottoman Empire was built as a medical center. It stands as one of the most one of the initial medical schools of all time(Heybeli). In this essay it will be compared with the grand mosque, Mimar Sinan, Mosque of Selim II, Edirne Turkey made later in the 1560s. (Yalav-Heckeroth)Their individual historical, political and architectural significance will be discussed in this essay.


The primary aim of building Sultan Bayezid was to meet the psychiatric and socio-cultural needs of the patients. The complex by the name Kulliye comprising of facilities such as kitchen, Hamam, and a guesthouse were added to the mosque and the college was built. (britannica)



Located in the Balkans, within the Ottoman Empire ‘s European lands, the Mosque of Selim II is an example of architectural excellence andsignificance. It consists of a mosque, two square madrasas and a school for students to recite the Quran(Ferren). Bayezid II mosque stands out because of Dar-al Shifa or hospital, whereas, Sultan Selim II commissioned the Selimiye Mosque was the famous architect of that time. Sultan Ahmed ‘s architecture is the result of two centuries of changes in both the mosque and the Byzantine church and is neighborsto Hagia Sophia. It is Ottoman Empire’s last grand mosque of the classical era.This mosque’s stands out with its design that allows visitors to see the Mihrab from all sector of mosques.Hence, both buildings have their own unique Architectural value.










Works Cited


britannica. Mosque of Selim. 2020. <>.

Ferren, Andrew. Tracking Turkey’s First Starchitect. 2012. 19 5 2020.

Heybeli, Nurettin. “Sultan Bayezid II Kulliyesi: One of the Earliest Medical Schools-Founded in 1488.” Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research (2009): 2457-2463.

unesco. Sultan Bayezid II Complex: A Center of Medical Treatment. 2020. <>.

Yalav-Heckeroth, Feride. Why Edirne’s Grand Selimiye Mosque Is a Creative Masterpiece. 18 7 2017. <>.





Section 1

  • The Roman Empire: In what ways did Roman emperors use coinage/art/architecture to communicate their message?

The Roman Empire is famous for its art and architecture. It represented an important part of their society, culture, and intellectual value. The Roman emperors used the art, coinage, and architecture to deliver or send out messages. The whole concept is also known as “persuasion and propaganda.” These messages were to create certain impressions in front of the local public about the emperor such as his power and influence. For example, Augustus, the roman emperor showcased the Ara PacisAugustae. The name of the sculpture itself means “The Alter of Peace” and was dedicated to the roman goddess of peace, Pax. He implied that he has long connection with the Romans and hence, he was the rightful heir to the throne, after three years in Hispania and Gaul, to Julius Caesar. In this way, he told the people that he was rightfully ruling over them and dominating them. The presence of the emperor was felt everywhere. He had begun a new age (Kleiner, pp 202).

Another example of the emperor Trajan can be given here as well. He was a really powerful general and during his time the empire was all over Europe, West Asia and North Africa. To showcase his success in battles, he also used art and architecture. He put the Column of Trajan in Rome to show the defeat of Dacia which we know as Romania today. The 625 feet column documents the battle against the army of Dacia. He personally directed how this column was to be made (Kleiner, pp 213).


  • Byzantine Empire: What are the main ways Byzantine art changed if you were to compare a work from the beginning and final years of this empire?

The Byzantine Empire started as the Eastern continuation of the Roman Empire. While West of the Roman Empire was lost, it was ruled by Constantine who made some changes to the otherwise roman culture and values in the empire. While historians later called the empire Byzantine, back then the natives still considered themselves as roman. In the Early Byzantine era, Christian culture was getting more and more portrayed in the art. Architecture was also centered to Christianity with the building of various churches such as the famous Hagia Sophia. The early age shows the integration of the Greek and Christian cultures through the art of that time. As time progressed and the empire had to face a lot of enemies such as the Arabs, changes were seen in the expression of art as well. So, down the lane the art was influenced by Persian and Islamic cultures. The HagiaSophia was built under the rule of Justinian and it was the largest church in the world. Eventually, as the Byzantine era ended and the Ottoman Empire took its place, the Hagia Sophia was converted into a mosque (Kleiner, pp 268).

Icons, and art of manuscripts became popular in the early era such as the Sinai Icons and the manuscript Vienna Genesis. Then in the middle era icons were replaced by mosaic figures Empress Theodora (Kleiner, pp 279). Decorative walls with exquisite carvings and wall paintings became popular. In the late Byzantine Empire mural paintings depicting Christ were the representation of art such as the painting in the Church of Christ in Chora (Kleiner, pp 288).

  • Ancient Greece: What is the Canon of Polykleitos, and how does it shape the representation of the body in classical art?

In literal terms canon here means a rule (of proportion). The ancients Greeks were of the mindset that anything can be made “beautiful” if it was constructed with accurate proportions and size. So, they needed a canon of proportion to make the accurate human figure and for buildings too. The fifth century sculptor then wrote a disquisition (or “treatise”) called the Canon of Polykleitos where he described his formula for the perfectly proportionate human statue. Another ancient philosopher, Pythagoras of Samos, also believed that beauty lied in harmony of numeric ratios. Polykleitos then followed the same reasoning to come up with the perfect statue which was based on mathematical formula (Kleiner, pp 131). Symmetry played a huge role in his philosophy, every body part was in some sort of symmetry to each other. He built a statue on the basis of his formula and called it Canon(Kleiner, pp 131).

Hence, the human body in Greek classical art is viewed as a product of perfection and precision of design and mathematics. After a Polykleitos, Lysippos followed the same footsteps and sculpted the human body which were slightly slender than Polykleitos and also their heads one-eighth the size of the body rather than one-seventh as it was previously. Lysippos work was also very well celebrated so much so that he made the portrait for Alexander the Great. Overall, both sculptors showed athleticism energy in their statues where Lysippos were more about showing different angles (apoxyomenos) rather the Polykleitos (Doryphoros). so, conclusively, the depiction of the human body is one that is athletic and perfectly balanced in terms of physical, mental or spiritual aspects (Kleiner, pp 146).



Section 2

  • New Media and Technology: With reference to three illustrations from three different periods covered so far in the class, how do media and/or specific technologies make innovations in art/architecture possible?

Media and technology have always played an important role in the betterment of how things are conducted or structured. Technology helps in bringing innovation. It has been doing so since the beginning of time. From cave men till the present day, we all have been influenced by different kinds of technology which have updated the life around us, mostly for the better than not. Similarly, emergence of new technologies had the same effect on art and architecture throughout various historical periods. Technology helped art and architecture evolve.

Neolithic Age

The first example of this can be seen from the new stone age or the Neolithic Age (9000-2300 BC), where people learned the art of making stone temples, like the GobekliTepe in Anatolia, and sculptures. Unlike previously when most of the art from the Paleolithic age wasn’t able to survive because it comprised mostly of small figurines and images on cave walls. In the new stone age, art is seen to be taking a more solidified form large sculptures and life-size skulls. It was the age of tools such as the ax, adz heads, chisels, and gouges which were made up of stones. They even learned how to polish the tools with abrasives. Pottery art emerged as well which brought the technology of metalworking. Eventually metal tools and weapons emerged as well such as copper and bronze. This technology spread fast. Today we still use evolved and modernized versions of these tools in our daily lives and they have contributed a lot, obviously, for art and architecture (Kleiner, pp 24)

The Roman Empire

The second example can be given from the Roman Empire. Amazing buildings and architectural masterpieces that were built during the Roman empire were the product of technological innovation and advancement in concrete technology. Such as the Pompeii Amphitheatre, it is the oldest example of Roman concrete technology (Kleiner, 192). Another is the Hadrian’s Pantheon which is another marvel of concrete technology and also the largest ancient dome (Kleiner, pp 216). France was known to be the center of innovation in these regards. It is said that the architects of the Holy Roman empire have led the way when it comes to extraordinary and exquisite large buildings. Ever since the romans introduced the world to the use of concrete, we have been dependent on it ever since. It has become an integral part of architecture. Not only this but romans used concrete also to build marine structures to safeguard their harbors which withstood erosive salt water for over 2000 years. Even in the present day, it is difficult to recreate such masterpieces or to even land with the type of concrete romans used. Science is trying to explain its resilience. The recipe romans used to make their concrete was such that the product could with stand harsh environmental conditions such as seawater that our present-day concrete cannot. The mixture included volcanic ash, seawater, lime, and volcanic rock. Traces of another mineral called aluminous tobermorite was also found in it. This mineral is very difficult to create in lab settings even today and is thought to be responsible for the resilience in the concrete.

China in 1200s

The emergence and evolution of paints has also of course, been very relevant and important to the world of art. Some of the earliest forms of paintings can be dated back to the 13th century China. Mural paintings were found in caves (Kleiner, pp 485). They used round tapered brush, soot-based ink, and silk or paper to either write or draw. They were very skilled when it came to contouring and interior details. Furthermore, the Chinese also used richly colored minerals as substitutes for pigments, “finelyground and suspendedin a gluey medium, and watery washesof mineral and vegetable dyes.” (Kleiner, pp 489) They used handscrolls, hanging rolls, dry leaves and holding fans to make drawings. The paints made with naturally occurring materials such as minerals, saps et cetera have now been replaced by synthetic paints.

The technology that we are surrounded with today can all be related back to the ancient periods. Ancient people were the ones who came up with the ideas and inventions that we have evolved and bettered for our use today. Technology and media are constantly evolving and with them so has art and architecture.


  • Group and Personal Identity: With reference to three illustrations from three different periods covered so far in the class, how have art/architecture aimed to consolidate group and/or personal identity?

Art and architecture play an important role in showcasing the identity of a group or a society. Throughout history we have seen how different eras had distinctive features and characteristics in their way of expression which was in the form of different types of arts whether it be writing, paintings, sculptors or architecture. In fact, it is through their art that we know them today and we are able to make judgements regarding their societal structures and cultures. Some of the identities that can be understood through art are related to gender and religion. Examples of their depictions can be seen through various historical periods such as the Roman Empire and the Islamic world.

The Roman Empire

We will talk about some characteristics of the Roman Empire that can be extracted from particular sculptures. For example, in Republican Rome the noble families (patricians) or more particularly their men, were differentiated from the common roman masses if they had self-sculptures and portraits. Which is why many unique statues can be found dated back to even the first century BC such as the statue of a man wearing a Toga and holding thebusts of his father and grandfather. The toga represents the badge of citizenship in Rome(Kleiners, pp 187).

Another important observation was that most portraits were of men of older ages. This shows that women were not associated with the same levels of nobility as men. They were found only occasionally. This also shows that only elder men had power in the Roman Republic. The sculptures also do not appear to be making those men any handsomer. In fact, they often exaggerated their less attractive features such as baldness and wrinkles, or just their actual distinctive features. For example, the portrait of the head of priest. It is highly detailed with all the unique facial features. Such portraits also show that traits such as seriousness, determination, loyalty were admired virtues in the Roman empire(Kleiners, pp 188).


Apart from noble man, sculptures and portraits were commissioned by ordinary people as well especially slaves. This depicts how slavery was common in the roman empire. Rich people owned hundreds of slaves but even the poor people could afford to have one or two as well. The practice was really common in the roman world. Some of the slaves were freed but many died in the service of their owners old or new. Some prominent artworks were those that were commissioned by freedmen or freedwomen. One such relief shows two men and one woman, all called Gessius. In the centre is their owner. The slaves are the property of their owners and even after they were freed, they could not serve in the Roman army despite earning the title of people. The relief portrays their gratitude to their ex-owner for granting them freedom (Kleiners, pp 190).

The Islamic World

The Islamic world also has forms of artistic expressions that portray the image of different aspects of Islamic society and identity of muslims. The rise of Islam brought a whole new world of art and architecture and traditions. So much so that it replaced the old Greece-Roman art in the Middle East and North Africa. While in India, Islamic rule brought Islamic art and architecture in South Asia. One of the most famous buildings of Islamic architecture is in fact the Taj Mahal in Agra, India (Kleiners, pp 293).


Moreover, most of Islamic architecture is focused on mosques which entails that the muslim faith and religious practices were very important and celebrated. Mosques were more than just centres for worship. They were also the place where social gatherings and meetings were held. Islam brought about a completely new unique way of life as compared to its predecessors and that reflected in the art and architecture created by Muslim artists. Calligraphy (of Quranic verses often) is a very prominent part of Islamic art. It was seen in paintings, carvings, on walls et cetera. One would not find a lot of human sculptures of paintings in Islamic art as they Would in, for example, Roman art. This is because it was discouraged in Islam to draw or recreate the human form according to the belief that this ability only lies within the hands of God. A lot of copies of the scripture of the Quran were made as a form of art as well. they were made exquisitely with gold and other patterns (Kleiner, pp 305).


Section 3

In a reflective paragraph (100 words or less) describe how your position on, or feeling about the history of art has been altered by what you’ve seen and read so far in the class.

We often tend to underestimate the importance of history because we are too concerned about the present or the future. We forget that our presents and our future have been derived from historical events in the first place. History of art allows us to enter the culture and society of those whose history we study. It allows us to join the pieces together regarding the past and its people. Previously I did not see its relevance as I do now after having studied it. It is not only intriguing but mind-opening towards undiscovered perspectives that go unnoticed by the naked eye.


kleiner, fred s. Gardner’ s Art Through The Ages: A Global History. Boston : Cengage, 2020.




Executive Summary

In this paper, we will be looking at the history of democracy and its emergence in the Victorian era of Britain. The paper aims to analyze the all-time famous conception that religion is the enemy of freedom. We make use of multiple secondary sources and one primary source to reach our conclusion. Our research mostly negates the famous statement, and instead, the main driver of the transitioning process seems to be the economic change that happened in Britain after the industrial revolution. The new working classes wanted autonomy, political power, and civil rights, and this is what drove to the transition and automatically decreased the influence of the Church.


The Victorian age or era in Britain is defined to be the period of the rule of Queen Victoria, which ended till 1901. During this, a lot of political and social change came to Britain. In the early 1800s, Britain was still ruled by the higher upper class. Later on, however, Britain transitioned into democracy. In this paper, we will look at how that transition took place, and the role religion played in it. We will do a comparative analysis through some primary sources to make our conclusions aided by secondary sources as well. It is widely understood that religion has been an obstacle in the path of democracy. The objective of this paper is to analyze how much truth that statement holds by looking at the transition of Great Britain into Democracy while previously being highly influenced by order of the Church.

Impact of Working Classes

Victorian Britain had always been conservative when it came to politics. Unlike its neighbors, such as France, the upper and middle class in Britain despised the idea of a violent revolution. They believed in bringing about political reforms without a revolution. Until 1832 the first political reform passed. Before that, in what is also called the Georgian period, majority men and women had no voting rights except only a handful of the upper class could vote that too in a disproportionately represented parliament, which relied on violence and bribery. Even after the first reform act got passed, women were not allowed to vote until much later. Despite people not having voting rights, the public has strong political opinions, which they expressed through different mediums such as the print. Political figures often got ridiculed and joked upon in newspapers, and books et cetera (White, 2009)[1].

Similarly, violent riots were also a prominent example of strong political sentiments by the locals. White (2009)[2] also narrates an incident as proof to the above statement: “In 1780, after the government had passed legislation giving more political rights to Catholics, thousands of people rioted for a week in London in protest.” That led bloodbaths in which many Catholics got killed and the army had to restore order. This example shows the general public was not happy with the religious institutions dominating them, and this sentiment further played an essential role in the transition to democracy in Britain. Despite these riots here and there, the country still never succumbed to a long-lasting rebellion which would result in a revolution(White, 2009)[3].

In another important secondary source Trygve R. Tholfsen (1961)[4]The author has described the transition to democracy in Britain. According to the author, the need for reform in Britain was very crucial in the 1800s as riots had started in the 1830s and 1840s. There was a lot of class conflict, as well. This need was felt explicitly in England, which was predominantly undemocratic. Unlike White (2009)[5] above, Tholfsen (1961)[6] Writes that it is a misconception that the transition to democracy happened in a continuous flow. Instead, the process that followed the development was a lot more “complex.” The main issue was the working class ever since the industrial revolution had started. They had worked towards agreeing with their social and political statuses. For the most part, this implied that the working class had accepted being ruled by the middle class as a way of cooperation, which allowed them to progress in their current status and power. These political formations of class relations initiated the transitioning to democracy.

According to Tholfsen (1961)[7]There were three distinctive ways in which the transition to democracy got influenced. Firstly, the relations building between the working class and the middle class also obliterated some barriers in the path. Secondly, there was unease and agitation for parliamentary reforms in the locals. And thirdly, the increasingly changing attitudes of the local people triggered the process of democracy as well. As industrial towns established in Britain, more and more people started embracing liberalism and accepting the rule of the middle class. Up till now, only the higher upper level had ruled. However, all this didn’t just happen automatically. The changes in cultural patterns for the working class played a vital role in the transition (Tholfsen, 1961)[8].

Analysis of the Primary Source

There are conflicting ideas and perspectives when one looks at the primary literature present concerning religion and the spread of democracy. One such primary source is the sermon given by Charles Latimer Marson back in 1890 on Church and Democracy; it is now saved as a piece of text. In this text, Marson (1890)[9]  It gives off the idea that Christianity and the code of the Church itself are very “democratic” of the sort that people expect from the notion of democracy. He says that the literal definition of democracy given by Pluto is a phenomenon that no one wants. He says that democracy implies “negation of law” in all its sense, and there is no rule that people abide by. That basically, democracy means anarchy. He says that the modern democratic mindset does not wish for that. If democracy were to be implemented in its purest form, everyone and anyone would be allowed to rule and do as they wish. Parliaments would have no order and would be dominated by the “idlest, noisiest, and rowdiest,” which is why Marson endorses that the Church believes in the application of laws despite being criticized by modern democratic.

He says that the goal civic political reforms want to achieve in the name of democracy are essentially two. Firstly, the government should work for the general good of the masses and secondly, the ones governing should be chosen (or elected) by the ones who will be governed. He says that looking at recent history it has been made clear that those in power are never concerned for the common good of other but rather their own selfish desires. Any form of rule, inevitably, becomes tyranny, and this is why the Church stands against “autocracy, and oligarchy,” as it believes that it will be the ultimate result of democracy as well (Marson, 1890)[10].

Marson (1890)[11] talks about how peace and unity are also challenged and taking the turn for the worst with this shift in the social paradigm. Everyone is concerned about themselves only, and each acts its own master. “there is no friendship between the executive and the man in the street,” and all issues are left for the police to resolve. Police are now considered to be protectors of property instead of God or the “king of glory.”  Marson makes an important point here, stating that the religion of Christianity itself is a religion of peace and unity. It promotes friendship amongst all classes and gives people good sense so that they can follow the “Divine plan as laid down by our Lord His Church.” Necessarily implying that the need for democracy is redundant as all are servants of God even if they govern, and they are chosen by Him as well. According to him, this satisfies the second condition for the goal of democracy that a new democratic want. Everybody is governed by God and his principles, which will not be eradicated from any aspect of human life.

Marson (1890)[12] says that the early Church in itself was very democratic in nature and working. He mentions that in the early Church, the bishop who was chosen to lead was no extraordinary individual in the sense of status and class. He was nobody famous or noble. Instead, he used to be from amongst the common folk who did manual labour. And he was not given his position by way of bribe and was instead elected by the entire body of the Church, which comprised of abiding “baptized” Christians. Even a layperson could lead if no one from the clergy seemed fit. The man chosen would be someone who was known to be sinless and a good man who was accepted by everyone unanimously whereas in the democratic procedure no such guarantee could be given. However, the author also admits the present Church and bishops of that time were no good and had destroyed that original image and purpose of the Church. From the analysis of the above primary source, we can grasp the idea that religion was still here to stay for many, even if the change was expected.

More on the Relationship Between Religion and Democracy 

In another secondary source which is an article by Pierpaolo Donati (2002)[13] We get to see further the relationship between religion and democracy and why the two did not go hand in hand. Even though history offers us many examples of democracies around the world till our present day, and there have been many governments which have claimed to be a “religious democracy” where the religion was any such as Islam or Christianity, it has also given us enough evidence that despite the simple term, religion and democracy have always been at odds with each other. The truth is that democracy is a type of governance that separates itself from religious principles. Hence, the conflict between them is inevitable since religion itself claims to play the role of defining social institutions and boundaries. The author further tries to answer the question, which asks whether religion is an obstacle to democracy or a prerequisite. There have been many democracies that were influenced by religions, but it depends on the nature of the religion how it would affect the success of democracy. The author cites Collins (1992)[14] who claims through his research that it is wrong to say that democracy came about in Europe as a result of opposition to religion and was instead, profoundly impacted by Christian notions. This also further confirms what Marson (1890)[15] talked about in his sermon in the primary source discussed above. Moreover, if anything, religion prompted the emergence of democracy. The civil society in the West was already by defined the Church very profoundly, and so religion had the power to influence the political system via the public.

Religion is believed to have a positive influence on democracy in the sense of making it more moral and humanitarian, but lately, this role of religion has ceased. Modern democracy also considers a lot of religious content to be dogmatic and hence, unfit to have any relation with it. Donati (2002)[16] says democracy is understood by many to be an escape from religion. These are very conflicting perspectives and seems difficult to reach to any one conclusion. The main difference between the two is the idea of rationality. While religion dictates that one has faith, which is not rational, and follows a certain set of values and ethics, while democracy endorses individuality, rationality, and neutrality in decision making. It negates the idea of relying on a given set of instructions to make the right decision. Both, however, want to be a system of good.

The economic and political entities in the new industrial Europe were the prominent source for the divide between church and the state (Donati, 2002)[17]. They triggered the transitioning to democracy as the modern economy, which is highly capitalist, requires individualistic freedom to make choices that were hindered by religion. So, this is one point that seems to be the most important up till now in the transition to democracy. It also relates to the paper by Tholfsen (1961)[18] discussed above, which also emphasized that working classes stimulated the transitioning process. Slowly but gradually, religion has become more of a private matter rather than a public one in Western societies. That implies that it no longer plays any significant role in the public sphere. Since democracy is also not equipped to pick any one religion that would be favorable to it, it rejects all of them by not choosing at all. Hence, it depends on the society to be civil on its own, and the “public” factor is slowly becoming obsolete. This is because a democratic government ensures that one can make individual decisions which do not concern with the good or bad of anyone else, nor their sentiments, given that they do not cause any disturbance to others. Everything is depersonalized, and everybody is to be given equal opportunity, so there is “common good.” Many religious spheres have to accepted by democracy.

Overall, Donati (2002)[19] gathered from his research that given different historical contexts, the relationship between religion and democracy fluctuates. For some, religion acted as an obstacle in the transition to democracy, and for others, it did not and was instead a “prerequisite.” Religion does undoubtedly play a vital role in society, and the economy as well since people from a particular religion follow particular traditions and lifestyles. Even non-believers conform to certain notions to be for all the public. Together, people can agree on a lot of matters for the common good of society. The definition of freedom has become very relative and subjective and not only limited to freedom from religion, which was the earlier European model for converting to democracy.

Ziblatt (2006)[20] also talks about how Europe democratized in the nineteenth century. He once again emphasizes the point that we have explored in quite a lot of detail above. That democracy emerged as a result of industrialization and the working classes. Also, Britain did not want a violent revolution, so it brought political reforms to comparatively peacefully, unlike other nations such as France. Economic changes and class differences also fuelled the emergence of democracy as people wanted to become liberal. Ziblatt also mentions that every country whose political system became democratic transitioned in a different sequence. Such as the way the United States transitioned to democracy than Europe’s. However, the need to become liberal, and having civil and political rights was the same everywhere and is what led to the transition.


Conclusively, we can say, after looking at the primary and secondary sources, that the transition to democracy was not particularly hindered by religion. Instead, the literature suggests that this notion of religion being the enemy of democracy is open for debate, and everyone has a different perspective on it. The main stimulators from the information we gathered and presented here seem to be the emergence of working classes and their need to have more power rights, whether it be socially or politically. This economic change drove towards an inevitable transition to democracy. The fact that religion did not allow those civil rights further triggered the transition, if nothing else. So, it is wrong to believe that religion is the enemy of democracy bluntly. It has played a different role in different historical contexts. However, it is correct to say that religion and democracy have no direct relationship, and the main principles of both differ and cannot be integrated.


Primary source:

Marson, L. Charles. “The Church and Democracy: A sermon.” LSE Selected Pamphlets (1890). Contributed by the LSE library.

Secondary sources:  

White, Mathew. “Popular politics in the 18th century.” British Library (2009).

Tholfsen, Trygve R. “The transition to democracy in Victorian England.” International Review of Social History 6, no. 2 (1961): 226-248.

DONATI, PIERPAOLO. “Religion and democracy: The challenge of a” religiously qualified” public sphere.” Polish sociological review (2002): 147-172.

Collins, R. “The Rise and Fall of Modernism in Politics and Religion.” /Icta Sociologica , vol. 35, n. 3, (1992), dd. 171-186

Ziblatt, Daniel. “How did Europe democratize?.” World Politics 58, no. 2 (2006): 311-338.




[1]White, Mathew. “Popular politics in the 18th century.” British Library (2009).



[4]Tholfsen, Trygve R. “The transition to democracy in Victorian England.” International Review of Social History 6, no. 2 (1961): 226-248.

[5]White, Mathew. “Popular politics in the 18th century.” British Library (2009).

[6]Tholfsen, Trygve R. “The transition to democracy in Victorian England.” International Review of Social History 6, no. 2 (1961): 226-248.


[7], Tholfsen, Trygve R. “The transition to democracy in Victorian England.” International Review of Social History 6, no. 2 (1961): 226-248.


[9]Marson, L. Charles. “The Church and Democracy: A sermon.” LSE Selected Pamphlets (1890). Contributed by the LSE library.


[10]Marson, L. Charles. “The Church and Democracy: A sermon.” LSE Selected Pamphlets (1890). Contributed by the LSE library.


[12]Marson, L. Charles. “The Church and Democracy: A sermon.” LSE Selected Pamphlets (1890). Contributed by the LSE library.

[13]DONATI, PIERPAOLO. “Religion and democracy: The challenge of a” religiously qualified” public sphere.” Polish sociological review (2002): 147-172.


[14]Collins, R. 1992. “The Rise and Fall of Modernism in Politics and Religion.” /Icta Sociologica , vol. 35, n. 3, 1992, dd. 171-186

[15]Marson, L. Charles. “The Church and Democracy: A sermon.” LSE Selected Pamphlets (1890). Contributed by the LSE library.

[16]DONATI, PIERPAOLO. “Religion and democracy: The challenge of a” religiously qualified” public sphere.” Polish sociological review (2002): 147-172.


[17]DONATI, PIERPAOLO. “Religion and democracy: The challenge of a” religiously qualified” public sphere.” Polish sociological review (2002): 147-172.

[18]Tholfsen, Trygve R. “The transition to democracy in Victorian England.” International Review of Social History 6, no. 2 (1961): 226-248.

[19]DONATI, PIERPAOLO. “Religion and democracy: The challenge of a” religiously qualified” public sphere.” Polish sociological review (2002): 147-172.

[20]Ziblatt, Daniel. “How did Europe democratize?.” World Politics 58, no. 2 (2006): 311-338.


European colonists called themselves civilized people, whose purpose of colonizing Africa was to make “barbaric” Africans became civilized. But if there is no difference between the behavior of “civilized” European colonists and “barbarians”, can they still be called civilized colonists? The essay would indicate three aspects of the scene which are the natural environment,the word “incomprehensible” and Marlow’s words“he called them enemies!” how to associated with colonialism.

The muzzles of the long six-inch guns stuck out all over the low hull; the greasy, slimy swell swung her up lazily and let her down, swaying her thin masts. In the empty immensity of earth, sky, and water, there she was, incomprehensible, firing into a continent. Pop, would go one of the six-inch guns; a small flame would dart and vanish, a little white smoke would disappear, a tiny projectile would give a feeble screech—and nothing happened. Nothing could happen. There was a touch of insanity in the proceeding, a sense of lugubrious drollery in the sight; and it was not dissipated by somebody on board assuring me earnestly there was a camp of natives—he called them enemies!— hidden out of sight somewhere.(20)

Samet Guven indicated a viewpoint that is “Conrad also shows how a civilized man turns into a savage when the profits are taken into consideration. His novel reflects the realities of the world in the 19th century, that is, the Europeans regard Africans as primitive and immature to colonize them.”Heart of Darkness shows that the European colonizers used the high ideals of colonization as a cover to help them to viciously  plunder wealth and casually kill Africans.

Marlow sees a warship firing randomly into the continent where maybe there is nobody. The malevolent faces of the European colonists are exposed through Marlow’s account of this incredible attack. “In the empty immensity of earth, sky, and water, there she was, incomprehensible, firing into a continent.” Marlow sees the natural environment which has the sky, the water, and the earth are silent that contrast with gunfire. And the gunfire is discordant sound which breaks what was supposed to be the quiet home of the African. Furthermore,“low hull,” “thin masts” contrast with the empty immensity of the surrounding environment to show European colonizers who are just a small part of nature not only casually kill Africans but also break the silence of environment. European colonizers pretend to be colonialists who had lofty colonial ideals but they are doing what barbarians do。

“Incomprehensible”is used by Conrad to indicate the ridiculous things of the European colonialist. The word does not explain the practical facts or opinions that Marlow sees , but rather indicates that Marlow cannot explain the phenomena what he sees. In other words, Marlow’s idea of colonialists is that they are civilized people, who are mainly for their own interests, but they will bring civilization to the African colonies. At least Marlow does not think that the colonists are also barbarians. So he is shocked by the barbarism of the European colonists after he saw these what is called “civilized” people firing randomly into the continent. Conrad explained that the European colonists not only robbed the African’s property, but also destroyed their lives and revealed the dark hearts of the colonists through Marlow’s narration。Meanwhile, Conrad points out that the absurd behavior of the colonists is an act of destroying the nature by comparing the description of the ships and guns of the European colonists with the huge natural environment.

Furthermore, at the end of the passage, Marlow says“ it was not dissipated by somebody on board assuring me earnestly there was a camp of natives—he called them enemies!— hidden out of sight somewhere.” Marlow cannot understand why the men on the ship are firing into the continent , which seemed to be deserted. He asked almost everyone on the ship, and no one can explain to him. This scene reflects that when the European colonists are shooting, they had no clear target or idea, but they just attacked tentatively. It also reflects the aimlessness even bewilderment of European colonial life in Africa, as they have been swallowed up by the power of the jungle. Thus, the European colonists, who has been swallowed up by the power of the jungle had become barbarians, which only wanted to plunder the wealth with the power of barbarism. They do not care about the value of life, as their nature of civilization has been replaced by greed.

In summary, Conrad reveals that the Europeans pretended to be colonialists not only pillaging the land and wealth of Africans, but also killing them with violence and cruelty. At the same time, Conrad also writes about the cruel human nature of the colonialists, the hope that the great greed will eventually be defeated by the mysterious forces of nature. Europeans claimed to want to “civilize” the African continent, their actions spoke otherwise: they were interested solely in gaining wealth and did not care how they did it, or who was killed. The European colonists are no longer “civilized” because their own civilization had been defeated by the power of the jungle, which means greed. They pretend to be colonists but  treated Africans cruelly, so they were not real colonists but “savage” people completely occupied by desire.



1.Post-Colonial Analysis of Joseph Conrad’s Heart of ›



Throughout the years, people have ended up migrating from one place to another for various reasons, whether it be social, political, or economic. There has also been an increased migration of labor because of higher rates and labour smuggled for slavery. This paper attempts to explore the extent of hostility the migrant workers faced, and we will also be analyzing the response of the migrants, the way they opposed and negotiated changes, and the various ways through which they build up their separate network.

This essay will be arguing that migrant culture was excessively exploited and brought in to generate economic objectives. The Asians and Blacks had to live in subsidized shared apartments and often had to face many hurdles while looking for apartments themselves. The economic recession did not do any favors to the migrant community either as it only ended up worsening conditions and also making the community subject to racial discrimination and abuse, which remained mostly undocumented. The early migrant also had to face police force bias and very little support from the government.

The essay is divided into three sections; the first section will talk about the general sociopolitical conditions, the second section will talk about the immediate goals of the migrant workers, the third section will talk about the obstacles the migrants faced and will describe the way they tried to resolve most of the issues. The final section will explore the impact of the multicultural carnival and the ways through which it tied in the migrant community together; the final section will also explore the changes and the improvements that happened because of the political movements.

A Basic Understanding Of Pre-Migration Culture


Black activists have entrenched continuously in a scuffle over the meaning of their black identity. The struggle has played a significant role in defending their communities against racial attacks, as highlighted by Gillborn, who claims that black people’s issues have often been omitted from the academy because of investigation and financingsignificances. The first wave of immigration started in the 1940s and consisted primarily of early adults and very few children, what we understand from this is that there was a predominant culture of immigrant parents leaving their children behind with their grandparents until their pay and housing were set out. (McKenley, 2001)

There was inherent white domination in major social institutions where whites frequently tried to define and position the blacks behind stereotypical white defined realities. To counter this, black British activists formedand alsomonitored black bookstores as a means to counteract the physical attack and onslaught on their people. For schooling systems, there was an absence of directions from the state, and there was a natural inclination towards blaming the victims in case immigrant pupils, school teachers could barely be criticizedfor seeing the influx of migrant children unaware and unaccustomed to the land as problematic. (Beckles, 1998)

From the early 1950s to the end of the 1970s, the British country faced an acute shortage of labour and previous sources through which additional workers were drawn in proved to be insufficient. Therefore migrant workers from the Asian subcontinent and the Caribbean were incentivized to come in. South Asians, however, still add up to be a tiny percentage of the British population on the whole, and the members are still profoundlyfocused in the metropolises and towns that have a severelabour shortage.

British Treatment For The Migrants

Many of Britain’s white inhabitantsat the time viewed the increase of the south Asian colonies with alarm;almost a fourth of school applicantsare currently of south Asian origin. ( Ballard, 1994) However, contrary to the local opinion that all the migrants were poor and destitute, that was hardly the case. Most migrants came from middle-class backgrounds that could afford the long travel and saw migration as a career advancement step.

The initial migrants did not have a plan to settle down permanently; most of them had plans to accumulate capital and live frugally. Most migrants had problems with the British way of life and considered their livelihood setup as unhygienic and also devoid of respect and “izzat.” (Ballard, 1994) As time went on and these workers were able to accumulate more wealth and build a community of their own through which they were able to rebuild their cultural and social traditions in the western world.(Werbner, 1990)

Gradually religious forces came into play and became a source of differentiation between the migrants. Even though most migrants started from the bottom of the ladder, some of them managed to achieve more mobility than others. Islam was regarded continuously as a restrictive religion, which prompted its followers to be more restricted in the prospects of career advancements than others. However, the route for migration was not easy for most settlers, and many were subject to racial discrimination and also racial profiling. London was reportedly the worst place to be in because the attacks were more frequent and went mostly undocumented.

The Initiation Of The Migrant Movement


In 1993, the migrants had had enough with the racial profiling and sparked an uproar after a racial mob attack on a small group of Bengali men. One of the men who was beaten near death and remained in a coma for several months. This incident attracted a lot of media uproar and subsequently led to an abnormal amount of protests and uprisings. Vigils were held, and the gatherings developed into serious clashes with the police. This incident also prompted the initiation of the Brick Lane Rampage. (Keith, 1995)

Another challenge migrants faced was during the period of liberal control where local politics was racialized, and neighbourhoods were broken down into zones, and there were efforts made to keeping certain regions predominantly white. These measures tended to disenfranchise second-generation migrants of their right to housing, and people preferred paying fines for not allocating homes to homeless (east Indians and predominantly Bengalis). Liberal Party Campaign literature leaflets were also circulated, which upon analysis find several specific instances that were quite clearly playing to racism. The fake leaflets were designed to manipulate racial bias and hostility among the white electors in prejudice to be able to gain their votes. (Keith, 1995)

From the period of 1976, young Asians worked around forging anti-discriminatory politics that werecentered around local AYMS to help them in tackling racial violence. The AYM politics strategized themselves to introduce politics that echoed and reverberated with Black powerand also with developing countries’freedom movements. For the AYM’s the word black denoted a common political allegiance between individuals of African and also individuals of Asian source, the AYMS functioned without refuting the precise cultural changes of each cluster of individuals and worked towards building unity in diversity with all those of diverse religious experiences.

Indians were ahead of the game and were predominantly present in Britain before the mass migration took place. They had also previously formed an Indians workers association. The IWA claimed to fight against discrimination and promote friendship, peace, and freedom. However, the IWA characteristically showed a lack of support for strikes by black workers. Soon the Pakistanis, Bangladeshis, and Kashmiris formed their workers’ associations to counter racism. South Africans also joined the movement to give out a united anti-racist front. (The politics of Britain’s Asian Youth Movements – Anandi Ramamurthy, 2020)

The Children

The children of immigrants also faced many problems. They had to deal with a discriminator schooling system, poor housing, and law enforcement harassment, to name a few problems. They also had to see their parents deal with the recession and scapegoating, which came hand in hand with a rising racist activity where most parents were underpaid and overtasked for doing the same work as their white counterparts. Children had to be accompanied to the bus stops by teachers to protect them from physical attacks.

Once the children started arriving, the first thing most immigrant parents did was send them to school, and by the 1950s and onwards, there was a disproportionate increase in immigrant children in schools all around the world. School teachers were dismayed at the influx of immigrant children in schools among which headteacher George Meredith, in a section titled “the changing response of a secondary modern school in Handsworth” claimed that in the first few years when their school converted into one with children from south Asian descent there was a principal emotion of dismay amongst school teachers. (McKinley,2001)

Teachers claimed that children were sent to school as soon as they left the ship without giving them adequate time to adjust to their new surroundings. This action translated its effect into learning difficulties and emotional disturbance. (McKinley, 2001) Large figures of migrant families established themselves in London, local inquiries were made into the schooling and instruction of black students, and it was surprising to learn that many teachers implicitly believed negroes to be of lower intelligence than whites though nobody dared to say it out loud. (McKinley,2001)

In the 1970s, the mass media also played a critical role in igniting racial discrimination with headlines showing rare incidents of black groups and families being supported by the social security structure. When racist activities reached their peak, the migrant community stood up in protest and demanded protection from the police against racism and murder, and the release of two Asians wrongly arrested was the first sign of victory, which led to the establishment of the all Asian youth movement. (The politics of Britain’s Asian Youth Movements – Anandi Ramamurthy, 2020)

Black began not only to be seen as a colour but also as a political stance. Embracing the black political self was a way for the marginalized communities to recognize that it was no more appropriate to fear or endure racist mindsets. The British racism knitted the migrants together exceptionally well, such that the second generation hardly considered the cultural and religious differences between the migrant groups as a difference or was ever aware of them.

In August 1996, Laslett brought her vision of a carnival to reality.  Rhaunee Laslett, a community worker, and ex-social employee had the vision to bring together all the culturally diverse groups in a pleasant sequence of experiences and street demonstrations. Laslett believed that the best thing for the immigrant population would be to combine within British society. The council supported the cause because they believed that an improvement of the image was beneficial and could only bring good. The council itself at that period was looking towards developing racial harmony and had done a commendable job in identifying the causes of racial conflict and working towards eradicating them. However, the mayor ended up withdrawing the carnival grant a week before the event without specifying the reasons for doing so. Laslett was furious and wrote letters to news channels and continued with the carnival, which turned on to be a huge success. The blacks and whites who worked together for organizing the carnival also worked together to fight for housing. (Cohen, 1982)

Housing remained a big problem for many people in the UK, and the influx of migrants exacerbated the problem. Many people blatantly avoided giving housing to people of colour, and the blacks and Asians been charged exorbitant rates, and they, as a result, had to share accommodation with several people at a time to be able to cut costs. Most blacks also did not feel safe residing in predominantly white areas. (Back and Les Back Goldsmiths’ College, 1996) The Notting hill festival lost big bucks but developed the society, the carnival grew on to become a significant intermingling of cultures and became a platform through which everyone could talk about their housing problems. The carnival ended up becoming politicized unintentionally. (Cohen, 1982)

The carnival grew on to become a source of majorly west Indian expression; this was majorly because west Indians were familiar with the carnival conceptions. Even when the carnival became essentially west Indian, it remained as a way to sharefunny stories targeted towards the rulers of the time, the joke could be humorous or sour, but it was at the end of the day still a joke.

The carnival grew to gain significant importance because, towards the end of the 1960s, the economic boom came to an end, and there was a considerably high rate of unemployment that hit the black community very hard. There was now an increased tension amongst whites and blacks for job roles leading whites to receive a biased preference for most job descriptions.

In this situation, the carnival became a symbol of nationhood and homogeneity for most west Indians, who contributed substantially to the cause. Carnival’s potential for political actions are well known, and efforts are made to exploit their potential throughout history actively. Carnivals may bring together heterogeneous groups, but at the same time, they carry the ability to help institutionalize social hierarchy. (Cohen, 1982)

In conclusion, we can see that the blacks were targeted simply because of their migrant culture and unfamiliarity with the local processes. The economic recession also had a considerable hand in fueling racism because the whites essentially began seeing the blacks as competition and also as an inferior race. The early period also had a large number of documented and undocumented racial attacks, where many people were severely assaulted or beaten to death. These events led to an uproar amongst the migrant working class, which further prompted them to start the brick lane rampage. The success of this led them to form unions that helped them press for rights and also state protection.

Migrants were initially brought in due to the shortage of unskilled labour and made to work long hours with low pay relative to their white counterparts. They also faced many hurdles in finding suitable housing and excellent schooling for there children, where most schools and institutions considered migrant children as mentally less capable. The children themselves were mostly under cultural shock and struggled with keeping up with two extremely polar cultures.

The process of early settlement was no doubt difficult for the initial migrants. However, the groups were smart enough to take matters into their own hands and fight for what they believed they deserved. In the initial years, migrants were excessively weaponized and used for economic gain without providing them with any form of security or state protection. Migration has contributed immensely to promote diversity and the richness of other cultures in developed countries, however the individuals that migrate often face multiple stresses, obstacles, and hurdles that can impact their mental well being significantly. The post-migration stage where communities have to actively work to absorb the migrants and make them feel at home was a stage that proved to be quite an obstacle for the British.

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Beckles, C., 1998. “We Shall Not Be Terrorized Out of Existence.” Journal of Black Studies, 29(1), pp.51-72.



Biophilic architecture happens to be a holistic approach to utilizing the best nature-based systems, and the current applications of biophilia include landscape urbanism, green city movement, and ecological infrastructure which happens to be one of the best applications. Throughout history, biophilicdeisgn was used to designate an image of opulence, grandeur and power. The Alhambra is the most prominent example of howbiophilic design was used as a representation of power by the rulers of the Alhambra. Alhambra palatine is the most admired as well as famous examples of Islamic heritage and architecture in Europe. However, in the 21st century, Biophilic design is more than just a technical format for aesthetics. The biophilic framework is now considerd as an advanced methodology for sustainability for the built environment. Sustainability is bound to be an elusive target until states can shift the entire focus on building a fulfilling relationship between humans and their natural environment



Alhambra Palace is located at a strategic point within the city, offering views over the entire meadow and the city, which have aided the rulers inhabiting the castle to gain a vantage point (EggletonL. , 2012). The fortress is surrounded by irregular ramparts, with its eastern side facing the Cuesta del Rey Chico and its southern side facing the valley of al-Sabika (Rabbat, 1985). The palatine fortress, the Alhambra, is a palace perched upon Sabika hill located in the city of Granada.

There are three main areas of the Alhambra, Medina, the Generalife, and the Citadel. The citadel area is for protecting the site and the medina is an area which provides accommodation for the administrative staff as well as the artisans. The Generalife is the summer palace which consists of pavilions, colonnades, and gardens. Analysis of the Palace indicates that there is a spatial order underlying the design patterns. This is a quality closely associated with Medieval Islamic Art.


Alhambra palace was initiated by Muhammad 1 in 1232 who was the very first sultan in the Nasrid dynasty. The majority of the construction of the palace took place from thirteenth to the fourteenth century and was completed at the end of the reign of Muhammed V, Sultan of Granada from 1353 to 1391 and reflects the architectural style at the end of the Nasrid dynasty (Willmert, 2018). The well-preserved fortress complex became archetypal to the “Moorish” architecture of the Western scholars at the end of the Nasrid rule (Irwin, 2004). The architectural style, common at that time, was a mixture of exuberant Moorish and Christian influences which has been known as the Nasrid style (Eggleton E. , 2011). Despite many subsequent alterations, specifically under the many Catholic monarchs, the castle remains symbolic both as a war trophy of the “Reconquista” and as a symbol of the long-lost golden era of the al-Andalus(Eggleton L. , 2012).

The fortress owes as much to its modern-day location in Spain as it does to the European travelers of the eighteenth century who had a huge part to play in its “rediscovery”. After the conquest of Spain by the Catholic Monarchs in 1492 the Alhambra underwent changes in its design. The Palace of Charles V, a Renaissance building commenced by the Emperor in 1526 is located on the hill of Assabica inside the Alhambra fortress. The projected Palace is a specimen of Spanish architecture, designed by Pedro Machuca, and has been characterized by Washington Irving as “an arrogant intrusion” (Calvert, 1904). Charles V installed his royal emblem on every surface and the square plan encloses a two-story circular courtyard. Doric order pilasters and rustication is articulated on the façade on the first story of the Palace (Eggleton, 2012).

There are distinct parallels between the Moorish design and that of the Renaissance, broadly speaking, the formal design of the Palace expresses a Roman and Renaissance style architecture which does not have the incorporation of landscapes or natural elements. Charles V has often been criticized for introducing the incompatible architectural element of the renaissance art within the existing Moorish design of the Alhambra (Abdelaal, 2018). Historians point out towards the tenacity of the rulers who, during a time when political negotiations were intense and warfare an ex veto, managed to produce some of the most phenomenal architectural buildings and sophisticated poetry within the region. The surge of culture within the Nasrid rule managed to leave its impact on the walls of the palace (Barker, 2016).

Style of the Alhmabra Palace

The Alhambra is a medieval Islamic monument in Granada Spain (figure4) that has been in existence for an extended period. The style of the palace was meant for religious rulers and persons belonging to the affluent class. The situation is evident through multiple structural designs and artefacts that were common with rich people such as rulers. In 1894, UNESCO declared the monument as a world heritage site, which is open for the public. People visit the site to observe and learn about its history and design.

The city hosts a rich architectural and cultural history that has continuously changed to modern times. Eggleton (2011, 9) claims that the city qualifies to be a monument as it houses different histories and practices of people who occupied it during the early Christian and Islamic rules. The monument’s structural and architectural designs (figure 5) have a natural feeling that has been re-envisioned multiple times by its occupants to modern-day. Built on a hill, the feature observes a biophilic style, which is evident in its architectural designs. For example, it has gardens, water pools, fountains, and mimics of natural light in most of its palaces.

The Alhambra complex has two describable entities remaining today, the Court of the Lions and the Court of the Myrtles. Court of the Lions was built in the reign of Muhammad V during the time of 1354 to 1359 and has been paralleled with the Villa Rustica. The architectural style common at that time was a mixture of exuberant Moorish and Christian influences which has been known as the Nasrid style (Eggleton E. , 2011). A pavilion project into the courtyard and the light domed roof has filigree walls. The oblong court is thirty-five meters in length and twenty meters in width with white marble colonnade and colored tiles.

The Court is situated at the heart of the Palace, and the main living units surround the court and turn outside while receiving the sun, view, and light from the garden of the courtyard. When one moves through the space, physical involvement with water is induced due to the integration of small water channels and fountains which engage the human body with an element of water. The main technique for the decoration of the walls of the courtyards in the Palace is created through the dado tiling used to cover the bottom and upper part of the wall in the Court of the Golden Room. The stucco art which is covering the muqarnas in the Court of the Lions has different colours such as gold, green, blue, white and red. There is a consistency of the natural elements and themes in historic architecture which points towards the fact that biophilic design is a phenomenon contributing towards codification of history, neural sciences, and human intuition. This shows that contact with natural elements and nature itself is essential for a vibrant existence specifically for those living in urban areas (Jorge, 2018). The natural colour tones create a material connection with nature and reflect the local geology to create a sense of the place (al-Rhodesly, 2018).

The surface of the pool in the Court of the Myrtles serves the function of a mirror, reflecting the biophilic design in the architecture itself. This creates an admirable visual effect. There isarabesqueornamentationofthedifferentvarietyfoundwithinAlhambra.Theseincludegeometric starsandroseswhichrun intoeachotheranddevelopthedesign.Thebestexampleofbiomorphic designpatternsistheornamentalepigraphswhichareinterwoveninthesurfacedecorationsinthe porticos of the Court of the Myrtles because the ornamentalepigraph patterns are reminiscent of nature thus projecting the design element of naturally occurring shapes in nature  (al-Rhodesly, 2018).

Biophilic Design

The term ‘Biophilia’ was first coined by a professor at Yale University who defined the biophilic design as being affiliated with the inherent need of human beings to associate with natural designs within the built environment. Thus the goal of the biophilic design is that an environment is created which consists of elements that promote well-being and contact between human beings and nature. Over the years, architects, have published different works which include a unique form of approaches for realizing the transition of biophilic design from theory to application in building design. Biophilic design happens to be a holistic approach which utilizes the engineering principles, design cues, and nature-based systems to support well-being improved health and performance which can be measured through self-rated biometrics, personal mood as well as work quality.

Since the beginning, the hunting and gathering societies shared what humans today have, the need to connect with nature for obtaining necessities and for gaining mental peace. While analysing the existing literature one stumbles upon the idea that biophilia developed and has its origins within the understanding of the evolution of human beings (Söderlund, 2015). Human species developed biologically in adaptive response to the natural surroundings and not the artificially created forces. Thus, the human mind and body evolved with the bio-centric approach and not through technological advancement (Gullikson, 2010). The main hurdle which humans today have to experience between themselves and nature is the paradigm of development and design of the structures and artificially built environment (Söderlund, 2015). The biophilic design thus addresses not only the problems and deficiencies in modern landscape practice and building but also provides a new method for creating a positive experience for humans with nature (Kellert, 2018).

The term Biophilia has its roots in Greek literature means “love of life”. The Biophilia Hypothesis proposed by Wilson indicated that there is a need within people to connect with the complex geometrical forms in their surroundings just like they require air and nutrients (Price, 2018). Thus, sprang the Biophilic architecture, giving innovation to way architectural spaces are used and paved the way for the dialogue between the need for humans to connect with nature and the patterns as well as natural forms. There are geometrical features such as the scale-invariance and fractals which provide a notion of self-similarity as well as symmetry for people to indirectly connect with natural elements (Ramzy, 2015).

Principles of biophilic design can be seen in the architecture of the Islamic era, in cities such as Damascus, Aleppo, Bagdad, and Cairo. Pointed out that in contrast to the building being viewed as a sculptural element, the traditional madrasa has characteristics of well-arranged interior spaces and exterior patterns that are integrated harmoniously in an interplay with natural elements (Abdelaal, 2018). Moreover, themes connected with natural elements can be found in historical architecture such as that of the Egyptian sphinx with stylized animals, and that of the acanthus leaves on the Greek temples. Thus, this representation of elements and plants as ornamentation represents the tendency and need of human beings to connect with nature (Kellert S. R., 2012).

There is a consistency of the natural elements and themes in historic architecture which points towards the fact that biophilic design is a phenomenon which has contributed towards codification of history, neural sciences, and human intuition. This shows that contact with natural elements and nature itself is essential for a vibrant existence specifically for those living in urban areas (Ancona, 2017 ).


The Alhambra and the Biophilic Design

There is a consistency of the natural elements and themes in historic architecture which points towards the fact that biophilic design is a phenomenon which has contributed towards codification of history, neural sciences, and human intuition. This shows that contact with natural elements and nature itself is essential for a vibrant existence specifically for those living in urban areas. The Alhambra Palace is the perfect example of the historic structure with the biophilic design because the architecture has beauty and functionality which connects people with natural elements. The Alhambra palatine is the most admired as well as famous examples of Islamic heritage and architecture in Europe.  The biophilic design was achieved in the Alhambra palace through the architectural magnificence of the Generalife Palace, which is framed with a panoramic view of different landscapes that extend to different horizons.

Biophilic Design Patterns present in the architecture of Alhambra

Browning allocates the biophilic design into three main categories, the Natural Analogues, The Nature of the Space, and the Nature in the Space (Downton, 2017). There is a visual connection with nature in the design of the Alhambra palace, specifically in the Generalife Palace in which the panoramic views of the landscape is extended out to cover the horizon. The terraces, garden pavilion, and flowers, shrubs as well as plants cover the spaces (Browning, 2014).

Nature in the Space: Visual Connection with Nature

The visual connection creates a stimulating as well as calming experience for the viewers. This pattern is rooted in the idea of biodiversity as researchers claim that having visual access to various ecosystems and biodiversity is beneficial for the health of individuals. Kahn is of the view that viewing environmental elements in an office surrounding reduces the stress level (Ryan, 2014). The Alhambra observed visual connections with nature evident in the Generalife Palace. According to Amoeda et al. (2018, 376), the palace has panoramic views of the natural environment spanning to the horizon. The palace’s gardens are filled with flowers and shrubs, while plants cover its pathways as evident in (figure 6). The oblong pools are fitted with fountains and surrounded by shrubs, as evident in (figure 7) below.

Moreover, the Patio de la Acequia (The Court of the Water Channel (figure 8) and the Patio de la Sultan have are “magnificent” courtyards that enhance the palace’s biophilic design. Amoeda et al. (2018, 376) claim that visual connections with nature enhance positive emotions, reduce stress, and improve recovery rates and concentration. The presence of plants, shrubs, and flowers in the Generalife Palace made it possible for its architects to incorporate direct experience with nature into the Alhambra. The scenery may have served to reduce stress and increase mental engagement among dwellers of the palace.

Direct experience of nature

Direct experience of nature includes the actual contact with natural phenomena such as water, animals, plants, light, natural landscape, and weather. Indirect engagement comprises of natural colour, evoking nature, simulations of natural air and light, and images of nature (Kellert & Calabrese 2015, 11). Notably, people use colour to locate water, food, and other primary resources, making it an essential natural element. The use of natural colours in built environment consists of the utilization of pigments that consider earth tones such as rocks, soil, rainbow, sunset, animals, sunrise, and plants (Downtown, 2017). An evocation of nature includes the use of representations that do not occur literally in the environment but imply specific natural principles. A building can have shapes that evoke specific animal qualities. For instance, the Sydney Opera House has wings that imply the qualities of a bird.


Non-Visual Connection with Nature

This pattern involves auditory as well as olfactory sense simulation through sound patterns and the main objective is to provide environmental elements using scent, touch, and taste to some extent. The main design considerations include prioritizing natural sounds over the artificial urban sounds. The best example of Non-Visual Connection with Nature is that of Calat Alhambra in which these fourteen patterns can be seen.

The architecture of the Alhambra supports the nonvisual experience through the connection of indoor as well as outdoor spaces between natural landscape and buildings. There are solar heat penetrates, sounds of nature and myrtles along with fragrant plants within the palace which create the exquisite stimulation for senses. The non-rhythmic sensory stimuli is present in order to circulate the natural sensory stimuli and to attract the attention of the viewers by relieving their psychological stress.

Thermal & Airflow Variability

There is thermal as well as airflow variability within the palace which makes the spaces in the fortress invigorating, refreshing and alive. The Hall of Comares is the best example of the “Venturi effect” in which air is circulated rapidly throughout the space creating cross ventilation. The Alhambra observed direct contact with nature through the creation of thermal and airflow variability. According to Amoeda et al. (2018, 376), thermal and airflow variabilities are changes in airflow, relative humidity, and air and surface temperatures that imitate the natural surroundings. The aura created by design generates a refreshing, alive, active, comfortable, and invigorating feeling. In the monument, the wall height provided a natural cooling against the intense sun rays. The situation created an indirect illumination at the higher parts, which spread to the lower parts of the interior. The design prevented the influx of heat in the rooms by manipulating direct sunlight while still achieving the required level of ventilation and illumination (Amoeda et al 2018, 377).

Additionally, ventilation in the rooms was achieved by structural placement of the windows that created a stack effect and venture effect. Structural placement of the windows refers to the accurate position of windows. For example, the variation in air pressure and density between the lighter warm air and heavier cold air created a stack effect in the Tower of the Captive and the Tower of the Princess. The Hall of Comaress (Figure 9,10) achieved natural ventilation by rapid air circulation in spaces where cross-ventilation creating a venturi effect. The air ventilation was necessary to enhance human comfort and productivity. According to Kellert & Calabrese (2015, 12), natural ventilation can be achieved by operable windows and or complex engineering strategies. Therefore, by engineering the windows to allow cross ventilation in the Alhambra (figure 11), its architects achieved a biophilic design that allowed the circulation of natural air into the interiors of the buildings.

Presence of Water

The presence of water created compelling as well as captivating presence. The best example is that of Alhambra pools as there is the presence of water in the Court of the Lions design and the Water Stairway which is one of the most breathtaking designs of the Generalife. The presence of water (figure 12) encouraged the connection of nature with the Alhambra’s design. Amoeda et al. (2018, 379) claim that water promotes the experience of a place through touching, hearing, and seeing. People develop a captivating and compelling feeling. The Alhambra has multiple watercourses comprising of canals, water stairs, bannisters, basins, and fountains created in different geometric forms. For example the Court of Myrtles has a reflective pool with pools that gurgle water, creating a calm relaxing, and quiet sound that generates a wonderful sense (Amoeda 2018, 379).


Dynamic & Diffuse Light

Dynamic light effect creates the experience of intrigue and drama within the viewers and buffers a sense of calm.

Connection with Natural Systems

These are the interactive designs such as the integrative educational curriculum, community gardens, horticulture designs in which the use of materials is that which engages the viewer. This form of connection with nature can be seen in the Alhambra palace as well in the ceilings of the Throne Room and in the roof of the Balcony of Dar Aisha.

Natural Analogues

Natural Analogues in the Alhambra

The natural analogs of the Biophilic design are the non-living, organic vocations of nature that are indirect. These include the colors, shapes, patterns as well as materials which manifest natural elements in the form of artwork. These biomorphic forms and patterns can be seen throughout Islamic ornaments which were used for decorative purposes and are present in the architectural decorations in the palace as well. There is arabesque ornamentation of the different variety found within Alhambra. These include geometric stars and roses which run into each other and develop the design. The best example of biomorphic design patterns in Alhambra is the Balcony of Dar Aisha which is considered as one of the most enchanting corners of the palace. Moreover, ornamental epigraphs are also present on the perforated screens and panels (al-Rhodesly, 2018).

Indirect Experiences with Nature

The Alhambra also achieved a biophilic design by incorporating natural analogues into its structural designs. The above elements are incorporated into structures designs creating a mimicry of the natural environment.

Biomorphic Forms & Patterns

The Alhambra has multiple biomorphic forms and patterns that enhance individuals’ connection with the cosmic world through imagination (Gonzalez 2003, 262). In relation to the Islamic decorative ornaments (figure16,17), the cosmic world is made up of three dimensions that include nature, the universe, and human beings. (Amoeda et al. 2018, 381). The Alhambra represents the cosmic beauty through epigraphic and geometric decorations throughout the palace. According to Amoeda et al. (2018, 382), natural geometries are evident through geometric flower decorations and patterns that fill the walls of the monument. For instance, the Balcony of Dar Aisha (figure 18) presents one of the most spectacular epigraphic compositions and spectacular decorations. In this case, walls are filled with geometric representations of flowers, star wheels, and puzzles.

On the other hand, the epigraphs are interwoven with other surfaces(figure19), making the Alhambra rich in information. According to Kellert and Calabrese (2015, 12), people develop a positive feeling towards diverse and information-rich environments. For example, tourists are fascinated by reading ancient writings on monument walls provided they are legible and comprehensible (Garcia, 2017). The epigraphs in most of the Alhambra’s walls are placed above the tile decorations on the lower part of the walls, which make them more visible for visitors. Today, most of the structures have been renovated after abandonment for a considerable period since the 1700s. The palace has been termed as a world heritage monument by the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO).

Biophilic Design Throughout History

The sense of attachment of human beings with their built landscapes happens to be the promise of biophilic design and the distortion of an individual’s values with that of nature in the digital age has only occurred because of conventional design. Furthermore, the distortion in the values also occurred because of the growing alienation and environmental degradation within the world. Thus sustainability is bound to remain a goal rather elusive until there is a shift in the ethical values with the natural world. Sustainability is bound to be an elusive target until we can shift the entire focus on building a fulfilling relationship between humans and their natural environment. This relationship is depicted in biophilic design, which can be seen in the Alhambra. Thus the successful application of the biophilic design relies solely on recognizing how one can remain productive, healthy, and maintain a meaningful connection with nature.

Angkor Wat present within Cambodia happens to be one of the largest religious monument which happens to be 162.6 hectares. The temple was built in the 12th century by Khmer King, and it was not dedicated to Vishnu which was the previous tradition but was rather the mausoleum for Khmer Empire. Angkor Wat uses the Khmer architecture and uses sandstone as the main building stone and has redented towers which have been shaped to look like lotus buds. The complexity and order pattern, which is a sensory element of the biophilic design that adheres to the special hierarchy matching that of natural surroundings (Hartley, 2014). The main design associated with complexity and order pattern, the fractal pattern can be identified in the vernacular as well as classical architecture from the column capitals of the art of Ancient Mayans, ancient Egypt, and Greece, the Hindu Temples, etc. The fractal pattern can also be seen in the Angkor Wat as there is high dimensional fractal artwork such as that of narrative scenes, extensive garlands, bas reliefs, decorative elements like pediments and devatas.

The madrasa and bimaristan design during the 11th century valued biophilic elements which can be seen in the Qubbat&-Bimaristan al-Sultan Qalawun of the 1283 A.D. In contradiction to the western conception of sculptural element of the biophilic design, the madrasa feature uses patterns that are well-arranged within the interior as well as exterior spaces that interplay as well as integrate the natural elements. The biophilic elements included within madrasa architecture includes water elements, daylight, clever manipulation, patterns, wood, and stone (Abdelaal, 2018). These features happen to be essential elements present within the biophilic architecture. The pattern, also known as the complex order happens to use a different form of strategies such as the scaling factor with the fractal geometries, hierarchical symmetry, bio-geometry, universal scaling, and connective symmetries. These patterns can be seen in the Muqarnas dome, which happens to be an Iranian architecture that can be seen in Erzurum Yakutia Madrasa that was built in 1310.

Biophelia in Modern Day

Biophilia started as a display of power and opulence as it was designed as not just a castle but like a mini city with the royal family being the center of attraction. The impressively large castle was constructed with a powerful exterior containing fortified structures that were meant to fend off attackers. The castle was built as a symbol of power and strengthened at a time when the Christian expansionism was at its peak in the 13th century as it threatened to overrun the Muslim rule in the state of al-Andalus.

Alhambra was not only considered as the priced jewel of the Granda but it was also the center of political power within the kingdom and Nasrid Palace was located at its core. The Alhambra Palace, during the Nasrid rule was meant to designate opulence as well as power. The palace was constructed to impress and it worked its charisma on most of the visitors from all over the world, particularly the Catholic Monarchs, Isabella and Ferdinand. Palace of Charles V within the Alhambra exudes majesty and power because of its impression of size, weight, symmetry and ornamentation which suggest authority and dignity. The opulent Moorish styled reception halls, royal quarters and reception halls part of the Nasrid Palace in the heart of Alhambra are a perfect blend of splendor and power. This is because the dazzling ornamentation of the columns and walls dazzles the eyes of the visitors. However, opulence alone is not sufficient to suffice for being the source of power (Eggleton E. , 2011). The other means through which the palace displays power include the disproportion and uncertainty of the layout of the Nasrid Palace communicates a sense of mystery regarding the ruler of the palace. Thus the visitors or the potential assassins will be disoriented by the narrow passages, blind alleys and rooms at odd angles.

Eggleton states that multiple generations of Christian monarchs chose to occupy the Alhambra palace demonstrates that it was considered as a site of immense power and opulence. This shows that the biophilic design implemented at Alhambra represents the ruler just like beauty, architecture, ornament, and the surrounding landscape represents power (Eggleton E. , 2011). However today, architects utilize technology to enhance people’s contact with nature. According to Lin, Egerer, &Ossola (2018), urban gardens provide urban dwellers with diverse animals, plants, and soils. The situation influences an in-depth comprehension of natural processes, such as pollination, climate processes, and pest control, which affect food production. The gardens also allow individuals to interact and engage in physical activity, reducing the risk of some lifestyle disorders such as obesity. Modern designs also infuse biophilic elements by creating plant walls, which enhance positive health among employees in urban places (Lin et al. 2018). For instance, the Pasona Group’s Office in Tokyo utilizes hydroponic technology to grow plants along the interiors and exteriors of its walls (figure 24,25).

Integration of shapes and patterns, such as water ripples, which mimic natural forms, have also gained popularity in giving building a wavy appearance. Glass walls and windows are used to incorporating space and light in most buildings. The materials allow buildings to utilize natural light as they reflect sun rays around spaces. For instance, Genzyme building in Cambridge incorporates natural light and space in its design. The above cases reveal that technology can be utilized to enhance biophilia as opposed to hindering its integration in the built environment.

Among the best practices architecture these days, there happens to be immense demand to reduce the number of carbon emissions which is a concern for developed countries where complex regulations, energy demand, and thermal studies have provided solutions for architectural designs. Thus developing countries these days are also opting towards architectural designs that lower the energy consumptions in buildings (Garcia, 2017).  For example, the thermal condition of the desert in UAE is reduced using high technology design walls that happen to be built by Norman Foster in the Masdar Institute in Abu Dhabi UAE. Biophilic design can also be observed in the ceramic coating overlaying the structure made up of concrete of the Sydney Opera House which has been created by JornUtzon.

Furthermore, the handmade bricks building system at Turpan, China happens to allow moisture release as well as natural cross ventilation because of the clay, dry vegetation and earth mixed together in the bricks (Garcia, 2017). Furthermore, a building in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil known as the GuilhermeWeinschenck happens to compensate for heat through local vegetation which is used for lowering the temperature as well as release the built-up of moisture through balancing the levels of humidity inside the building.  The Dockside Green community in Canada happens to be an example of biophilic design as it represents the non-rhythmic stimuli. The goal of the non-rhythmic sensory stimuli is to enforce the use of natural stimulus which can attract the attention and enhance the ability of the individual to connect with nature which can often be replenished from psychological and mental fatigue. The Dockside Green community design is responsible for rainwater management as well as habitat restoration which can lead to noises and buzz of insects, grass noise through swaying and noise of falling water as well as that of nearby animals that can be visible through windows, porches, and walkways.


The main objective of the biophilic design is to build an environment based on the positive natural aspect. The restorative environment design focuses on the relationship between humanity and nature within a world that is increasingly marred because of the psychological, social as well as environmental alienation. The sustainable designs tend to combine the efficiencies of biophilic design, which makes enhanced connections to complement nature with restorative environmental design. Implementation of Biophilic design at the Alhmabra represented grandeur, opulence, aesthetics and natural connection with nature. However,due to urbanization and development in modern times, this relationship has translated from a personal to a collective level (from houses / dwellings / palaces) to public parks through a transition of power and an increased densification of urban areas which would not allow for “wasted personal space”. Today, the construction industry utilizes technology to promote the design by the use of nature, space and light. Notably, further studies can be conducted to investigate how natural aspects can be integrated into building design from an early stage, where space and resources are limited to enhance human contact with nature. It is incumbent on architects to incorporate nature into the built environment to optimize its benefits in the future.

The aspects of biophilic design such as energy-saving concept, human health, enhancement of microclimates, and green building elements are in favor of making the biophilic design as sustainable. These aspects are now being implemented by states who wish to create sustainable environment and living.The energy-efficient concept in biophilic architecture asserts that passive biophilic design tends to have an elaborate system of insulations, which means that there is a low loss of energy and increased thermal comfort. The biophilic design embraces the green building elements that lower the damage on the ecosystem, whether it is the biophilic design within a city or a building.










A critical analysis of the Saskatchewan Centennial celebrations (2005) and the Québec quatercentenary celebrations (2008) can be done through many different theories and studies which help highlight how the two are connected in terms of its settlers and indigenous peoples in Quebec and Saskatchewan.

The analysis of two main commemorative events, the Centennial Gala in Saskatchewan and Rencontres [Encounters] in Québec, reveal significantly about Canadian celebrations. As Mackey (2002) argues, these commemorative events give an insight into how depoliticization might occur because of White settler’s innocence.

An important point to be noted is the Indigenous forms of counter-commemoration to the celebratory mode of Saskatchewan and Québec commemoration. Since there was strong resistance to the Vancouver Olympics, it is estimated that similar sentiments will be followed in 2017. It has been seen that these spaces reflect quite different connections with the past.

This study raises questions about the chances of a unionin the white settler colonial-national project as to how could make this investment tap into the hurtful feelings of the indigenous people that might be brought about by the same project. To solve the issue, the White settlers ought to take the matter into their own hands and utilize this time to postpone the celebrations of history and channel their endeavors into bridging the gap of opportunities and life chances between the White settlers and the Indigenous people that might lead to a purer celebration in the future.

During the fiftieth anniversary of Toronto’s integration, many celebrated its history with its connection to the British Empire in 1884. The analysis of the speeches of the renowned Daniel Wilson and Samson Green gives an insight into the differing interpretations and schools of thought to commemoration. While one vision emphasis the removal of the area’s past and celebrates the arrival of its modern European future, the other side celebrates the romanticized approach of the previous Indigenous-settler relationship that sidelines the status of Mississauga’s local settlers. The 1884 commemoration marks the shift from the birth of the settlement in 1793 to its integration as a cardinal part of the city. Here the act carried from the Mississaugas in the Toronto Purchase of 1787 is ignored; whereas, the 1834 Act of Incorporation represents Toronto’s modern grounds.

In 2009, the 175th celebration of Toronto’s integration, the representation of the Indigenous people and their past had witnessed a massive change. The 1834 Act of Incorporation energetically began and closed the ceremony and spoke a little as the people from Six Nations were less in representation. Here no one was labeled negatively, and many books acknowledged the deep understanding of the human presence historiographically and such was mentioned on the official website as well. Hence, overall the event was a celebration of diversity.

However, historical memory is constantly changing, particularly in Toronto, that is known to be a city for newcomers, as half its residents are born in foreign lands. In today’s world, Toronto’s Indigenous past is recalled and understood merely on the surface level, and most context remains ignored and unknown.


Cardwell, Lynn and Leroux, Darryl,The settler-colonial imagination: Comparing commemoration in Saskatchewan and in Québec(2019)

Freeman, Victoria, “Toronto Has No History!” Indigeneity, Settler Colonialism, and Historical Memory in Canada’s Largest City(2010)




American History, Race and Gender

American History, Race and Gender

American History

The differences in society are contemplated that, in turn, shape life events. Race constitutes differences in physical characteristics in sociological terms that lead to unequal treatment. Gender is about social construction regarding males and females in society. In the 19th century, the demographic transformation in Latino was seen in the context of immigration.

The Latino and Hispanic populations faced controversial issues in American history, and in 1960, less than 6 million people were from the Hispanic population. Latinos faced socioeconomic differences in class, and this differentiation had an enormous impact on the cultural and economic life of minorities (Bingham, 1991).

Racial Differences

The notion of racial differences has shaped society in the US and put emphasis on citizenship and non-citizenship. The Pan-Latino population of the US faced regional, national, and economic differences on the basis of race and gender. Latino immigration in the US has a complex history due to the California Gold Rush and the boundary of Mexico. In 1900, about 100,000 Mexicans migrated to the US that resulted in the Mexican revolution. The movement was followed by socio-economic racial difference trends in the early decades of the 20th century.

Racial Minorities

The concept of class and racial minorities is not new; in an example from primary findings, students took over 500 buildings with an aim to offer services to deserved people (Building, 2016). The issue about Hostos community college described the 1970s action about poor facilities to students on the basis of class differences. The voice was raised about South Bronx residents to enable Hostos to acquire necessary opportunities. From the 18th century, the sectional conflicts in American history acquired North, West, and southern states, even after the ratification of the constitution, the federal government ignored policies about immigration, hence neglected to bring forth racial minorities to eliminate the class differences.

Southern states were dependent on slave labor, and the concept of the Free state was quite difficult. Freedmen’s record in 1866 illustrates the poor dimensions of federal policy about education and poor children (Jacobs, 1866). The historical piece of literature provided evidence about the treatment of colored people, who could only use one side to walk through. The famous examples in this regard are Bull Street and Sherman’s march. The concept of class differences has given rise to discrimination among societal classes and races.

Cycle of Poverty

The Cycle of Poverty with the migrant’s framework elaborates on Mexicans’ plight. In 1935, under the National Labor Relation Act, it was discussed that industrial workers should receive equal rights, where powerful farm growers gave rise to lobby against farmers.  Since 1970, the concept of hand labor was promoted, thereby engaged farmers and caused minorities to stay poor and disadvantaged (Gutiérrez, 2015). 

These class differences and migrants’ plight contributed to significant socioeconomic deprivation in the US. The Mexican American population was aligned under the power structure, to hold Negros and keep away minority classes from freedom. The class differences in migrants persisted while in the slave community, human rights were grasped (JUAREZ, 1975). Migrants faced morbid situations, unethical conditions, and a deprived atmosphere.

Socorro Gomez Potter is a Mexican who shared similar experiences about structural inequalities, laborers faced. The gender and class differences, Mexicans faced, prevailed in the daily working environment. The narrator discussed feminism in the 18th century under the civil Chicano movement. The issue of equality of women was basic in the movement. Everyone was against racism, and the choice of human rights was accepted to survive in society (Potter, n.d.). The categorical inequalities, where racial and ethnic differences destroy societies, were condemned by different scholars. Gender equality was given significance by different sociologists to bring harmony.   


Bingham, G. (1991). 9. Democracy in America | THE AMERICAN YAWP. Retrieved 23 November 2019, from

Building, 5. (2016). Students and Faculty Take Over the 500 Building · CUNY Digital History Archive. Retrieved 23 November 2019, from

Gutiérrez, N. (2015). American Latino Theme Study: Immigration (U.S. National Park Service). Retrieved 23 November 2019, from

Jacobs, L. (1866). Digication ePortfolio :: U.S. History Primary Source Reader | HIS 20 BCC CUNY :: Louisa Jacobs, Report from the Freedmen’s Record. Retrieved 23 November 2019, from

JUAREZ, R. (1975). “The Cycle of Poverty”: Mexican-American Migrant Farmworkers Testify before Congress. Retrieved 23 November 2019, from

Potter, S. Interview with Socorro Gomez-Potter. Retrieved 23 November 2019, from



 incident of the general cargo vessel Priscilla
cargo vessel Priscilla


The incident of the general cargo vessel Priscilla took place on 18th July 2018. The vessel got shipwrecked when it hit the ground instead of stopping in water. Investigation revealed that the officer on board was unaware that the ship was drifting away from its actual path two hours before the accident took place. When the mistake got realized, it was too late to change course without leading the vessel directly into danger.

Moreover,The accident took place because of the carelessness of the officer who was busy watching videos on his mobile phone. He was the only one looking over the vessel at the time of the night and yet did not monitor where the ship was headed. The electronic navigation system onboard the vessel was also not set up. He even responded to two radio calls from authorities but did not take them seriously enough. Hence, he wasn’t able to avoid danger.

Background and purpose:

Many such marine accidents have been taking place lately and getting reported by authorities. It raises questions as to why their frequency is increasing. It seems that despite fewer crew compliments, the vessels are being used to exhaustion levels. They are not getting the maintenance they require. Plus, the people on board are also stooping towards carelessness in their attitude while handling the vessels and hence, causing accidents.


This investigation was done by the UK Marine Accident Investigation Branch (MAIB).

Lessons learned:

  1. Monitoring the vessel at all times is crucial. Make sure it is on the right path.
  2. More than one person should be employed at the task of looking out the vessel, especially at night.
  3. Electronic navigation systems should readily be used.
  4. Radio calls from the authorities should not be taken lightly and should be readily looked into to avoid danger.


Coming to the conclusion, to prevent accidents in the future, the owner of the vessel Priscilla has been advised to take the necessary measures to upgrade his ship to the required standards. And also, make sure that appropriate watchkeeping and safety management is done on board.


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