Situation Description

Google Inc. is a company that reigns supreme across the web and has acquired unprecedented success within the previous decade. The company was nothing more than a research project back in 1996 by Sergey Brin and Larry Page; however, they managed to turn the idea into a multinational high-tech business. (Schmidt, 2017). Throughout the years, one aspect of the company that has remained consistent happens to be its commitment to employee engagement and satisfaction.

In his book, “How Google Works,” the executive Chairman of Google, Eric Schmidt writes that a team of professionals known as “Smart Creatives” bring about business and technical expertise while catering to the needs of their employees. The author states that hiring the right employees is a skill, but retaining these employees is a tough job because of which Google has created a reliable performance management system as well as an inclusive and unique workplace culture (Bock, 2015).

Performance Management System Diagnosis

Annual Performance Review Cycle

The performance review for Google consists of two cycles annually. The first phase is the “preview” phase in which a complete peer review is done that correlates with the 360-degree feedback collection process of the company. Two main aspects are taken into account: the accomplishment of the employee and how the employee obtained the results.

·         Self-Evaluation

Self-evaluation centers around the advent of the annual performance review in which the employee has to evaluate herself/himself based on five criteria ranging from “always demonstrates” to “never demonstrates.”

·         360-degree Feedback

The holistic approach of providing managers with a thorough picture of their performance is done at Google in which the review centers upon the employee and the manager. The employee offers suggestions for improvements which are discussed with the manager in which peers participate as well.

·         Peer Reviews

Performance reviews tend to be customized at Google so that the team of smart creatives can track the performance of the employees. Lazlo Bock, the Vice President of People Operations, at Google, states in the book “Work Rules” that employees are Google first take into account identification of peer reviews. Each employee’s performance is taken into account through peer reviews, which also include reports from employees who might be junior.

The numerical rating system was abolished at Google back in April 2014, which means that employees at Google are now subjected to the new performance management system, which includes a five-point scale that ranges from “superb” to needs improvement.” This five-point scale peer review is carried out semiannually, and the reviewers are asked what improvement or one thing should the reviewee improve or do in a different way. After the peer review cycle is completed, the managers take a look at the peer reviews. The main aim of this process is to eliminate any form of bias, as the reviewers are asked to justify their decisions.

·         Calibration

After collection of the data through numerous channels in the form of peer reviews as well as self-reviews, the results are sorted out as the managers give rating the employee on the following scale:

  • Consistently meets expectations
  • Needs more improvements
  • Constantly exceeding expectations
  • Highly exceeds expectations
  • Excellent

The process of calibration in annual performance reviews is considered a go-to for the top-notch companies such as Goldman Sachs, AB InBev, GE, and Kraft Heinz. After the calibration meetings, each employee’s performance is reviewed, and Feedback is given while taking into account the impression of managers and peer reviews.

Evaluation of Performance Management System at Google

The ultimate goal of any performance management system must be to retain a maximum number of employees, and to enhance their productivity. A vital part of the performance management system is transparency, and the company does this well by keeping the data of each employee visible to ensure that there is credibility. When it comes to 360-degree Feedback, some employees tend to be good at painting a rosy picture of what they contributed towards the company while others do their job without promoting themselves. This often leads to limited impressions and biased impact of reports.

The main strength of Google’s 360-degree feedback review is that it provides a holistic approach to reviewing and a thorough assessment to direct managers. This is because employees crave good Feedback, and 360-degree Feedback provides employees with a chance to obtain more Feedback. The peer reviews are good for establishing the validity of the feedback process and for ensuring that goal-oriented as well as productive Feedback is done.

Business’s need for Change

360-degree Feedback is not utterly perfect despite the raving reviews because it can be used to generate a negative culture within the organization. This is because if the Feedback received comes out negative, it can generate resentment within the teams where the receiver of the Feedback might not be content with it. The managers who apply the 360-degree Feedback might also emphasize the negative aspects of the employee more rather than on the positive aspects (Kuzulu, 2016). A study on The Watson Wyatt Human Capital Index reveals that the 360-degree feedback reviews reduce the shareholder value of the company by 10.6 percent (Hornstein, 2002).

The main issue with 360-degree Feedback is that it takes place annually. However, meaningful Feedback should be given more often (Kuzulu, 2016). For Feedback to be accurate, it is imperative that it is done within six months so that the qualitative behavior, as well as quantifiable behavior, is noted. In 360-degree Feedback, the ratings of the reviewer might be influenced by the most recent interaction with the employee. Thus there are chances that the multi-rater or peer review system can be biased.

Improvement Options

·         Critical Incident

Critical Incident is a performance management tool in which an employer keeps not only track of negative incidents but also positive behavior or milestones achieved as well. The best aspect of this technique is that it is done every six months, which means that the subordinates are able to keep track of their performance, and the employer is able to take into account the qualitative aspects of the employee’s behavior (Fenwick, 1996). Critical incidents provide information regarding the abstract constructs of an employee, such as employee motivation, company culture, etc. which cannot be obtained through other methods.

·         Management by Objectives

The management by objectives method is the most results-oriented technique for performance appraisal. This method examines the performance of the employee through work objectives that have been predetermined. The objectives are established either by the manager or the employees themselves. Once the objective is agreed upon, the employees take it upon themselves to self-evaluate and identify skills that are most suitable for achieving the specific objective.

·         Behaviorally Anchored Rating Scales

BARS, also known as. Behaviorally Anchored Rating Scales is a technique that came out in the advent of 1960s and allowed the employees to measure their performance according to specific behavioral patterns. This technique enables the identification of both qualitative as well as quantitative data. This method combines the benefits of other performance appraisal methods such as quantified ratings, critical incidents, and narratives.

Evaluation Criteria

The alternative that will be chosen for the company will be based on the following evaluation criteria:

  1. The chosen alternative should be similar to the existing method so that the company can switch to the method easily.
  2. The chosen alternative must ensure an unbiased evaluation.
  3. The chosen alternative must take into consideration quantifiable as well as qualitative behavior to ensure thorough Feedback.


The best option for Google is the Critical Incident technique for performance management as it fits all three criteria perfectly. The critical incident method is the closest alternative to 360-degree feedback as it takes it allows self- evaluation by taking the perspective of the employee into account. This method helps to identify any form of events that might be missed in 360-degree Feedback.

The critical Incident method is done semiannually, which means that it will ensure maximum output by keeping track of all the achievements of the employee within the time span. The technique is also cost effective which means that the company will not have to use extra expenditure for this technique. This technique is specifically useful in structuring job description and job specification.

The Critical Incident technique requires first reviewing as well as determining the specific incidents that have taken place within the time span of six months. Then the process of fact finding behind in which the data is collected regarding how much work each individual did and what outcome it brought for the company (Serrat, Knowledge Solutions).

The third step involves analyzing the qualitative behavioral data as well as quantifiable data. The fourth step is a face to face meeting with the manager and the employee. The fifth steps involve appraisal in which either the root cause of the problem is identified or the employee is appraised for good work.


Implementation Plan

Steps Timing Resources Needed Stakeholders
Reviewing as well as determining the specific incidents that have taken place. 6th month of the year. Incident Reports

Manager’s report

Self-evaluation report


Parties involved within the incident, i.e. peers, managers, clients etc.

Evaluate the non-quantifiable behavior of the employee.

Examine what was good or bad regarding the incident

2nd week Self-evaluation report Manager


Analyzing the qualitative behavioral data as well as quantifiable data. 3rd week-4th week    
Action Plan- what the employee will do if faced with similar situation. 5th week Manager’s report





Bock, L. (2015). Work Rules!: Insights from Inside Google That Will Transform How You Live and Lead. Twelve.

Fenwick, M. (1996). Building an Integrated Approach to Performance Management Using Critical Incident Technique. Asia Pacific Journal of Human Resources, 20.

Hornstein, H. A. (2002). The Watson Wyatt Human Capital Index and Company Performance: A definite impact on shareholder wealth. International Management Conference, Society for Advancement of Management, 33-45.

Kuzulu, E. (2016). Is 360 Degree Feedback Appraisal an Effective Way of Performance Evaluation? International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences, 172-188.

Schmidt, E. (2017). How Google Works. Grand Central Publishing.

Serrat, O. (Knowledge Solutions). The Critical Incident Technique. Knowledge Solutions, 1077-1080.





According to several researchers and academicians, technology is an entity that serves two purposes, it complements people working jobs by improving their ability to perform certain tasks and sometimes even replaces people by automatically doing their jobs for the firm they may be a part of. For example, during a crisis situation, people tend to call out for help from their phones, whether it is reporting an incident, comment on the measures taken to deal with the incident, or explore information revolving around the crisis. The most obvious response is via social media. Hence this paper helps realize that technology is, for most situations, the first helpful tool. The data collected via this technology is logistically analyzed, and then sent to respective agencies of law and journalism so that people employed to make decisions regarding the situation can fulfill their jobs. In this way, the collection part is done by technology, the transmission bit is also done by technology, the categorization is also, to some extent done via technology and the only job that humans fulfill is that of analysis and decision making.  Humanitarian responders are then assigned according to the seriousness of crisis at hand. This data collected from technological sources has insurmountable potential , especially within command and control, and can also be exploited because it has the capacity to increase the usefulness of the crisis response.

However, the collection of data has to be optimum, too much causes confusion in decision making, and too little is not enough to reach a decision, especially on social media. Therefore, it is important that we use the computational capacity of our machines in such a way that it results in making the analysts’ jobs more convenient and present them with the key features and relationships in the data that eases the path to a final decision.

(Gibson et al, 2016)

Technology can be a very helpful tool for the organizational design of an agency, and in the impact for job design, the role of organizational design has to be discussed. The managers have framed boundaries to be barriers that should be eradicated to aid in collaborative work. These boundaries have been examined in detail and experiments carried out to make sure that results prove a relation between social distance and interaction of the people, and also come across findings that show that changing the internal architecture of the firm can create more interaction opportunities. But are these opportunities availed by employees or not? This question has been answered in quite detail keeping the intellectual ability of individuals in mind, and its relevance to their sociable ability. A group’s ability to interact and work with each other was measured, and technology was made use of, for fulfilling this task. The people involved in the study were asked to wear a sensor, known as a sociometric badge which comprised of an infrared (IR) sensor that was for capturing the person they were facing, microphones that were for capturing if they were talking or listening, accelerometer that was used for capturing bodily posture, and another sensor making use of Bluetooth technology for capturing the location of the employee in the workplace. These sensors recorded data with 10 ms intervals. With all the data collected, it was analysed and noted that there was more virtual interaction than live. In another study which set the previous one as a control experiment, replication of the same data was done and some changes made, the results showed that some decreased virtual communication while others increased, and this was irrespective of the way the workplace was designed. The final conclusion was precise, that is, electronic interaction had substituted live interaction even when the firm underwent organizational design. As a result, productivity declined to some extent, because of lack of privacy of employees which brought a dip to their individual working performance and consequently affected their collective intelligence. (Turban et al, 2018)

Techno-stress refers to the feelings of stress and anxiety which are associated with technology and usage of technology at different levels. Literary pieces like (Florkowski, 2019) are beneficial because they present literature behind workplace production and job satisfaction because they are found to analyze this technostress and assess job satisfaction according to the models behind technostress, its link to HR department in companies and the rate at which human resource technologies are perceived qualitatively. Technostress also couples with organizational design factors and their combined effects are studied and research carried out to improve the quality of work of the HR environment. In this regard, more than 160 firms from the US and Canada were taken for survey and the perceptions of HR staff taken into consideration. The survey evaluated how techno-insecurity and techno-stress impact job satisfaction among the people working, and the people who are being worked for.  There are several hypotheses mentioned in various literary pieces, most of which are studied and discussed in this paper and their findings analyzed. These include, HR technology usages instills increasing stress levels which differ with a department’s technology literacy. HR personnel not having IT knowledge face the grave issue of having to master IT interfaces and come up with ways to counter new risks that technology might be prone to with every passing year. This has a negative effect on HRT work stress impact. Moreover, HRT job-insecurity impact will affect work stress positively. Aggravating the problems that HR is exposed to as a result of technology also include the possibility that HR may be seen as being a department that dodges its responsibilities by offloading work.

The findings found in the paper consider HR-staff attitudes in technology rollouts. We can also formally assess how collaborative work in the HR department is affected by HR technologies. These also interfere with upholding the capital that HR generates. Decreased capital would result in concern regarding job satisfaction in other professionals. (Florkowski, 2019)

Technology transfer, organization structuring, and academic entrepreneurship are important keywords to have a separate discussion delegated to them entirely in the subject of technology’s impact on job design. Literary pieces discuss that technology transfer is the commercialization of research based university work, and is one of the most well researched subjects in nations worldwide because of the intensity of the benefits that come about from it. One of the main ones is economic development, which stems from innovation and products released by employing different innovative strategies which aid the progression of existing industries, and also induce the birth of new industries. As a result, professors, academicians, researchers, practitioners and authoritarians all are adamant on promoting technology transfer because of which it is a well-known process. But as many benefits as it instigates, it is an extremely complex procedure owing to its requirement for monetary resources in substantial amount. Moreover, risk assessment methods, when implemented on technology transfer ecosystems, mostly have highly consequential and probable risks in store. When coupled with organizational design, technology transfer can become a blessing because the components of organizational design are interdependent because of technology transfer and within this ecosystem, structures undergo comparisons and researches which prove that resources are effectively utilized. Despite the affluence of the TT literature, we come to the conclusion that it focuses only on the technology transfer components separately, and rarely considers the ecosystem as a whole. It is imperative to review the organizational design of the TT ecosystem and indicate parameters of knowledge gaps found in it. While literature identifies four primary components of the TT ecosystem(TTOs, Science parks, incubators, university venture funds), new methods for studying the facilitation of academic entrepreneurship, such as university-based entrepreneurial ecosystems and accelerators are also coming to the surface.(Wright et al, 2019)

One of the technologies impacting job design in organizatons is SaaS(software as a service). It was beneficial for the firms, but had adverse effects on the people working in the IT department such as stress and anxiety. SaaS brought about advantage of cost effectiveness and scalability and was a user friendly interface for users but it had long-term adverse consequences which included the IT staff burdened by tasks like getting accustomed to the infrastructure change when the firm transitions from manual interface to SaaS, being familiar with the risks that come with any technology, eradicating those risks etc. Software management both at the employees’ and the clients’ side is done by the IT staff, which adds up to their overwhelming state. To assess the these factors, appropriate research models were designed by triangulating perspectives of users and IT professionals. As the responsibilities of the cloud computing provider increase and create a higher degree of SaaS usage, the firm’s original IT proficiency and organizational IT structures prove to be inadequate. Uptil now, the stance of current literature regarding this was trivial but a study was conducted based on individual-level research making use of the socio-technical system theory. This theory is one of the most effective ones regarding exploration of IT implementations in organizations; more than 30 academic journals and literary articles were reviewed to broadly complete the study in three fields of research. The findings showed that if the socio-technical consequences were not aligned, IT personnel will experience fear of redundancy and their lack of productivity will decrease productivity in the whole organization according to thesis of STS theory. Job satisfaction of professionals all depends on how highly radical the changes due to SaaS will be; a higher level of SaaS usage causes operational as well as organizational problems. Relevance of (Jede etal, 2016) can be seen prominently to the topic in question because it includes how SaaS can increase productivity and provides details on how it can change the social structures within an organization.

Fuel technology is often assessed by the use of decentralized energy systems and the analysis of this is an important aspect to review when discussing technology’s impact on job design.  Uptil now, the electricity requirements of the world were met by use of technology in a centralized way however with changing times, decentralized energy systems are employed for bringing about the distribution of energy. Layouts of technologies are laid forward and everything required to convert the distribution system from centralized to decentralized one are catered to by data collected. Conclusions based on findings were found to be more in favor of inclining to the decentralized method despite its lack of cost efficiency, because a decentralized method has better performance statistics.

It is worth noting that a decentralized energy system brings about benefits such as reduced carbon emissions, advancement in efficiency, cost effectiveness and preservation of credibility of the firm. The energy market and infrastructures are thus left with no choice but to develop these systems further. Optimization of this decentralized energy system will turn out to be a boon because for the energy efficiency and renewable penetration by the use of multi-energy systems. However, this system is quite challenging. These challenges such as the substantial amount of technology literacy required and resources needed to support full functionality of this technology , and fulfil the industry’s energy demands have prompted academicians and researchers to come up with computational algorithms and tools to deal with these issues. The agenda for the incorporation of decentralized energy systems and multi energy systems comprises of electrolyzers and fuel cells that are primary elements of electrochemical conversion technologies. This agenda is beneficial because it provides input on the decentralized framework of technology. (Gabrielli, 2018)


DEA ( Data Envelopment Analysis ) is a technique which has prior approaches and models associated with it, making it a highly centralized technique across the world of technology. It also has the efficiency principle that acts as a model however there are limitations to it, which make it challenging to perform analysis. The assortment of technology often proves to be a restraint, and to overcome it, researchers make use of meta data, meta technology ratio and relocate resources so as to avail full benefits. Research proves that several different kinds of DEA models have been put forth and their application tested in different fields out of which the most notable implementations are fixed cost allocation and resource allocation. The principles which are employed to successfully carry out these approaches are efficiency invariance principle, and efficiency maximized principle. But since technology has its own fair share of limitations, both these principles are often not taken into account in the desired way. Among DMUs, several technology gaps exist and this instills negativity in such a manner that needs to be countered with effective research and strategic skill. This can ultimately present more useful approaches. Analysis of these approaches is carried out and it is assumed that DMUs have similar production technology level which is more often than not, not the case. Calculations and summation formulae are taken into account to fulfill quantitative requirements of this research and find parameters that support findings and conclusions. Subjective as well as objective ways are employed to split the DMUs in organizations into groups called macro units like the social network platforms, rather than assess individually.

However, research proved that the efficiency of technology only progresses if centralization technique is applied on the DMUS in question and the shortcomings resulting due to allocation problems can be further investigated with research in the future.

(Ding et al, 2018)

The relationship between group technology and organizational structuring is one of the most important ones worth consideration when reviewing Technology’s Impact on job design.  For companies to own a competitive edge in market, there is a need for flexibility which comes about greatly at the expense of opting for group technology strategies. Several companies in the past have benefitted from organizational structures by reduction in operating costs, machine set-up time and clarity in roles and responsibilities shared among individuals,  however there were some limitations in the scope. When reviewing these aspects from literature, it is noted that there has been a poor link between the organizational design perspective and group technology, the only way group technology is studied is from an industrial perspective. Therefore to change the rules a little, applied systems theory was employed as a layout for studying organizational design with respect to group technology. This theory aimed at answering questions revolving around the position of group technology in the design of structures for production, the capabilities and issues regarding adoption of group technology, and the type of methods which are to be used to ensure long-term benefits. Consequently, research is conducted in such a way that three different cases are analyzed via the cluster analysis approach and the product flow approach to make groups of machines and workers in the manufacturing unit of companies. To further improve this research, another five cases are taken into consideration and findings amalgamated to reach a sound conclusion. The conclusion reflects how firms are considered about group technology when a poor performance is observed in their premises particularly regarding competitive pressure, response mechanisms, and accommodation of the constantly growing demand for better. This is because as a result of group technology, firms can separate the low priority tasks and delegate them to the employees lower in hierarchy. Therefore, it has a significant position among the range of answers for design of organizational structures. (Dekkers, 2018)

Academic literature is filled with avid authors making organizational design a focal viewpoint in their pieces. The use of strategic knowledge management is always coupled with the concepts of coding and personalization of the documented information. The real target was to enlighten the belief of strategic knowledge management in such a way that the executive committee of the respective organization which deals with IT related decisions, effectively understands that within an organization, there are limits to how knowledge is to be planned and propagated. If such an approach is adopted, outcomes will be robust and there will not be an unsteadiness situation in the organization where there is high innovation capacity and low work productivity instead equilibrium will be established. Corporations like Xerox suffered the consequences of not developing ways to make use of strategic knowledge management and this is what literature like (Willmot et al, 2017) aims to avoid. In this regard, analyzing is done of literary exemplars to answer why firms are required to emphasize on an equivalency strategy between coding and customization in the milieu of strategic knowledge management. This will bring about advancement in overall performance. Research findings show that there exist three insights and two pitfalls which any company wanting to adopt strategic knowledge management should know about. These insights are, firstly, a significant highlighting of codification and personalization might result in risks regarding the propagation of knowledge. Secondly, if an equilibrium is not established, there are little to no good outcomes on the organizational part because all efforts are considered scrappy. Thirdly, managerial employees should realize the need for equilibrium establishment. The pitfalls are, firstly, overriding of coding will create an over-disciplined atmosphere where there would be no room left for innovation and secondly, substantial reliance on personalization will leave no room for relevant routines and respect for ideas of employees. (Willmot et al, 2017)

Big data analytics deserves a separate seat on the table when reviewing technology’s impact on job design. Academic literature has, in detail, explained the capabilities and structural technicalities of big data and it is used to deal with large sets of data to improve performance. (Akhtar et al, 2019) has done commendable research on big data and has investigated areas of analytics that have not been explored before. Big data is a quite useful resource because it has benefitted organizations in terms of increasing their financial reporting greatly and has given employees necessary skills and enterprises the performance which is needed in the competitive global market which is becoming more and more technology oriented with every passing day. An outline of the research methodology when laid out in front of us helps us identify some limitations too and also clarifies the need for a high monetary input so that enterprises know beforehand what they are adopting. Not every organization has the human resources (both at an individual as well as collective level), industrial resources(machinery and well equipped knowledge of usage of this machinery) and technical resources(mathematics, logistics) which are a prerequisite for carrying out big data analytics. Nevertheless, research samples were taken from agri-food industries and based on the findings, hypotheses were proposed, which said that the performance of business and the results of the actions of big data development were both positively linked to the usage of the big data-savvy teams and the skills they possess. Organizations are explicitly mentioned that experienced improved service and product quality, punctual deliveries and addressed inaccuracy challenges with utmost expertise owing to big data simultaneously making sure that environmental concerns like recycling and water efficiency are not compromised. The conclusion of the research states how it plays a key role in measuring the gap earlier research of big data analytics. The research provided thorough insight to the evolution and implementation of big data analytics in business operations. (Akhtar et al, 2019)

A basic smart phone application can be helpful in studying the safety of insulin and ICT in a centralized clinical trial system. Literary examples have included hypotheses regarding the use of these and linked it to benefits brought about by use of conventional methods. The use of PHR is encouraged, which stands for Personal Health Record, an online application which helps patients in accessing, managing, and sharing their health data and helps doctors and personnel likewise to give improved decisions and perform remote check-ups of the patients enlisted for the clinical trial.  These records facilitate clients by maximizing the insulin dose adjustments made to their routine by monitoring levels of glucose, insulin and appropriate data collection of the patient. Research conducted to determine the safety and efficiency of PHRs and its application brought forward facts such as a confirmation that the ICT-based clinical trial was a stable one. Recruitment strategies varied according to subjects and their diagnoses, and the trial went on for 24 weeks at the end of which patients were randomly placed in two groups, one the ICT based intervention group and the other was the conventional intervention group. In the latter, subjects were asked to save and send their glucose and insulin information in addition to their step count through PHR application, while in the former, subjects received valuable feedback regarding their condition. The main hypothesis was that the former group was benefitted more than the latter group. Results of the research revealed that a centralized method of sharing and using information allowed better decision making for patients and also proved the stability of collection via the PHR application to make remote patient assessment convenient. This research studied the use of a centralized data system with respect to healthcare and showed new perspectives for future research. (Kim et al, 2017)



Decentralized networks like the P2P network are overviewed in quite detail in many different academic literary pieces which demonstrate the benefits of P2P that include, but are not limited to, load balancing, fault tolerance, and rapid data exchange. Reference to the implementation of decentralized networks in the past is also made as an attempt to draw a comparison between then and now and how the layouts varied. P2P ensured safety and privacy of users information both in the public network aspect and the private network aspect by preserving privacy where required. The research study procedure employed in (Kryukov, 2018) provides apt detail on how a decentralized scheme of networks can facilitate the job performance of employees hence it is reviewed in the umbrella of topic “Technology and its Impact on Job Design”.  Research is being conducted at a global level to carefully assess P2Ps in order to reap the advantages they offer, that is, being adaptive, operating perfectly even without special administration, and allowing flexibility to the participants of joining and leaving the network as they please. They are efficient highly because they result in good work performance as there is integrated usage of advanced computing resources via the Internet as well as proper organization of decentralized data storages.  In this review, attention is given to the last part i.e creation and organization of data storages. Data storages are further classified according to what they are used for, firstly those utilized in storing, searching, and exchanging public data and secondly, those utilized in storing private data, these systems are particular about security and reliability. The concerns of clients and adequate responses of IT personnel are both effectively navigated to one another based on distribution control methods. P2P decentralized networks can be further classified into unstructured and structured networks, examples of which are Chord and Freenet. It is thus demonstrated that the field of information technology has a lot to offer to P2P networks and to deal with technical problems, more research in the future has to be conducted. (Kryukov, 2018)

Data warehouses and business intelligence are inter related terms and are reviewed in literature side by side. Data warehouses are effective for storage purposes and business intelligence is favorable in the discovery of knowledge based on three different areas namely, diversification in data services, standardization in interfaces and monitoring of services. Research comprises of sample models and reference systems whose layout’s foundation is the intelligence business model framework itself. Whereas, the models are useful in specifying job functions and characteristics.

Distributed reservation is a key concept of the organizational design within a firm. Trends like data warehousing act as an inspiring factor in considering rather subtle computing techniques to enhance business strategies. These techniques come coupled with certain rules, such as assurance of the research having a sound and persuasive conclusion, minimum usage of multimedia such as images and visual audio and maximization of usage of textual and numerical data. In accordance with this rule, the paper was greatly comprised of tabular representations of statistical details of the research as well as diagrams like charts and graphs to show the trends. Mathematical formulae give quantitative results of the research and thus support the effectiveness of the procedure put forward. When these paradigms are presented in research based studies, issues in marketing models are solved to some extent and the impact of data warehousing and the transition resulting in job design from technicalities are understood.

Consequently, overall performance gets a boost and opens opportunities for future research that will follow the implementation of the models proposed and integrate them with usage of multimedia as a transfer medium. (Liao et al, 2019)


Shifting to the cyber era and the transition phase from conventional to technology based is one of the most challenging and demanding areas of job design because technology has been, and is continuing to advance every single day and while these may cause the parties involved to evolve greatly, they also give birth to more complex issues. Many changes of work design are complicated and still unexplored. However, to have a full understanding of these shortcomings, more than 40 people having extreme expertise in the digital field are questioned and their opinions surveyed. Employees of firms had a long lasting connection with their respective workplace and their roles within the firm were often exchanged by more competitive ones because of artificial intelligence and teleworking catering to the less important jobs. Technology causes technostress and poses as a threat to the leadership skills of people in managerial positions, in addition to bringing substantial changes in the person’s professional as well as personal life. Four key themes were revealed which focused on work design and leadership with the first theme reflecting transition in the work life and health domain with everincreasing demands of workers and leaders. The second theme implied changes coming about due to the use of information technology that affected working media and collaborative processes. The third theme was inclined towards bettering the performance and discovering potential talent present in organizations and the fourth theme comprised of organizational hierarchies and the exchange of roles and responsibilities which happened as a result. Therefore, digitization in entirety can be very happening for an organization and academic literature acts as an assembling ground for the fragmented pieces of knowledge regarding the conversion of companies to technical ones. Thus, future research can benefit from these results and create awareness among owners of enterprises to fully equip themselves with the needed skills and resources to counter challenges of technology. (Schwarzmüller, 2018)

When technology is employed in workplaces, job design is greatly impacted and entire human roles within the workplace change.  A model is presented to study such changes in an enterprise. Job characteristics are quite complicated because certain jobs are an amalgamation of physical and technical cognitive skills. Cyber-physical systems(CPS) is the ultimate goal of almost all organizations in the business sector. Details of work design and job performance differ according to the sector where the personnel is present, that is, whether they are a part of production or managerial decision making.  Sensors and similar machinery have replaced employees because of the automation process. And the employees’ jobs have escalated to a high degree of complexity whereby they are supposed to make decisions, innovate and manage coordinated of these automated systems. It is true that literature is quite vague regarding how the transition towards CPS impacts work design.  Therefore, in our review, we aim to develop a layout in which qualitative and quantitative assessment will be carried out in great detail and will be related to the capabilities of CPS on demand and supply chain of the enterprise in addition to human information processing. Technology’s main role is to improve human productivity but when this comes at the expense of their job autonomy, it brings about adverse effects. The processes and outcomes of the structural hierarchy of work is the determining factor in individual as well as organizational success. Therefore to have an understanding of these integrated processes and systems, knowledge regarding IT, mechanics and electronics is mandatory to avoid malfunctioning systems. This analysis is useful however the limitations provide directions to future researchers.

(Waschull et al, 2020)



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Motivation is a significant key to running a successful business or organization. A leader is someone who can motivate the members of the team to give their best performance and achieve the desired results and set goals. Gone are the days when leaders were thought to be born with leadership qualities and as “great men.”The goal is to discuss some of the most critical and well-established theories and models of motivation so that all of us can learn some of the characteristics of leaders and strategies they adopt to motivate their teams and always get the best performance.

Maslow’s Perspective of Hierarchy of Needs:


Abraham Maslow (1943)’s Hierarchy of Needs Perspective is one of the oldest and most acclaimed understandings of what motivates people. According to McLeod, Maslow“was interested in human potential, and how we fulfill that potential” (2007, p. 4). He believed that rewards and desires do not motivate people. Instead, they have a hierarchy of five motivational needs. These are: psychological, safety, belonging, self-esteem, and self-actualization (see figure 1). Only when the basic needs, ones towards the bottom of the pyramid are satisfied, is when a person can achieve self-actualization, what he defines as “the person’s desire for self-fulfilment, namely, to the tendency for him to become actualized in what he is potentially” (Maslow, 1943) A true leader would not only work towards seeking self-fulfilment but also encourage others, see their potential and make them realize what they can achieve. Maslow (1970) enlists some qualities of people who go on to achieve self-actualization. These include that they accept themselves and others as they are without changing anything being quick and efficient in thinking and acting, do not have an autocratic attitude and stick to having strong morals. So, this is what a leader must thrive to attain and motivate others to do as well.

Herzberg’sTwo-factor Theory of Motivation:


Frederick Herzberg’s two-factors perspective (1959) is another well-established theory about motivation. This two-dimensional paradigm suggests two factors increase or decrease motivation for work. First, he says are the hygiene factors, which include their organization’s working policy, colleagues’ relation with each other, work environment, among others. He says that these cannot provide long-term motivation. That can only be done by what he lists as the five determiners or satisfiers. These are accomplishments, being recognized for your hard work and effort, the work, level of charge one has, and career prospects. The hygiene factors, which Hersberg also calls the dissatisfiers, can only produce a short-term boost in motivation and job performance. If long-term, sustained productivity and motivation is required, that can only be caused by upgrading the quality of satisfiers. Therefore, even though the work environment should be pleasant, a leader must make sure that members’ relationship with the work they do is of exceptional and maintains to be that way. Moreover, he should make sure that the tasks given provide value to workers, provide them with a sense of responsibility, and always appreciate them for their work instead of taking it for granted.

McGregor’s X and Y Theories:


Douglas McGregor beliefs, as stated in The Human Side of Enterprise (1960) about leadership, motivation and management styles hold considerable significance and can be of great use. His theory X and theory Y propose that the managers’ beliefs significantly shape the way organizations run. Theory X suggests a management style where it is assumed that human beings inherently do not like to work and must therefore be pushed into it and remain under supervision. Added to that, according to this view, the average human being does not like responsibility, is not ambitious and simply prefers security above all. Leaders who hold this view employ autocratic measures and strict direction. However, this view presents a leader’s only aim is to be persuading the people working under him to be submissive, and therefore is not the best approach. Therefore, McGregor proposed the alternate view, theory Y. Theory Y suggests that a leader believes that human beings like responsibility, are inherently ambitious, and committed to work hard towards what they commit, and have learnt to do otherwise only through experience. So, they are not motivated by the threat of punishment but work towards meeting the self-actualization needs. Keeping this view, a leader would see his team members as wanting to work and achieve.

Interestingly, McGregor acknowledged that Theory Y managerial style will not beappropriate in all situations (McGregor, 1967). Leadership is not solely about individualistic characteristics. Instead, it involves several variables such as attitudes and needs ofthe followers, the organisation’s system, and its social, economic and political environment.Therefore, instead of trying to implement Theory Y as it is, a leader should manoeuvre the forces at play and try to create the right environment and conditions for his workers to be motivated and perform their best.

McClelland’s Need Achievement Theory:


David McClelland, in his book The Achieving Society (1961), puts forward his perspective about what he thinks motivate people. McClelland says that individuals learn early on to repeat behaviour that is rewarded. This is how they learn three needs i.e., achievement, affiliation, and power. His wisdom lies in suggesting that every human, regardless of his/her gender, culture, age, has these three motivating factors, one of which works as a dominant motivator. The leader is required to assess what the dominant motivating factor for his team members is. For instance, if a member has a strong need to accomplish challenges, would even take risks to achieve those challenges and goals, likes to receive constructive feedback on his work, are some of the signs that the person is need is achievement. For someone who displays a desire to belong to agroup, wants to please people, likes to collaborate and cooperate with peers, imply that the person’s need is affiliation.Someone who take measures to control and coerce others, does not like to lose an argument,enjoys recognition, etc. show that the person needs power. A smart leader would identify the dominant motivators in his team, and asRybnicek,Bergner, andGutschelhofer(2019) suggest, would assign tasks and set goals according to these needs. People motivated by achievement should be given challenging projects and often allowed the margin to work alone. They should be given honest feedback as they are keen to work on what they lack. Those motivated by affiliation are easy to work with and should be integrated into teams. Those who are driven by the need to attain power like to stand out and have competition. Therefore, it is best to assign goal-oriented projects to them, so they remain motivated. Playing to their strengths, they are usually the best choice for making negotiations. Conclusively, a good leader would keep McClelland’s needs’ achievement theory, assess the dominant motivators in his team members, and assign tasks accordingly. This will ensure that everybody remains motivated and engaged with the work.

Adams’ Equity Theory:


John Stacey Adams proposed the equity theory in 1965to explain job motivation. According to Huseman, Richard, Hatfield, and Miles, equity theory states that “individuals who perceive themselves as either under-rewarded or over-rewarded will experience distress, and this distress leads to an effort to restore equity” (1987). The most crucial factor of this theory is the focus on the interchange i.e. humans give something and have an expectation to receive something in return. What they provide, i.e. the input, which includes their education, skills, experience, hard work, etc. should be equal to the benefit they perceive they have received i.e. the output, which include the salary, intrinsic rewards, benefits, etc. Adams says that “inequity exists for the person whenever he perceives that theratio of his outcomes to inputs and the ratio of others’ outcomes to others’ inputs are unequal”(1965).He also emphasises that “the greater the inequity,the more distress individuals feel, and the harder they will try to restore equity.” They do this by what he calls the “means of inequity reduction.” These include altering the quality of their work, altering inputs and outputs, leave the job or force others to leave. Some may get too disturbed that they would leave the field (Al-zawahreh and Madi, 2012).

So, in order for that to not happen, leaders should make sure that they are just and fair in the treatment of employees. Also, they should be accessible so workers can communicate any grievances they have. If workers feel that they are being mistreated and their work is not valued fairly, they will harbour objections in their heart, which will hamper their performance or may even lead them to quit. Al-zawahreh and Madi’s study show the importance of equitable pay on employees’ job satisfaction and motivation. Hence, a good leader should make sure that the workers’ do not feel their dedication and time are being underpaid, or that they feel they do not receive the same treatment, recognition, and appreciation as others.

Vroom’s Expectancy Theory:


Victor Vroom’s expectancy theory (1964) about job motivation is said to be one of the most realistic ones, as it combines individuals’ aims and organization’s objectives (Harold and Heinz,1988). His theory is built upon three key aspects: expectancy, instrumentality, and valence. Expectancy is the relationship between individuals’ efforts and performance. If he believes that an increase in efforts would lead to a better, exceptional performance, he would be more motivated to put in the effort so that the personal goal of better performance is achieved. Instrumentality is the employees’ belief that better performance will lead to rewards like an increase in pay, added bonuses, etc. This expectation will push the worker to give his best performance. Valence measures the rewards or outcomes for the workers. These may be salary, recognition, prospects of promotions, etc. but they can also be negative such as tiredness and fatigue. However, for the workers to remain motivated, the sum of valence should remain positive. According to Vroom, these are three factors that come into play and motivate the employees to bring their A-game forward. Hence, a leader realises that for the workers to remain motivated, their intrinsic and external motivations should be met. Apart from monetary incentives, a leader gives the margin to perform and excel to his team so that the feeling of achievement they would get can surpass their fatigue and tiredness.

Porter-Lawler Model of Motivation:


Porter-Lawler Model of motivation (1968) expand upon Victor Vroom’s Expectancy Theory. Instead of assessing motivation based only on expectancy, instrumentality and valence, they add more variables to present an even more nuanced and critical explanation of motivation. They state that employees’ recognition of their effort, ability and personal traits play a great role. To assess this,the model introduces effort, motivation, satisfaction and performance as added variables. This model incorporates the nuance that a worker would display increased motivation and better performance when they expect a reward. Hence, it is up to the leader’s wisdom to realize that a monetary incentive is not always the best one to offer. Rather, “performance should be measured systematically and accurately so that rewards are distributed fairly, an important variable in maintaining high motivation” (Iancuand Badea, 2015). Moreover, this model also suggests that individuals may think that they deserve a higher award than they receive.

Figure 2 shows their basic model; the dashed line arrows demonstrate theconnection between employees’ perceived performance and the rewards they think they deserve. So, intrinsic, extrinsic, as well asa perceived reward all contribute to members’ satisfaction and in turn, fuel motivation. A leader should be mindful of all three.


All the theories discussed are well-established and have been empirically tested in workplaces. All of them present a somewhat different approach to what a leader must do. Maslow suggests that a leader should work to attain self-actualization and encourage his team members to the same and that would fuel their motivation; Herzberg states that a real leader ensures that his team members’ relationship between with their work is great and the would be the most crucial motivator; McGregor suggests that a leader should believe that his team members are responsible and committed and try to create a healthy workenvironment for his workers to be motivated; McClelland holds the view a good leader will assess what the dominant motivators of his team members are, and assign tasks accordingly; according to Vroom, members’ expectation for greater reward in return of great performance is what becomes the motivational factor; for Porter and Lawler, a leader should be aware of intrinsic, extrinsic, as well as perceived rewards that the members’ expect and fulfil those. Conclusively, there is no set formula that makes one a great leader. However, he must be accessible, provide detailed feedback, appreciate, be optimistic and supportive. All the qualities he will adopt will be mirrored in his team members and their work.




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The company that is to have a new business venture is the Urban Outfitters which is headquartered in Pennsylvania, United States. It is a clothing and lifestyle retail brand. The stores have been active ever since the 1970s. The target market for the brand is young adults of the ages of 18 till 30. They have unique western style clothing which is up-beat, casual, and trendy relating to what young adults are looking to wear presently. The company attracts customers by catchy stores, and online platforms such as apps ands websites. They also, of course, have social media platforms and a lot of following there as well. The overall theme of the clothes allows the customers to be expressive and bold with their sense of style while also looking sophisticated and classy (Annual report, 2019).

Their demographics include both males and females and they are not just limited to clothes. The brand also has accessories, footwear, beauty products and other lifestyle, or home-related products that are aesthetically pleasing in their designs and hence quite appealing to the audiences as well. Stores of Urban Outfitters are huge in terms of the physical space they offer, the average is approximated to be 9000 square feet. Location of the stores are also at high-end areas that are commercial, popular, and metropolitan. Majority of the stores are located in the United States, then Europe and then Canada. The total number has reached to a whooping 245 in these three regions alone. The brand does hope to expand further around the globe by entering new markets and introducing new products that would increase our target market in other countries as well (Annual report, 2019).

It was realised that Urban Outfitters do not have a lot of presence in Asia. A country in particular that we thing would prove to be a good business venture for the company is Pakistan. There are several reasons behind that choice. First of all, the major chunk of the Pakistani population is the youth comprising of both males and females. And the country is also going through rapid changes with respect to culture and conservatism. More people than ever are now looking for “western style” clothes in Pakistan and there is still a lack of brands that provide good quality, unique, trendy, and affordable western clothing. The Pakistani population, specifically the ones living in the major cities such as Karachi, Lahore, Islamabad, Faisalabad, Hyderabad et cetera, are becoming more spent thrift towards luxury items such as branded clothes which a decade back, perhaps, was not a common phenomenon. Now a days, the brand culture is quite dominant in these cities. The price ranges of Urban Outfitters are pretty reasonable to what an average middle-class to upper-class would spend on casual branded clothing. So, there is a huge untapped market for Urban Outfitters in Pakistan (Zafar, n.d).

The millennials are taking over the world in the present times. The era is of social media and trends pick up and get viral quickly. This is a cheap and yet effective marketing method that Urban Outfitters could utilise in Pakistan. There are so many bloggers and celebrities on Instagram and Facebook that would to showcase the brand’s products because most of them are looking for clothes and lifestyle products that are smart and chic or “vogue”. There are many huge malls in the cities as well now where the brand can have their stores and attract an even larger number of customer base (Foster, 2018).

Another advantage of expanding in Pakistan apart from the general demand for western clothing, is the lack of competitors. In a developing economy, the brand will not have a problem in acquiring cheap labour, or land. Neither would they face any of their regular competitors such as the Gap and H&M which are equally as popular, if not more, as Urban Outfitters in the United States or Europe. So, the brand has the opportunity to have a fresh start in a new country. Since, textiles and the cotton industries are two of the most prominent industries in the country, the business also won’t have problems with acquiring raw material, or other resources and that too for lower prices. Adjusting in the market would be easy as well since it is well-established and not so different to what Urban Outfitters is used to. It could offer discounts as well which would increase the sales (Nasir, 2020).

Urban Outfitters would have to change their product line in order to expand in Pakistan entirely. Since, cultural values and religious obligations do still dictate dress codes for a lot of people so some pieces of clothing would be less popular than the others such as miniskirts, shorts et cetera but there will still be people buying them too. If the brand can launch a “modest” line side by side by a tapping into a new market for the brand but one which is well established in the country then it could earn double profit. A lot of the women youth that wears “hijab” looks for clothing articles that have a western look and yet are still modest. Such products could increase the customer base for Urban Outfitters considerably (Lodi, 2020).


Nasir, J. (2020, April). Textile Industrialists Want to Invest $5 Billion in The Industry. Retrieved from

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            The dynamic rise in the trends and practices of globalization and internationalism in the past few decades has yielded a great number of benefits and advantages to the business organizations and companies around the globe. It has equipped them with the tools and resources required to not only strengthen their businesses in the local markets, but it has also enabled them to explore and expand their business activities to markets which had previously been impenetrable. The practices of globalization have eliminated the limitations imposed by geographical borders and barriers and have opened new opportunities and avenues for the business community in a similar fashion as it has done for the rest of the world.

Firstly, the essay looks at the concept of expatriation and its role in the growth of multinational organizations in the modern world. Secondly, it evaluates the framework of international human resource management presented by Perlmutter (1969) and analyzes the impact of ethnocentrism on the progress of modern day business organizations. Thirdly, it presents some of the advantages and disadvantages of utilizing an expatriation strategy for multinational corporations and provides the example of Coca Cola, which utilizes expat managers for its multinational business operations. Lastly, the essay looks at some of the challenges and implications for human resource practitioners posed by Brexit as they attempt to develop a common and an effective recruitment and selection strategy.


Siljanen and Lämsä (2009) suggest that “expatriation in the traditional sense refers to individuals working in subsidiary offices of multinational enterprises in different parts of the world.” The concept of expatriation in multinational enterprises also falls in line with the ethnocentric approach to recruitment put forward by Perlmutter (1969). His ethnocentric approach to staffing argues for the recruitment and selection of managers of the same nationality as the parent organization. The development of a recruitment strategy involving the processes of expatriation is, therefore, central to the ethnocentric approach to recruitment and selection.

Minbaeva and Michailova (2004), through their research work on the topic, argue that the multinational business organizations and their managerial leaderships rely heavily on the practices of expatriation in order to conduct their business operations and activities in subsidiary offices in an effective and efficient manner(Minbaeva and Michailova, 2004). They also suggest that “the primary goal of expatriation was explicit and well-defined control and coordination: by relocating expatriates, parent organizations have been able to exert control and achieve global integration across subsidiaries” (Minbaeva and Michailova, 2004).

However, given the developments and the evolutions that have characterized global business operations and strategies over the past few decades, the nature of expatriate assignments and projects has also changed(Harzing, 2001). The expatriate employees and managers today are not only expected to maintain organizational control within the subsidiary offices of the company, but they are also expected to develop the local talent within the subsidiary units in accordance with the company’s vision and to support the effective transfer of skill and knowledge from the organizational headquarters to the local offices. (Harris et al., 2003)


Perlmutter’s Typologies and Ethnocentrism

            The work of Perlmutter (1969) is considered by many to be fundamental in the domain of human resource management practices in order to effectively deal with the evolving relationships and dynamics that exist between a corporate headquarter and its subsidiaries (Minbaeva and Michailova, 2004). The EPRG model of human resource management presented by Perlmutter is considered to be a significant tool in order to understand the relationship between the headquarter of a multinational company and its subsidiary offices situated in foreign counties. The EPRG framework involves four basic principles namely ethnocentrism, polycentrism, regio-centrism, and geo-centrism(Onodugo et al., 2017).

The Polycentric approach to recruitment revolves around the idea that multinational corporations restrict their hiring practices for subsidiary offices by only recruiting management native to the country in which the foreign office operates. The polycentric approach allows for the organization to understand the local cultures, business practices, and other dynamics that influence market operations in a more effective and efficient manner(Lakshman et al., 2017). The regio-centric approach to hiring, on the other hand, focuses on the recruitment and selection of managers and employees from countries in which the organization operates. Similarly, the geocentric approach to recruitment and selection in multinational organizations refers to the hiring of the best and the most skillful employee irrespective of the nationality that he may belong to. The geocentric approach enables the company to fill its organizational ranks with the most suitable managers that can take the company forward. (COLLINGS and SCULLION, 2006)

The ethnocentric approach to human resource recruitment and selection focuses on the deployment of managers from the organization’s headquarters to its subsidiary offices. The ethnocentric approach calls for the recruitment and selection of subsidiary management that is essentially of the same nationality as the location of the parent company. Banai (1992) argues that the “general rationale behind the ethnocentric approach is that the staff from the parent country would represent the interests of the headquarters effectively and link well with the parent country”(Banai, 1992). The ethnocentric approach to recruitment and selection generally involves four primary stages, namely self-selection, the creation of a candidate pool, capabilities assessment, and identifying the most suitable candidate for the foreign role. (Michailova et al., 2017)

The ethnocentric, polycentric, geocentric, and regiocentric approaches to international staffing can be utilized solely or in combination with one another depending on the workforce requirement and the nature of the international job responsibility(Isiaka et al., 2016). The selection of the best possible hiring approach for multinational business operations is influenced by range of factors and dynamics including monetary resources, time constraints, immigration procedures, sensitivity of the foreign job, impact of culture and language etc. The managerial leadership of multinational enterprises should, therefore, critically evaluate and analyze such factors associated with international hiring before deciding on a common recruitment and selection policy for its subsidiary offices. (Thoo and Kaliannan, 2013)


Merits and Demerits of Using Expats

            Using expatriate employees and managers for foreign and subsidiary offices and divisions is one of the most common human resource and management practices used by the multinational organizations today. There are many merits and advantages of deploying expatriate employees and managers in subsidiary divisions that the organizations can exploit in their bid to strengthen and expand its business operations and activities. Firstly, it allows the managerial leadership of the organization to maintain their control over the business activities and operations of the subsidiaries(Yamin and Andersson, 2011). Secondly, it keeps the strategies and practices of the subsidiary employees in line with the strategic goals and objectives that the organizational headquarters has set and, ultimately, helps them in achieving such goals in an effective and efficient manner. Lastly, the usage of employees as expatriates enables the organization to transfer essential knowledge and skills to subsidiary offices. It also allows the management to instill and cultivate a culture of leadership within its foreign offices in order to foster leadership and managerial qualities amongst the employees of the subsidiaries. This, in turn, enables the organization to not only prepare managerial leaders for the future, but it also helps in the retention of the best employees (Harzing, 2001).

However, there are certain demerits and disadvantages that are also associated with the deployment of expat employees and managers in subsidiary offices. One of the primary disadvantages of using expatriate employees in subsidiaries is creating a culture of control and centralization. Expatriate managers are most commonly used to exercise and maintain control of the subsidiary and foreign business operations and activities. Hence, it can develop a sense of frustration and dissatisfaction within the workers of the subsidiary offices if they believe that expat managers restrict their freedom and workplace independence. Another disadvantage of having expat employees and managers is related to the costs of implementing such strategies(Gabriela, 2013). The procedure of sending expat employees and managers to foreign offices can be very costly and time consuming for the organization as immigration and residential processes tend to be both lengthy and expensive. It is also evident from research surrounding the topic that expat employees are prone to high burn out rates. Due to demanding nature of expat assignments and lack of knowledge of local cultures, expats are generally called back earlier than the life of the project. This can be regarded as another substantial disadvantage of using expat employees(Bossard and Peterson, 2005).


Coca Cola, Expats, and International HRM

            The Coca Cola Company is one of the leading multinational organizations in the world that utilize the strategy of deploying expat employees and managers to its foreign offices in a bid to manage business operations and activities in an effective and productive manner. The cola giant is present in nearly every corner of the world and sends expat managers to conduct its business operations effectively. The same is the case of Coca Cola UK which operates as the European headquarters of the multinational giant. Coca Cola UK generally sends its UK managers on expat assignments to its European subsidiary offices, but its approach is not ethnocentrism only as the company also utilizes polycentric and geocentric approaches depending on the workforce requirements. The company deploys expat employees to foreign offices primarily due either a lack of domestically available talent or a lack of appropriate experience amongst the managerial leadership within the subsidiary office in consideration(Baruch et al., 2002).

The selection of the right employee for the expatriation assignment also depends on a number of factors and dynamics. The nature of the expat project plays a critical role in the process of evaluation and selection. Similarly, the time limitations and monetary constraints are also critical in order to undertake such a decision. The cross-cultural suitability of the expat manager is, arguably, the most significant factor in the process as the success or failure of the project substantially depends on how well the expat manager is able to connect with the employees in the foreign office(Harvey and Moeller, 2009).


The Brexit Challenge

The issue of United Kingdom’s ongoing departure from the European Union (EU) is one of the most significant challenges for multinationals having business operations and offices both within the UK and in any other EU member countries. Brexit poses a number of different yet complex challenges and problems for the human resource practitioners of such multinational enterprises and severely impacts the recruitment and selection strategies that such organizations adopt. The managerial leadership, along with the human resource experts, of such entities have to address the issues and challenges created by Brexit in an effective and efficient manner in order to maintain the effectiveness of their recruitment and selection processes, so thatthe company maintains its growth and progress(Elliott and Stewart, 2017).

The most fundamental challenge that Brexit poses for the recruitment and selection strategy of a multinational enterprise is the issue immigration. The rules and regulations regarding the immigration of workers to and from other EU member countries are bound to change. It can severelyimpact the operational activities of the multinational enterprises as many expat employees and managers will have to obtain documentations in accordance with the new laws post Brexit. Another significant concern for the multinational companies is the retention of its existing workforce. The current organizational workforce might be comprised of employees belonging to other EU nationalities and their retention after Brexit becomes a major concern for the multinational organizations. If the human resource practitioners do not act effectively, the companies are at risk of not only losing potential best performing employees but then also face a significant challenge in filling vacant positions due to a shortage of talent caused by lack of foreign workers(Teague and Donaghey, 2018).



            It can be concluded that a common recruitment and selection strategy can be developed to an extent for a multinational company with business operations in UK and France through the utilization of one or a combination of international staffing approaches discussed. The example of Coca Cola UK suggests that, when used properly, expat employees and managers can unlock several avenues of growth and progress for the company. The issue of Brexit, however, is a significant challenge that needs to be tackled effectively so that the multinational organizations can gain the most out of efficient recruitment and selection processes.




















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Question 1: Critically assess the argument for and against the likely convergence of national employment systems of Japan on the US model.

Almost all the human resource management (HRM) systems around the world have some basic underlying characteristics, thanks to the globalization of ideas and thought processes along with the markets, goods and services and businesses, etc. Nonetheless, HRM practices like deployment, employees’ training, recruitment manners, incentives and compensations for employees, etc. also get influenced by unique domestic cultures and varying institutional frameworks of every nation as well inception, explanation and acceptance of these practices by the society. These differences in HRM can be compared with the help of the concept called comparative HRM (UK Essays, 2016). This paper seeks to compare and contrast the employment systems of the USA and Japan using Universalist vs. Contextual, Culturalist vs. Institutional, and Convergence vs. Divergence theories.

Human resource management can be explored by employing two fundamental approaches; Universalist and Contextual. Universalist school of thought, employed particularly in the USA, advocates that the primary goal of HRM in any company is the improvement of the practices through which HR is managed by keeping in view the strategies and objectives of the company.

On the other hand, contextual school of thought, prevalent in Japan, are less concerned about the practical policies of any organization and are more interested in finding out how these policies came about. Domestic cultures, labor force regulations, governmental influence, trade or labor unions, as well as hierarchies and their perception according to people’s needs, wants, views or beliefs, etc. play an important role in influencing HRM according to Contextualists. Within the Contextualist school of thought, there exist two opposing philosophies about HRM, namely, cultural and institutional. Culturalist argues that different national cultural values and behaviors in countries all around the world are the reason behind shaping the practices of respective HRMs. In contrast, the institutional school of thought believes in the existence of strong social forces such as religion, family, job, education, technology and politics both inside and outside of an organization that shapes its’ HRM practices (Dau-Schmidt & Ellis, 2010).

The next set of debates about HRM practices is Convergence vs. Divergence. The convergent debate focuses on the integrating aspect of globalization in the HRM field, whereas the proponents of the Divergent school of thought believe in the individual approach of each country towards HRM.

Now back to the HRM approaches of the USA and Japan. There is a strong sense of respect for higher authorities in the Japanese system (Martin, et al., 1992). This is reflected in the Japanese household as well, where the head of the family, mostly a male, is treated like a king, and the rest of the family members are treated essentially as subjects by the king. Hence Japanese people are incredibly conscious of as not to offend or question the authority higher than them. Japanese workers are not encouraged to give suggestions or ideas in the company’s affairs; however, this practice is widely followed in the USA, wherein the family’s children or wives are not considered absolute submissive to the will of the leader of the family of one claims to be so. Hence company matters, as any family’s matter, are communicated rather informally, without fearing that one might transgress the “authority” of the boss. The difference between respect and submissiveness is vast in the USA employment system in stark contrast to that of Japan. This can be accurately explained through the theory of the Culturalist paradigm, which connotes that the cultural values reflect in the organizational behaviour as well (Beechler, et al., 1993).

Japanese society is a collectivistic society by any measure. On the other hand, American society can safely be labelled as an individualistic society. Japanese identity is hugely incorporated with influence from friends, families, or relatives. Japanese tend to identify with their family, tribe, or in this case, with their company rather than making an individual persona that predominates all such affiliations. For this reason, employees of any organization are also considered lifelong assets (Izanau Japan, 2018). They are offered lifetime employment offers, promotions are given within organizations, job rotations are also a usual practice, and companies have also adopted the policy of no lay-off. On the other hand, the individualistic persona in American life’s fabric prevents employees from entering into lifelong permanent contracts with the organizations. People in America tend to make their own, individual identities. They want to be known for their personal achievements rather than associating themselves with their tribe or family. Loyalties are also highly questioned in such a system where the drive for excelling in their lives, employees keep jumping from one organization to another. Besides, organizations, too, are highly self-centred as compared to the ones in Japan. Staff is readily laid off in the face of any crisis. Hence this difference of attitudes of employees and organizations towards each other in the USA and Japan depict the differences in their cultural and societal values, driving them on different paths(Mitu & Vasic, 2108)­­.

As far as the question of whether the USA and Japan are converging or diverging their HRM styles is concerned, it cannot be answered in black or white. Japan’s and the US’s e employment systems are less driven by overarching international norms or regulations, even if they are similar to each other. Their HRM approach is driven by their cultural and institutional realities, and neither party is going to change their policies because they have become very deeply embedded in their social fabric (Pudelko, 2006). So neither the USA’s and Japan’s HRM approaches are converging nor diverging; they are just treading their original path of keeping up with their societal cultures (Bernhauerova & James Caldwell, 2013).

Question 2: Critically discuss whether it is best for MNCs (multinational corporations) to globally integrate their pay & rewards HR strategies for managers or whether it is best to adapt them to local conditions. Provide specific examples and case studies from the literature as support.

Multinational corporations (MNC) across the world have been grappled with the dilemma of wither to integrate their HRM practices in all of their outlets or instead adapt to local HR approaches. Global integration can be explained through the theory of standardization, whereas adaptation can be best described through differentiation theory.  Standardization of practices would underlie transcending best practices of an organization (an MNC) wherever the outlet of such MNC is situated(Edwards, et al., 2016). On the other hand, localization of practices would connote adapting HRM practices of any MNC according to the local HRM practices prevailing in the culture or society of any nation. The ever increasing variations in the capitalism of different countries suggest that MNCs are forced to adapt to the local policies. Whereas many also suggest that MNC’s tread a very well-adjusted path and keep a balance between standardization and differentiation of their HRM practices. This enduring tussle between the need to keep HRM standardized and the pressure to adapt it according to the local realities has emerged as a unique theme of International Human Resource Management (IHRM) (Berchtold, et al., 2010).

The adoption of either standardization or differentiation policies can be determined by the following two factors. The internal environment of an MNC shaping its institutional framework and the external environment of the country that is hosting the subsidiary of the MNC. Practices that are transferred from the parent MNC to its subsidiary were formed according to the home country’s societal or cultural influence on businesses and ideas etc. These two diverging pressures are described as institutional duality (Chung, 2018). Hence almost all MNCs working in diverse environments are faced with this dilemma.

Follows the case study on standardization or localization of pays or rewards. The MNC in the case would be Unilever. Whereas the subsidiaries of Unilever considered for analysing standardization and localization would be from the Netherlands and Iran. The payment and/or rewards incentives given to employees by these subsidiaries would be analysed as they make an important variable within an organization (Dickmann & Hughes, 2016/2017).Unilever is headquartered in Rotterdam, Netherlands, as well as in London, United Kingdom. However, the MNC opened one of its subsidiaries in Tehran, the capital of Iran, in 2003. The first product of Unilever in Iran was LUX soap.

In Benelux (Belgium, the Netherlands, and Luxembourg) area, the salaries of employees are based on their job levels. Wages for the workers at first work level are determined through negotiations with the labour unions who represent the workers. Salaries in these markets are also determined by comparing the rewards and compensations of an employee at a particular level with that of an employee working in any other company. Although salaries of employees at level two or higher increase on the basis of achievement but there is still a limit to it; hence they receive rewards for their performances as well. Salaries are also subject to an increase in the case of inflation. Employees at Unilever Benelux receive variable along with the fixed salaries. Variable salaries are determined through percentages of the wages of employees. Employees are given zero to forty percent of their salaries. However, for non-managers, there do not exist any variable payments, and they receive some percentage of the profit at the end of the year (Ghotbi, 2010).

On the other hand, employees at Unilever Iran that count at around 240, also receive somewhat similar payments, and rewards and compensations. Employees accept both fixed and variable payments at Unilever Iran, those who are at a second or higher level. The fixed income of the workers is based on their level just the way as in Unilever Benelux. Whereas variable salaries, too, are sanctioned on the basis of performances (Marion & Tekieli, 2018). However, because as it is customary in Iran, Unilever has to provide loans to its employees if they demand it. Furthermore, on the occasion of Iranian New Year, employers have to pay extra monetary rewards to employees, as is the tradition in Iran and all other firms do the same. This reward is almost equal to two times their original salaries. Hence it is clear from this account that Unilever has similar standards for salary determination and payment mechanism in both its Iran as well as Benelux subsidiaries. However, the reward or compensation manner is somewhat different and aligns with the local cultural traditions as well as governmental policies (Chen & Wilson, 2019).

Hence from this discussion, it can be deduced that any MNC does not have to switch to local adaptation from global integration completely. Even if anyone practice is more prevalent than the other one, it can be compensated for any other practice present in the other model. Both of these models can go hand in hand as far as this case study is concerned, but this cannot be considered as a rule of thumb as there exist many contradictory practices at integration and differentiation levels. Hence no absolute generalization can be made about the going-along-well notion of global integration and local adaptation.


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  7. Dickmann, M. F. & Hughes, H., 2016/2017. Reward Package Design- How Are Multinational Corporations Weathering The Storm?. International HR Adviser, 68(Winter), pp. 4-7.
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  9. Ghotbi, D., 2010. Standardization and localization of HRM in Western MNCs and in Iran. School of Management and Governance, University of Twente, Enschede, the Netherlands.
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    [Accessed 16 4 2020].




Innovative management approach towards improvement of employees’ performance at work


The organizational performance is achieved with innovative methods under the improved Human Resource department. Better resources yield productivity and engage employees. The innovative workplace provides new opportunities and highlights the productive ventures in the market. Employees’ performance is attributable to the prevailed practices in organization, systematic handling, and innovative technological frameworks. Innovation in management processes influences the overall performance of the organization. Though it is a complex process, it attains improved productivity by motivating the workforce. Public organizations always work to implement better methods of productivity and innovation in the workplace. The broader aim includes the quality of products and services to generate positive outcomes. The change is always specific for programming, HR management, and problem identification in an organization. The human resource department uses innovative technology in recruiting and training employees.  The same notion is analyzed in this research study. Innovative organization psychology drives organizational performance. The current research study aims at discussing innovative techniques employed by human resources to replace traditional ones, hence attain organizational performance.  The hypothesis of the study is to find out the role of performance management through commitment and encouragement to achieve the objectives of the organization. The null hypothesis states the relationship between motivation and technological advancement. The study used a qualitative approach to understand the relation of innovation and organiztiaon. A significant relationship is found between motivation and technological advancement, while innovation is also positively related to the performance of the organization.

Chapter 1- Introduction

Over time, the dynamic, competitive environment of market places shifted the human resource managements’ approach from traditional to the innovative one. Human resources and capabilities considered as the strength of the firms’ competitive advantage in the market and regarded as the asset. The efficient human resource in an organization contributes significantly tothe high competitive advantage a firm would have in the marketplace. From the project managers’ perspective due to the significant role of the human aspect of a project, considering the individuals’ potentials enables them to get closer to success.[1]As such, the study on methods to improve the employees’ performance at work has been addressed from different perspectives by academia so far. Through the lens of work and organizational psychology, individuals well-being and performance at work are the multidimensional concepts that cannot be described through a singular dimension. The innovative psychological approach requires a movement from the narrow concentration on the negative feelings to the positive psychology, which introduces a more balanced-account of well-being and performance at work. HumanResource Management (HRM) has been evolved by the contribution of work psychology to come up with the new mechanisms which bring about the achievement of organization’s performance by improving the individual’s performance and increasing their engagement. The classic approach towards employees’ performance was based on the passive role of the employee;however; the new perspective concentrated on the active partof employees at deciding on the organizational, societal and managerial initiatives. The innovative organizational psychology put their efforts on explaining the existence of a link between the improvement of employees’ performance, which directly leads to the advancement of an organization’s performance as well.[2] Related to the innovative and the new psychology of work is also exploring the influence of technology on the return, and feeling of individuals at work. By the emergence of modern workplace technologies, a new question has been raised, for instance, how robots behave as a member of a team, how social media may affect the performance of individuals within a company, or how new technologies may influence the role of human resources. These concerns engaged numerous scientists, the practitioners, the managers, the students, the HR managers, the project managers to work on the socio-technical management system. Technology affects the three aspects related to employees’ performance; those affecting dimensions are their motivation, functioning, and well-being. An organizational psychologist argues under the socio-technical management perspective that how even a simple technological intervention can negatively or positively affect people’s satisfaction, productivity, and well-being.[3] This study intends to look into specific innovative themes that are worth considering to explain the future direction of human resource management.

Research Question

The question this study is going to address is how new phenomena like new technologies and innovative organization psychology approach make the traditional human resource management perspective to move away? And how the emergence of new sciences like talent management might contribute to exploring the relationship between the individuals’ performance at work and the organization performance.


New performance management mindset encourages motivation and commitment to achieve organizations’ objectives, alongside with this, according to positive psychology movement, we believe that organizations might go further to produce more innovative outcomes rather than the traditional ones.    

Chapter 2- Literature review

Evelin Priscila Trindade et al. (2014) addressed the relation between individual well-being and performance at work. The authors take into account organizational psychology. As a starting point, they look into the development that the concepts have had over the past decades. They believed that the field of work and organizational psychology and the study of individual well-being and performance is indeed a highly dynamic research area. As a conclusion, they explain how the work-related well-being influences overall life well-being or can be considered as general well-being in life that contributes to the survival and resourcefulness of the individual. Thomas A Wright & Russell Cropanzano (2000), discussed the concept of psychological well-being and job satisfaction as predictors of job performance, they first discussed the tradition perspective concerning the link between the happiness and the job satisfaction, they believed that as long as job satisfaction is limited to one’s job, it does not include the aspect of individuals’ life outside of work, the fact is as authors claimed the psychological well-being in which the happiness considered in a broader sense rather than job satisfaction would refer to employees’ life in general. Michael D Coovert& Lori Foster Thompson (2014), researched on the influence the new technologies might positively or negatively have on the worker’s motivation, functioning, and well-being. Ethical debates have always been a center of attention concerning the maximization of person-job fit through the scientific selection and placement techniques, by the advancement of the new technologies the workers not only might benefit from technologies to learn new knowledge and skills but also to gain new abilities. One aspect of the recent era as an innovative technological epoch is social media and the new communication method between workers through social media and how would be the effect in general. Nik Chmiel, F Fraccaroli& Magnus Sverke (2017) moved away from the traditional approach towards the workplace and discussed the modern and up to date work and or organizations mindset relied on psychology rather than management center stage, what they are examining in their book is how managers, coworkers behave and organizations function. From their perspective, it is important to study the contemporary organizational life and search for the answers to the concerns concerning how people think, and behave when they are doing their jobs. Their method is based on the science-based, and systemic research, by taking into account the evidence relating to working conditions and organizational function. Nicole Renee Baptise(2007), discusses on existing work of HRM and advance the arguments for establishing the linkage between HRM practices, employee wellbeing at work and performance in the public sector. The author works on improving individual and organizational results through enhanced efficiency and productivity. As a starting point, we will first look into the concept of performance at work, and then we will examine different factors that are used to measure the workers’ performance. In the second part, we will discuss the impact of technology inthe workplace. Meanwhile, we are explaining the efforts of well-known firms that are considered as successful cases that improved the performance of their employees at work.

Performance at Work

Performance at work has been defined as “the work-related activities expected of an employee and how well those activities were executed.”[4] Measurement of performance has always been debated, some authors believe that the measures are not objective and it depends on the purpose behind the analysis, and the factors are not necessarily externally defined, as such, they argue that the concept of performance needs to be operationalized first. What has made the job even more confusing is that the idea has heavily related to the cultural differences, and recognizing the socio-political contexts in which the performance is considering. According to management literature, there are five reasons for measurement of performance. (1) sometimes organization wants to analyze that how they get to the point that they are at present, it enables them to forecast the parameter values used in the decision analysis model, and their reward system for the future. (2) The need to understand the present status sometimes requires that the firms measure their potentials for more ambitious achievement for the future. (3) Then they will flowingly sketch a plan towards their objective that they want to achieve. They define where they want to go, and what are their targets. (4) After identifying the goals, it is time to measures the tools to reach them, the question of how a firm is going to get there. The tests enable them to manage the budgeting, and to plan their activities, and then to maintain their continuous improvements. (5) the last reason behind the measurement of performance at work is evaluating how an organization knows that they got there. To address each reason, in each stage, the measures must be created for different users and different Causes. For managers, the purpose would be for the learning and self-improving, for supervisor, the causes are for integration of internal measures to achieve the overall organizational achievements, they also consider the tests to monitor how activities are moving forward by workers, last but not least for adjusting the internal reward system. For all other actors in the organization, it is about having a sense of belonging and continuous improvement.[5] A performing business is the achievement of the targets set by managing the organization. However, as mentioned before performance is not a such a concept can be defined objectively, most of the authors started from the conceptual definition, as such, performance for them is about the capability and future. However, when we were talking about the measures, it was all about the data related to the past to evaluate the future. There is a contradiction here, at one hand the data are accumulated about the history and then turned to information when decision-making models use them, and on the other hand, information based on the past data is only enjoyable as long as it helps the management committee to forecast the future, and plan for the improvement of the firm. If we believe that performance is about the future, then to enjoy the performance management, we need first to explore what causes production. Based on the traditional definition of performance is accounting, performance is all about the amount of net income. Or in other words, the difference between sales and costs, however, the point is that sale itself is the result of different elements of performance like customer satisfaction, quality, delivery, innovativeness, flexibility, and costs. Costs per se also arethe result of processes concerning the knowledge of markets, social relations, the relation between different actors, etc. Therefore, performance might be defined in any of this level. Conceiving the fundamental processes of performance would be the stepping stone to determine the measures that lead to actions. Based on this understanding then we can come to the new definition of performance that is all the effort to utilize the potentials and manage well the levels in any stage of a process to attain the objectives of an organization considering the constraints and the situation.[6]

Employees Engagement

The concept of employee engagement has attracted authors’ attention over the last years in performance literature. It has been claimed that employee engagement is a key to n organization’s success and competitiveness. It is claimed that engagement is significant for the firms to face challenges they are facing, as such, employee’sinvolvement has been considered as an element to gain a competitive advantage for firms in marketplaces. Researches have shown that those firms that have at least 25% of their employees’ engagement, they have a higher return on assets, profitability, and the value of the shareholders are higher. Surprisingly, notwithstanding the considerable advantage of engagement, today,commitment is on the decline. For example, half of America employees in their workplace are not engaged; this phenomenon is called “engagement gap” that costs almost loss of 300$ billion a year in terms of the firm’s productivity.[7] Considering the significant effect of employees’ engagement to an organization, the efforts have been dedicated to finding a solution to promote the employee’s engagement. Besides the organizational purposes, the employee’s commitment has both psychological and behavioral effects as well. From the psychological perspective,participation would bring energy, enthusiasm to a workplace for employees. Engaged employees feel a connection to the works; a term has been coned concerning this concept which is “the harnessing of organizational members’ selves to the work role”; in such engagement, individuals are expressing themselves physically, emotionally. Through the process of engagement, not workers are having high levels of energy; they define themselves and recognize their identity in their works. In other words, engagement can be defined as the psychological, physical, and emotional presence of an employee at the workplace. When workers are wholly present at work, they are more attentive, enthusiastic, integrated, and connected to their roles. However, there is not still an agreement on the concept of engagement and the necessity of research on it. It has been criticized that there is not a clear distinction between engagement and other concepts, like job satisfaction. Like the concept of performance at work, participation also is difficult to define or measure. Some theories have been developed so far to propose a framework to enhance the workers’ engagement. Looking into the fundamentals of employee’s engagement, psychological meaningfulness, psychological safety, and mental conditions are essential concepts to strengthen engagement. Psychological meaningfulness will be achieved when individuals feel that they are useful, worthy. Psychological safety is about the secure feeling of being in a role without fear of damage to stats, or career. Psychological availability links to the physical, emotional availability of workers in their role. Consequently, the three concepts of meaningfulness, safety, and accessibility were significantly linked to the idea of engagement.[8]


One of the essential factors in deciding organizational success is wellbeing at work. Healthy employees are playing an important role in the efficiency and profitability of a firm. All businesses try hard to be in a healthy decent condition, and if their employees are not in an acceptable state of health and wellbeing, this is unlikely that such employees contribute to the success of the organization. Due to the importance of the wellbeing of employees, a lot of researches have been dedicated to making clear the relation between HRM[9] practices, employee wellbeing, and performance relationship. Despite the importance of the employee’s wellbeing at work, there is still little evidence that attention has been paid to the link between employee wellbeing and performance in the public sector. Wellbeing at work has defined as “overall sense of the happiness, physical and mental health of the workforce,” related to this is also the concept of job-related wellbeing that is, “individual’s feelings about themselves about their job.” Job-related wellbeing refers to people’s satisfaction with their jobs in terms of the payment, the relation among colleagues, relationship with managers and supervisors, and also is related to the overall condition of workplace including job security, training, and last but not least, it is about the nature of the work. Most of the authors believe that the concept of well-being at work is an indicator of showing the physical and mental health of the workforce. Accordingly, well-being is related to the condition of working in a stress-free and safe environment. An exciting work environment which is rewarding, stimulating, and enjoyable contribution to the well-being of workers at work. A lot of research has been done concerning people’s sense of wellbeing or distress from economics, sociology, and psychological perspective. To assist the employees with their wellbeing at work, employers thrive on making an environment for employees to flourish and use their full potentials for the benefit of themselves and organization as well.[10]

Well-Being Measurement

In many studies, well-being is measured by the relationship between HRM and happiness. A positive correlation has been found between high-performance, and commitment work systems, and organizational performance. Work systems also have been indicated as an element of satisfaction and organizational performance. In terms of the relationship between HRM and happiness or organizational achievement, although some studies show a positive association between HR practices, happiness, and organizational performance, most of the studies found a non-significant connection between happiness and organizational performance. Besides happiness well-being, there is also relationship well-being. By relationship well-being, we mean relationships between employees, a few studies establish positive relationships between these two elements. The prominent result of such studies shows that high-performance work practices or helpful employment are linked with trust, a generally pleasant atmosphere at work. Overall conclusion in terms of the relationship between HRM with different aspects of employees, well-being shows a positive correlation. Health-related well-being, there is also some research studies conducted so far to explain a health-related component. Data show a negative relationship between HRM and health-related well-being. Surprisingly, while studies show the positive association between healthy workplace and reduced stress, there is no critical link between health-related well-being and organizational performance.[11]

The Organizational Health Framework

The organizational health framework is a theory based on the fact of how key individual and organizational elements interact to determine employee well-being and corporate performance. Unfavorable work experiences or “stressors” are expected to cause employees’ pressure, which is a manifestation of negative psychological responses to stress. According to research studies that have been conducted so far, pleasant work experiences, positive emotional responses, have been shown to influence individual well-being outcomes. Adverse or unpleasant work experience does not necessarily result in stress. However, there is a possibility that people’s perception of unpleasant experiences caused by lack of positive work. Besides such results, there are also some debates that employees’ stress is their problem rather than a corporate issue, but stress researchers proved that there is a link between occupational stress and organizational performance outcomes. One aspect of the study is what is the indicators of occupational stress, corporate climate, organizational climate, positive and negative work experiences. The correlation of the elements is shown below.[12] According to the organizational health approach, it is not enough if occupational well-being being examined itself, professional well being must be study in connection with the outcomes that might affect the corporate performance. The organizational health framework above shows that there is a relationship between the individual and corporate features on the one hand, and occupational well-being and organizational performance on the other side. According to this theory, occupational wellbeing includes both emotional and cognitive elements. The emotional components are morale and distress. The cognitive component is related to job satisfaction and employees’ judgments about their levels f satisfaction with their work. From a theoretical perspective, the cognitive dimension of individual wellbeing more strongly has an impact on judgment-related outcomes in the workplace, for example as the decision to quit the job, while the emotional parts are linked to emotive-related behaviors such as organizational withdrawal, harassment, unwise behaviors. According to quality of life research studies, two emotional factors – distress and morale, make direct contributions to overall employee wellbeing. However, based on this model, employees characteristics are the prominent determinant of individual distress. Corporate atmosphere is also the strongest element of individual morale. Stress management intervention that focuses on teaching employees how to cope with their stress is a method which has been neglected from the corporate management point of view.[13]

Psychological well-Being (PWB)

Impact of PWB on Individuals

Well-being compasses three-part: physical, social, and psychological well-being (PWB). PWB is the essential facet of well-being; work has a direct impact on PSW, rather than physical or social aspects of well-being. PWB is much similar to other terms that are regarding the positive mental states, including happiness or satisfaction. Thriving people are those who are standing in a good state of psychological well-being; which means they have control over their stresses and are successful in keepinga positive attitude, the other factor is physical well-being, which is linked to the amount of exercise, sleeping, eating and drinking habits; the last indicator of growing individuals is the status of their social well-being, which is regarding how their social network is supporting. Although the concept of PWB is close to the satisfaction, the idea of “job satisfaction” or “motivation” is not quite the same as PWB. Job satisfaction is about how satisfied a person is with their roles or job; job satisfaction is a factor to measure the PWB; however, there are some cases that an employee might be delighted with his career, but feel frustrated with his or her relationship with their colleagues, or the quality of the management and supervision. The same goes with the concept of “motivation” as well, an employee might be very energized and motivated about his or her job, because they feel that what they are doing is essential, and they do not want to let people down, however, for some reasons like lack of resources or unreasonable workload they might feel frustrated. Research studies have also illustrated that the higher levels of PWB are linked to higher levels of remuneration, more successful marriage and friendships and better health, and last, but not least it is also connected to the better work performance. The first question that comes to minds is whether PWB is the reason for bringing happiness or feeling of joy cause PWB. In order to find the answer there are a lot of cross-sectional studies that have been done, and the most of them produce the same conclusion: the greater general feeling of happiness is connected to the better results on the life factors; for instance, people with higher PWB come out of better in three primary life domains (work, relationships, and health). In the relationship between health and PWB, the question is how people with higher PWB live or behave to protect themselves against illness. Some efforts like not to smoke, doing exercises, take care of sleeping habits are all the measures that one can tackle to get closer to the higher PWB. In addition to this is the link between the higher PWB and life success, as some authors have discussed so far, higher PWB is associated with a set of behaviors and psychological processes that are associated with success.[14]

Grounds of PWB

It has always been debating what factors will influence the levels of PWB? Most of the scientists believe that is the mixture of both genetics and environment. The genetic will affect PWB through the characteristics of each person. Our genes help to determine our personalities, and our characters account for the level of PWB. Personality partly is inherited which has an impact on the level of PWB, some personality factors including openness, conscientiousness, extroversion, agreeableness, neuroticism are linked with PWB, but among these factors, stability, and extraversion[15] and agreeableness[16] are more connected to having a higher PWB. Some scientists (Alexander Weiss 2008) started a series of research studies on 973 pairs of twins and focused on the link between genetic factors and PWB. The result of research has illustrated that all the resolution of changes based on genetics in PWB were justified by the variation in characteristic elements. In other words, our gens would affect our personality, and our nature would affect out PWB. If we believe that PWB is entirely determined by personality, then it means that other factors like daily experiences and events have no impact on PWB, and the inherited factors determine the PWB. However, such an interpretation is not alright personality affect out PWB partly. Other factors related to what we are doing or how the environment is also affecting the PWB. Among all the environmental factors, work is one worth considering. Work is crucial for almost everyone, unemployed individuals are facing the lower level of PWB, and as soon as they find a new job, the level of their PWB is moving back toward the point which is called “set point,”which is the average level of PWB. There is a reciprocal relationship between work and PWB, work is essential for work, and work is important for PWB. Being jobless would have the upsetting and negative consequences for people, and also some work is unhealthy and cause damage to the level of PWB. However, in general working is suitable for people and it has been illustrated that it will create mental balance, and would prevent depression. Having income give people the bargaining power to have access to goods, and services they need, which bring them both the essentials and the pleasure of life. Besides the financial aspect of working, a good job provides more than economic reward; it would give motivation to individuals, give them purposes, and also make their lives disciplined. These are the other two essential factors of PWB ­­— a sense of purpose and meaning. Interaction with other people at work is one of the factors account for their well-being. Consequently, people with higher PWB are better employees and would bring more top benefits to their firms as well.[17]

Impact of PSW on Organization

All the facts explained earlier was about the level of PSW for individuals, and as a result, it has been described that higher PWB is about the life success, better health, better relationships with others, and now in the following section, we will explain how PWB contributes to the performance of an organization. Research studies have shown the links between the various aspects of the psychological climate in an organization and productivity. Over time some specific factors have taken into account to examine different aspects of company climate to see how productive a firm is. The said factors are supervisory support, concern for employee welfare, skill development, effort, innovation and flexibility, quality, performance feedback, and formalization. Case study of manufacturing industry shows that they benefit from the well-being of their employees. The point is based on the industry the whole scenario would be different. People who work in service industries are facing different kinds of challenges. In other words, in any position that employees are dealing with customers, they might encounter the customers who are irritated or angry, sometimes employees to satisfy the customers’ needs have to do taskswhich are outside of the scope of their regular job. Such kind of behavior considered as good “organizational citizenship.” There are some examples that a simple problem in the workplace took a long time to be fixed, and business ‘leaders might never link such issues to the well-being of their members. According to studies, customer satisfaction and service quality have also been shown to be linked to employee well-being. Among different factors like productivity, customer satisfaction, patient care, and service quality and PWB, it is perhaps not that much surprising that PWB has highly linked with the efficiency and outcomes for organizations. And also, research studies show that PWB is directly correlated with a performance at work. Based on the studies, there is a direct relationship between the positive psychological well-being and productivity, an increase of one point on the PPWB scale shows an increase in productivity as well. In addition to this, the study of 8000 separate business units in 36 companies shows that there is a significant relationship between well-being scores on an employee survey and business unit level outcomes, such as customer satisfaction, productivity, profitability. Besides that, there is also a link between PWB and employee engagement. There is an immense amount of research offering support for the idea that organizations in which employees PWB is higher will get better results. In other words, a higher level of PWB iswholly linked to the essential organizational benefits. However, the main question here is how such a relationship works? A study conducted in the UK across 15 different organizations ranging from pubic to private ones, a version of a well-being survey has been offered. Besides the links between PWB and important organizational outcomes, research of this kind has also looked into the impact that key workplace factors have on the psychological health and well-being state of a company. This kind of studies brightens the path for us to conceive what workplace factors accurately might drive levels of PWB. And consequently for sure is answering the question that a high level of PWB leads to better outcomes for organizations. Through the research conducted, researchers develop a clear idea of the factors in the workplace that have an impact on PWB. The first factor is the demands placed on people at work. When employees are facing extortionate demands, PWB gets likely damaged. However, contrary to this is not right; in other words, lower demands do not necessarily mean the higher levels of PWB. For instance, in the situation that a person must go to work, but he or she has nothing to do at work. At first glance, it might be assumed that it is so pleasant for employees; however, the majority of workers won’t stay at such a work for a long time, and they prefer to work in a firm could feel useful. And this is the point we mentioned earlier, demands of work make the individuals feel worthwhile and useful. Meeting the reasonable needs at work give the feeling of satisfaction to employees. As such, the relationship between PWB and work demand is not always straightforward. It is not indeed a case that reducing work demands will necessarily lead to lower PWB. And also, organizations will not achieve good results by increasing their demands on employees. As a result, it can be claimed that reducing demands does not automatically improve PWB, and organizations also will not achieve good results by continually increasing demands on people. When the pressure is low, performance will not be at its maximum. As the pressure increases, performance increases as well, but then when the pressure goes further to an unreasonable level, affect the level of performance adversely.[18] Within the global markets, the key drivers include price as well as profitability and operational excellence. These ingredients contribute towards better profitability of the company. Operational excellence, according to Pot, can be achieved through autonomous teams as well as selecting the right person for the right job. Pot provides the example of IKEA, a company that specializes in furniture and home products, that is capable of deploying its human resources in such a way that it maximizes employee performance. IKEA staff holds a short meeting of all the departments in which they discuss what should be done and how specific improvements can be carried out. The range of spectacular processes, as well as products offered by the company, involves taking suggestions from employees, stakeholders, management, suppliers, etc. which enables them to combine innovation with inclusivity (Pot, 2011). Pot then gives the example of Philips, where innovation within the workplace was provided through the development of smart working space and by economizing on decreasing the number of offices and maximizing on the current office space, which was previously under-utilized. Cox, on the other hand, points out that to improve workplace performance, participatory innovation is required within the workplace (Cox, 2012). Participatory innovation happens to be a view contradictory to the contemporary technocratic and traditional view of innovation as it drives experts to specific departments such as the Research and Development department. Furthermore, the concept of employee-driven innovation also happens to be connected coherently with the role of employees as mediators, innovators, as well as facilitators with the three subcategories being employee, steered innovation, employee-driven change and employee inclusive innovation (Cox, 2012). Rout states that there happens to be a paradigm shift when it comes to employee engagement precisely in the case of the millennial workforce as it cannot be treated like the generation Y or baby boomer generation because the millennial workforce, which is the workforce born in the 1990s happen to be more psychologically driven, having their approach to productivity which means that different employee engagement programs need to be established. In a survey collected by Rout, it was found that about 79% of the millennial workforce today would like to work with a company that is socially responsible and has its independent identity (Rout, 2017). Osmani states that traditionally performance of an organization is measured using financial indicators which include growth rate as well as earnings, however, when it comes to non-financial elements, employee performance happens to be the most important indicator, and the factors which contribute towards it include turnover rates, job satisfaction, quality as well as productivity. Thus to obtain a competitive edge, companies need to enhance employee performance through innovation. Innovation can be garnered when employees provide ideas for services as well as the product as it leads to better competitiveness and increases efficiencies (Osmani, 2015).Innovation for employee performance is necessary because it improves the effectiveness of work as well as the administrative process, which means that innovation increases the timeliness of the output as well as the attendance of employees on the job. Thus to incorporate innovation within the performance management approach, the managers need to acquaint themselves with innovation management (Osmani, 2015). Innovation management refers to the introduction of new aspects of developing the business one way or the other. Ortt describes innovation management as the organization as well as governance of the innovation processes. Research and development can be considered as a broader term for innovation management. However, research and development management uses a specific approach that Is compatible with innovation management (Ortt, 2008). To improve employee performance, there are particular tools and techniques of innovation management which can be incorporated such as creating innovation strategies, ideas, and creativity, selection portfolio management, implementation management as well as human resource management. Long-term goals, as well as decision making, is done by top managers who happen to be responsible for making strategic decisions. However, the management innovation approach has been deemed as being a significant factor when it comes to sustaining the businesses in changing markets. Senior managers are now opting for various innovative strategies to enhance employee performance to maintain a competitive edge (Yu, 2018). It is also necessary that innovative behavior is incorporated within the workplace so that sustainable development can be obtained. Research by Yu finds that when the employees trust the company they work for, they perceive that the external environment is safe and that they can take risks for the progression of the organization (Yu, 2018). Arslan argues that there happen to be rapid changes within the global market and demands of the employees are changing which is why there is a growing need for innovation management practices as managers have to make decisions in the rapidly changing complex environment which is why it is better to improve and monitor employee performance through innovative management approach (Arslan, 2011). Furthermore, performance measurement, as well as performance management, happen to be two different concepts and should not be confused when using an innovative management approach because performance management is what the managers process and analyze when the information has been developed for measurement. This means that performance management involves using data that has already been measured. Quality management systems can thus be used for perusing innovative management practices as they ensure that employee performance is up to the mark (Arslan, 2011). Eagar provides insight into what the future of employee performance management is going to be like and states that the next decade is going to be different and will require more innovation for global executives and markets to recognize. Thus to stay in the game, companies should adopt five primary decentralized innovation resources such as new technology-induced business venturing and development. This means that there will be efforts in the future to seek top-notch business development, which means that companies should focus on deploying employees in new business areas (Eagar, 2017). Eagar also states that the innovation process management approach is also going to one of the top-notch trends in employee performance management in the future as the companies will require to find different ways they can manage the innovative process. This means that the new methods must be according to the creative management approach, which will enable the proper application of innovation holistically. New dimensions of change, such as frugal innovation as well as an innovative management approach, can enable a company to forge a global innovation network (Eagar, 2017). Another concept that will change the scope of employee performance is the orchestration of decentralized competence centers. This is because Eagar is of the view that companies should invest in innovation management and become more global by decentralizing their competence centers (Eagar, 2017). More investments in research and development can help develop this idea. Thu companies that want to excel in innovation management need to keep a close eye on emerging hotspots such as proactive business innovation, high speed/low-risk innovation, integrated innovation, and customer-based innovation (Eagar, 2017). Sánchez states that it is necessary to link strategic adaptation to innovation management practices because innovation, which is a specific set of activities that provide a competitive advantage, provides an increased understanding of the capability of the company to the employees. Thus innovation can be directly connected with strategic adaption (Sánchez, 2011). Sánchez also instructs that companies should develop an innovation audit model that can help in organizational innovation management as well as good practices for determining the innovation capabilities of a firm. The concept of an innovative management approach happens to guide the employees in the right direction of the development of their profession as it helps them to identify the main barriers which hinder the plana and progression of the employees from working. This approach is concerned with setting different procedures for the employees, which they must achieve to gain better feedback on their work. Most of the innovative work is done on the ‘manager’s part for the benefit of the employee as well as the company (Sánchez, 2011). Boukis asserts that there happen to be managerial uncertainty in the market as managing innovations tend to differ from different routine tasks that managers are accustomed to. This means that the everyday tasks which the managers have to complete cannot be compared to those that involve innovative strategies such as unstructured tasks, autonomy, and creative thinking tasks, which are different entirely from stable and standardization tasks (Boukis, 2015). Thus there can be material uncertainties, which means that creative and innovative practices are required to measure and manage employee performance. Managerial uncertainty includes difficulties and fluctuations in staffing the project team, changes in resource deployment, difficulty in maintaining administrative integrity, and co-operation with other departments (Boukis, 2015). Therefore, an innovative management approach must be used when dealing with managing employee performance. Lendel points out that innovation management approach processes happen to be entirely up to date when it comes to discussion and recent literature. Recently, innovation has been taken as an essential technique for enhancing the performance of employees. Companies are not involved anymore in developing their innovative management approach and thus base their strategy on opinions from partners, customers as well as employees (Lendel, 2015). Thus companies are now collecting necessary support, insights, and much-needed information by obtaining knowledge from employees and exploring market opportunities. There has been increasing implementation as well as the adoption of workplace innovation practices, which the top management in companies has used for deploying the best human talent as well as organizing work-related processes in such a way that there is better performance as well as good work (Karanika, 2017). There should be culture orientation within the workplace to provide ample opportunities for the staff members to participate. Karanika states that workplace innovation psychologists need to influence the innovative management approach. In order to do that, they must surpass the human resource management domain and become acquainted with production systems design (Karanika, 2017). Thus workplace innovation psychologists must understand the relationship between job tasks as well as operational systems and how these job activities can relate to different issues within human resource departments. This way, by surpassing the domain of human resource management, innovative organizational psychologists will be able to partake in both improving the quality of the working life of employees as well as enhancing the performance (Karanika, 2017). It is thus imperative to broaden the horizon of innovative management approach from the immediate issues such as individual health, job design, human resource management issues to organizational strategy and innovation in marketing, production systems, design, and IT systems (Karanika, 2017). The strategies that focus on open approaches towards innovation have reached the executive agendas, according to Burcharth, and many companies tend to struggle with their implementation these days (Burcharth, 2017). This is because many innovative approaches tend to present persistent managerial issues. Once a company commits towards collaboration in the form of an innovative management approach or “open innovation,” a wide range of practices such as commercialization and knowledge acquisition can into place. These practices have become widely popular and are now recognized as a way to achieve innovative performance (Burcharth, 2017). The overall expectation of managers when it comes to an innovative management approach in terms of performance outcomes is that there should be an accelerated internal development on maximizing profits through innovation. This method will facilitate open access to competencies, knowledge as well as resources that will enable the companies to better realize the strategic potential and monetary gain of innovation processes (Burcharth, 2017).The main secret to obtaining top-notch profits as well as prosperity, according to Burcharth, in today’s business, the environment is only through improvement in management systems and innovation. It is also necessary to prepare organizations where open innovation is reimbursed in the management processes. This can be done by building a relationship between employee autonomy as well as openness. Organizations should keep in mind that in case of collaboration with external customers such as suppliers, firms need to give autonomy to employees and make certain compromises for engaging the employees (Burcharth, 2017). Arsalan emphasizes on the need for innovative management practices as he states that there has been a rapid change in electronic commerce as well as the private sector in which customers demand better services. Innovative management practices such as performance management and strategic planning happen to make the entire process transparent and engage the employees (Arslan, 2011).Furthermore, in order to sustain an innovative management approach for enhancing employee performance, organizations must develop a top-notch strategic plan for innovation. This is because the management of the innovative approach for employee performance within the organization poses a challenge, which is often faced by the managers of the company. Factors such as lack of innovative activities, inefficient planning, etc. tend to cause an absence of unified procedure, which causes a lack of transparency (Lendel, 2015). Implementing innovative approach for management processes happens to be challenging for the managers because of lack of expertise on innovation, variation in the motivation of employees, lack of adequate information, failure to secure innovative knowledge and information, issues with security of the innovation process, the problem with measurement of employee performance, etc. There are also numerous factors that contribute towards the failure of management of the innovative procedures, which first includes lack of support by the employees as well as measly participation by the upper-level management, which causes indifference (Lendel, 2015).An organization should develop mechanisms for the management of innovation as Sánchez, anticipates the need for different kinds of capabilities for sustaining technological innovation such as advanced manufacturing capability, product development, process innovation as well as organizational flexibility. Thus for the implementation of an innovative management approach, the innovation strategy must include creation as well as alignment of the creative vision with that of organizational goals (Sánchez, 2011). The business environment, according to Sørensen, is often challenged as well as fragmented by the project-based structures, which include opting for the lowest cost and high result (Sørensen, 2013). This approach often leads to a low level of innovation on behalf of management as well as the employees (Birchall, 2011). Innovation is thus no longer considered a particular task by the research and development departments, and more than 70% of every innovative approach today is derived by increments and incentives. It is thus essential to note what motivates employees to innovate when it comes to an innovative management approach for employee performance. Innovation is not just required as a requirement just for research and development employees but is considered as an experience and approach for day-to-day practice. Hence, the employees must always be aware of innovative management techniques and should contribute towards keeping the working processes top notch. The employees should be motivated to indulge in innovative practices on day to day basis and must address operational challenges through an innovative mindset (Sørensen, 2013). Research by Sørensen revealed that human resource management and job design could have a profound effect on the adoption of an innovative approach by employees. Sørensen found that there is some indication that employees consider human resource management as being associated with commitment and ownership regarding work issues. In contrast, employees tend to consider innovative management approaches as contributing to a higher degree of motivation. Thus the research by Sørensen reveals that human resource practices tend to have a rather positive impact specifically on innovation because a combined innovation strategy that values input of the employees as well as strengthens the innovation performance is better than traditional human resource management practices (Sørensen, 2013). This means that the routine tasks which the managers have to complete cannot be compared to those that involve innovative strategies such as unstructured tasks, autonomy and creative thinking tasks which are different entirely from stable and standardization task. The involvement of employees in an innovative management approach can be encouraged to different organizational levels, such as the promotion of employee innovation by the line manager or by senior managers. Employees happen to contribute towards the innovation process in enumerative ways, and management controlled innovative behavior can result in the development of innovative approaches, new products, better business routines, and penetration into new markets through an innovative approach. Employee innovative behavior is thus characterized by entrepreneurial as well as proactive characteristics (Sørensen, 2013). Islami states that if the management wants the employees to perform high and be satisfied at the same time, it is necessary that the employees should have an idea as to what is expected from them and what constitutes a high performance (Islami, 2018). Management by Objectives (MBO) method, as a method for measuring performance as well as ensuring performance appraisal, can be done for enhancing employee effectiveness. Management by objectives happens to be a process that is not completed in a moment but takes gradual steps. There happen to be four steps that are incorporated within the Management by Objective method in which first there is goal setting, which is accompanied by action planning in which the actions which the management will take for ensuring that the employees are performing up to the standards will be taken. The third is self-control preceded by periodic reviews in which three processes are involved, namely, object formulation, execution process, as well as performance feedback (Islami, 2018). Ntanons states that the application of Management by Objectives method was made for the first time in General Motors in the USA, which was done under the supervision of Peter Drucker in 1954. The result of the application of this method indicated that the satisfaction level of employees enhanced. Thus this method can be applied in factories as well as firms such as hospitals, small and medium enterprises, schools, etc. (Ntanos, 2012). Peter Drucker first applied this method for performance appraisal of the employees and stated that during the application of such a system, a hindrance is encountered by the management because of the existing traditional system of administration (Ntanos, 2012). The employees must be aware that their supervisors are there to help them and should know about their goals. There should be a continuous feedback system that the manager can use to determine the performance of the employees (Ntanos, 2012). Merwe states that psychometric tests tend to contribute towards better placement as well as the efficiency of selection when it comes to occupational decisions such as classifying human resources. From line manager to filing clerk, there is scarcely any job for which psychometric evaluation can not be used. Merwe states that job assignment, termination, promotion, as well as hiring, can be aided through psychometric tests (Merwe, 2002). The case of psychometric tests happens to contribute towards placement as well as the efficiency of selection within the industry. Merwe mentions that psychometric tests are handled well with sensitivity as well as insight; they tend to be rather useful in predicting the behavior of the employees (Merwe, 2002). Management control systems tend to provide insights that are useful for managers in aiding them in performing jobs as well as in assisting the organizations in developing and maintaining behavioral patterns that are viable (Otley, 2013). There are two main aspects in which management control systems help, such as operational control as well as administrative control. This is because the administrative or managerial control provided with the help of insights and information into the employees, helps the management develop KPIs or key performance indicators that aid in operational control (Otley, 2013). The Balanced Scorecard Approach, which was developed by the Harvard Business School in the early 1990s, happens to be a multi-dimensional approach for measuring employee performance, which happens to be linked with the organizational strategy. Otley states that financial measures should be associated with employee performance, which means that employees will be more motivated to do work if economic benefits are aligned. With the increase in information technology, the share of content done through manual labor has also decreased manually. This means that the nature of work for the employees has been becoming rather cognitive and having soft skills like creative problem-solving. Decision making etc. happen to be the aspects that increase employee performance. Along with soft skills like cognitive thinking, people management has gained momentum when it comes to achieving high performance by the employees. Karanika states that technological tools, as well as automation, can automate the repetitive tasks for achieving the desired outcome. This has generated knowledge workers and information workplaces where different technologies can be easily used. In an organization, the use of technologies as a form of driving force happens to be used for augmenting the efficiency of the services as provided to the customers or clients of the company (Karanika, 2017).The use of technological tools can reduce costs as well as aid in the distribution of information, which results in a competitive edge of the company. Achieving employee performance as well as engagement on a higher level, especially for a changing workforce, is imperative, and this can only be achieved, according to Jha.through tools such as Gamification, Thumbs-up, gthanks, etc. Jha states that the workforce today, especially the new workforce comprising of the Millenials, happens to have a close affinity with technological tools, which means that tools that enhance productivity can prove beneficial (Jha, 2018). For a workforce driven by technology, it is engaged in the workforce means to have ample growth opportunities for not only professional growth but also for personal development. When it comes to what the organizations want, achieving the right level of engagement means that employees should be incorporating their passion, enthusiasm, as well as intelligence when it comes to working. There are more than thirty human resource practitioners that Jha interviewed for his research through face to face interviews. During the interview sessions, Jha came to realize that there are some common views that have been expressed by the HR professionals who have incorporated different technological tools. The research indicated that the new technology-oriented workforce happens to be career-oriented and seeks developmental opportunities. A technological tool that can engage, measure, and increase the performance of career-oriented individuals happens to be “My Career,” which highlights the career path of the employee as well as highlights the developments and performance of the employee aligned together. In case the employees require immediate feedback, the best tool happens to be “Thumbs-up,” which formulates a transparent, instant, and interesting way for managers to transfer feedback to the employees. Another tool happens to be “gThanks,” which has been implemented at Google, and the employees have publically recognized this tool to create an atmosphere of trust within the organization at Google. One tool highlighted by Jha happens to be“Gamification” which adds features that resembling games such as achievement badges, leaderboards, challenges, quests, etc. which make the employees track their performance easier and feel like they have achieved a higher reward when they receive bonuses through badges (Jha, 2018). This is also a form of performance assessment, which creates a form of joyful experience for the employees. Gamification has can also be implemented by the training and development department to make the entire learning experience for beginners easier and more engaging. The new workforce also happens to seek self-importance within their work, which means that they look for more opportunities within the workplace, which creates a sense of belonging. This can be achieved through the Gamification tool. A dashboard can also be created by the top management online, where the workforce shares their views as well as opportunities for growth. Thus a dashboard must be designed specifically for the workforce so that they can vocalize their concerns or their ideas online. This employee dashboard will create a form of self-reflection platform where the significance of the roles of each employee will be indicated. Furthermore, a fun work environment is always good for keeping employees engaged and for increasing their performance, which is why Jha states that companies such as Microsoft, as well as Google, tend to promote engagement of the employees by creating and channelizing tools that create fun factors within the workplace. Moreover, job roles should be aligned with the business needs, and progression should be a shared vision across the company where each employee channelizes his or her abilities. This should be reflected through performance appraisal, feedback, and technological tools such as dashboards, Thumbs-up, etc. (Jha, 2018). Furthermore, performance solutions such as ADP software, which happens to align the corporate goals with that of the employees, can be best for tracking the annual meetings between supervisors as well as employees and keeping the objectives and goals aligned. This software can also be used for getting the most out of a performance review and also for formulating different goals for individual employees. Human resource managers can provide technological tools for tracking the staff of the company all year through feedback forms, note-taking, as well as through payroll and performance solutions such as ADP. This software reduces the performance review cycles, aligns the goals as well as objectives of the employees with that of the organization, keeps the payroll and benefits as well as rewards for the performance simple through analyzing the reward to current performance ration which the management decides (Jha, 2018). Benefits management platform can also enable the administrator to learn of the needs of the employees and manage the vacation time, retirement plans, company compensation policies, health insurance as well as paid time off accordingly. Thus a benefits management service can benefit the organization as it helps the managers to understand the needs of the employees and monitor their performance. Spangenberg, on the other hand, provides a rather alternative view to management by objectives and states that this measurement method has not objectively met with the expectations of the companies engaged in competition on a global level (Spangenberg, 1994). For example, the company, Beer, and associates at Corning Glass were disappointed by the Management by objectives program and developed different management solutions that combine the strength of the Management by objectives program and added the accountability of employee development in the framework. This resulted in a performance management system that can now be used as a measure to enhance the performance of the employees and for measuring their performance. Thus a performance management system, as defined by Spangenberg, provides a link between the employee performance appraisal as well as the strategic planning of the company (Spangenberg, 1994). Spangenberg provides an example of the use of a performance management system for performance appraisal in the Electrical company plc in the UK. A longitudinal evaluation of the wholesale company shows that the performance management system used within the company changed according to the audit capabilities as well as the evolutionary capabilities. The initial measurement system used by the company was implemented to meet the needs of the employees in the early 1990s. At that time, there were fewer employees of the company, which meant that there were fewer branches, which means that managers could easily reflect on different measures as well as dedicate the existing resources with responsibility for making sure that measures were taken against explicit criteria. During the early 2000s, Electrical Private Limited Company had to enhance its market share as well as branch coverage, which meant that it needed to hire more employees as well as enhance its branches. Thus the performance management system also changed to cater to the changing needs of the employees as well as bonus and performance measurement systems. This resulted in a new performance management system, which is known as the balanced scorecard.  The Balanced Scorecard system emphasizes non-financial as well as financial measures, which must be part of the information system for the employees. The Balanced Scorecard system translates the different business unit’s strategies as well as the different missions of each branch into different measures as well as objectives. Moreover, the criteria, as well as different measures, are not only balanced through internal measures like innovation, learning, growth, business process, but also through external measures such as customers and shareholders. The Balanced Scorecard system tends to emphasize and uses different measures to inform as well as communicate with different employees about the drivers of the future as well as current success.One major strength of the Balanced Scorecard system as a performance appraisal system is that it focuses most on linking the performance measures along with the unit strategy of the business. Another framework which Simmons discusses regarding the Balanced Scorecard system is associated with the management of strategy, which is known as the strategic framework meant for action (Simmons, 2003). There are four specific processes that include clarifying as well as translating the strategy as well as vision. It also involves linking as well as communicating the strategic objectives and measures. Furthermore, planning, setting the targets as well as aligning strategic initiatives is also important. Balanced Scorecard system also involves enhancing strategic learning and feedback. Many companies worldwide have adopted this system, such as Rexam Custom Europe, Cigna property and assurances, Rexam plc USA, as well as Skandia (Simmons, 2003). In terms of the case of Electric Private Limited Company, during the 2000s, the competition between the different branches enhanced, which meant that sub-optimal behavior was on the rise. The company changed its performance measurement strategy by identifying the need for replacing the bonus as well as performance appraisal systems which meant that the company-wide balanced scorecard was implemented as it balanced the measurement of the performance with the profitability of the company while keeping the focus on the employee satisfaction, skills as well as customer service (Kennerley, 2003). The changed measurement system, which was introduced within Electrical plc, enabled the organization to incorporate a new performance-driven culture within the organization. As a result, the branches provided greater focus to the employees and enhanced inter-branch co-operation along with information sharing. This aided the branch in focusing on the issues which were of immense importance to the company as a whole and were in sync with the company (Kennerley, 2003). Kennerley points out that the changes which Electrical Private Limited Company implemented in their performance measurement system demonstrated the enlightening importance of how the measurement system should remain aligned with the strategy as well as the environment. The performance measurement system, which was first implemented, was static because it was not aligned well. Still, the system applied the second time prompted the realization that the management should align the objectives and goals of the organization with that of the employee’s performance (Kennerley, 2003). The 360 feedback system is also one performance measurement system appreciated and trusted by the managers as well as employees. Many of the organizations tend to have adequate performance appraisal systems already in place that usually operate on an annual basis. However, the traditional performance appraisal system happens to have major criticisms because of the use of measures that are difficult for assessing and rating. To make assessment easier, the 360-degree feedback performance appraisal system provides competency-based assessment for measuring performance for the systematic collection as well as feedback of performance data regarding an individual or a team. When it comes to the traditional performance appraisal system, it tends to be a top-down process in which managers, as well as superiors, evaluate their subordinates. 360-degree feedback, on the other hand, builds on the feedback of regular or traditional performance appraisal, and it is evident that in such kind of performance appraisals, a wide range of individuals are involved as this system is more credible as well as fair. The 360-degree feedback’s main objective is to generate self-awareness for the employees as well as to deliver the objectives of career development as well as counseling (Mukhopadhyay, 2006). The 360-degree approach happens to co-ordinate well with employees that are good with self-assessment as it associates more with intuition and self-analysis of the employees. Many firms happen to be involved with 360-degree feedback performance appraisal depending on the level of acceptance at the workplace. Kennerley suggests that peer evaluations also happen to be an appropriate way of evaluating employee performance, especially when it comes to developmental purposes (Kennerley, 2003). However, it is necessary that peer evaluations are done sincerely and for job retention, such as the rating of records as well as promotions. Peer input can also be highly effective when it comes to awards as well as recognition. Peer evaluators happen to have a difference of opinion when it comes to keeping the reviews anonymous, so general feelings of discontent are not created among the colleagues. It is advised that the raters should be kept confidential for ensuring that feedback is done honestly, which means that teams should be matured enough to a point (Kennerley, 2003). The main disadvantage of using peer evaluations for employee performance happens to be that it is incredibly time-consuming (Kennerley, 2003). Depending on the culture of the company, it is extremely important to know that peer ratings happen to have the potential for generating tension and feelings of contempt among peers. Peer evaluation can also cause discord and breakdown cooperation among the employees. Voirin states that individual performance within the workplace happens to be often defined as being a single indicator of global competitive strength with a set of different associated criteria that reflects an individual’s professional success. The criteria mostly used for measuring employee performance happen to be sales, quality of services, quality of goods, productivity, and direction of the employee (Voirin, 2012). Furthermore, performance support systems can also be used as performance support as well as training tools for workers to keep them engaged within the performance task at hand. The performance support system tends to improve the productivity for the worker by not only providing access for integrated information but also to on the job training, advice as well as learning experience (Mendonça, 2010). The main aspect in which the performance support system happens to be to deliver ample of knowledge to the end uses specifically when it is needed for completing a process as well as a task. This means that during a performance situation, there are a lot of changes that take place that requires learning as well as adaptation to the task. When an employee is presented with a problem within the changing work environment, he or she might not clearly understand the problem. This is why a performance support system is needed for channelizing observational learning as well as training intervention for improving task performance (Mendonça, 2010). The performance support system provides improved productivity for the workers as it is associated with a two-fold system that users having the knowledge and skills can complete a task and has the performance support system, which provides the users with knowledge regarding each and every task. However, Mendonça also points out that a performance support system should provide the user with the right kind of knowledge needed for completing a task. Managers must also be aware of the underlying reality that this kind of systems tends to have a huge amount of content such as procedural information, training segments, insights, diagnostic knowledge, system information as well as problem-solving insights that have solutions for different problems in certain situations (Mendonça, 2010). The performance support systems are designed to provide performance as well as training support to employees while they perform tasks. According to Mendonça, a performance support system enhances worker productivity through job access to insights, integrated learning experience, and advice (Mendonça, 2010). There is a two-fold premise involved with a performance support system; one that the users need to have knowledge competencies regarding the task, and two have specific knowledge about how to perform the task. Learning environments are of immense importance when it comes to the adaptation of workers to the performance support system. Blended learning environments, accompanied by performance support systems, provide an efficient as well as the less costly method for measuring the performance of employees, especially during the performance of complex tasks (Mendonça, 2010). Striteska states that the main focus of the models related to performance measurement has been on financial elements throughout the 1980s. By the early 1990s, numerous studies indicated that financial data is not an accurate enough measure for performance, especially in the new economy (Striteska, 2012). There is a rise of an increasingly complex market where companies compete with each other for better resources and where financial reports are not considered a major indicator of shareholder value. Shareholder value in sustainable terms in now being driven through non-financial factors, which include employee satisfaction, customer loyalty, organization’s innovation, and internal processes. As pointed out by Striteska, shareholder value is now defined and driven through non-financial elements such as employee satisfaction, employee performance, innovation within the organization, and customer loyalty (Striteska, 2012). It is imperative to point out that performance management and performance measurement are not two same nations as the literature present on performance measurement is rather extravagant and detailed as compared to performance management (Striteska, 2012). The most widely accepted systems for performance measurement include Balance Scorecard and the Business Excellence Model. The Business Excellence Model provides a structured approach for improvement opportunities by translating the strategy of the company into specific tasks, targets, and goals. There is a structured approach provided by Balance Scorecard as well, which, in contrast with the traditional techniques such as Performance Measurement Pyramid, reflects the non-financial factors (Striteska, 2012). The Balanced Scorecard approach aids the organizations in developing top-notch performance measurement systems, which is not dependent on financial factors. There are three functions that the Balance Scorecard fulfills; the method of measurement, the strategic management system, and the communication tool (Striteska, 2012). Fixed targets are chosen for channelizing the organizational strategy into financial as well as non-financial performance indicators. By introducing Balanced Scorecard within the organization, the strategic actions, goals, signs, etc. become part of the perspective of each employee. The EFQM Excellence Model for performance measurement was designed back in the 1990s and was introduced to the European Foundation for Quality Management. The EFQM Excellence Model provides eight main concepts for performance measurement: people development, innovation and change, leadership, partnership development, result-oriented, customer focus, continuous learning, and consistency of purpose (Striteska, 2012). The performance measurement system based on the EFQM Excellence Model enables the activities related to strategy, leadership, people, policy, and resources as well as processes. There are four perspectives involved in the Balanced Scorecard approach. The first perspective is the financial perspective in which the emphasis if on measuring the long term objectives proportional to the profitability of the goals. The internal business process perspective has a significant impact on the satisfaction level of the customers and aids the organization in achieving financial objectives. The learning and innovation perspective involves training the employees and cultivating productive corporate culture related to the self-improvement of the employees (Farooq, 2014 ). Performance pyramid is another tool used for determining the employee performance through non-financial as well as financial performance measures. A performance pyramid links the strategy of an organization with that of its operations. There are a total of four levels of objectives within the performance pyramid. On the left side, there is external effectiveness, while on the right-side internal efficiency is measured. Voirin states that the performance of individuals within the workplace is the single indicator of professional success within the workplace, and attainment of objectives set by the management is considered as a measure of job performance. Other factors of measuring performance include the quality of goods and services, sales, productivity, etc. Efficient performance is often considered as a “black box” that is solely focused on achieving the right results (Voirin, 2012). The multifactor job performance models have a distinction between contextual as well as task performance, which attracts substantial attention to research. There have been many researchers who have also sought to measure work performance through the nature of work, such as teamwork, empowerment practices, customer-oriented, and project management (Voirin, 2012). Adaptive performance model centers upon the ability of an individual to adapt to changing circumstances and dynamic work conditions. Employees who demonstrate adaptivity to changing environments by adjusting their routines, behaviors, and keeping right work-life balance along with it score high on the adaptive performance model. Voirin states that other researchers highlight the significance of a different variety of behaviors that tend to be rather adaptive on a scale ranging from new events to work situations. Pulakos was the first one to propose an adaptive performance model according to global standards (Pulakos, 2000). Pulakos described the first step towards measuring performance according to the adaptive performance as reviewing how the employee reacts to changes and then analyzing one thousand critical incidents where behavioral adjustments need to made (Voirin, 2012). A total of 24 jobs, including those in the military, were reviewed in research conducted by Pulakos et al., who proposed eight dimensions of adaptive performance. Ultimately the aspects were worked upon by Pulakos et al. (Pulakos, 2000). Which includes dealing with unpredictable work circumstances, handling stress related to work, learning new work tasks in an adaptable way, and dealing with uncertain situations. Other dimensions of adaptable performance include innovatively solving problems, using technologies and materials that are adaptable, having cultural adaptability. Demonstrating adaptability in physical orientation and demonstrating interpersonal flexibility also scores high in determining the adaptive performance of an individual. Different factors of the dimensions mentioned previously were considered by Pulakos et al., who used them depending on the type of the organization and the technical circumstances of the employees. Voirin considers the dimensions proposed by Pulakos to study the efficiency of the employees in detail with the unpredictable and predictable situations at work. Furthermore, successful adaptive performance entails that the staff members can function and deal with uncertain situations. These situations might include restructuring of the workload, changes in the priorities of tasks, lower resources provided to the employees (Dorsey, 2006). Exceptional adaptive performance concept points out that those employees adapt quickly and make decisions in the face of ambiguity and uncertainty well are high scorers of adaptive performance, can handle the crisis, and correspond with upper management well. Another dimension of adaptive performance pointed out by Pulakos is the ability to find innovative solutions to ill-defined, atypical, and complex problems (Pulakos, 2000). Employees are expected to manage stress while handling issues that are not well defined and are ambiguous. Employees should also be able to manage stressful situations that are unpredictable. Those who do not panic and continue to work with appropriate feedback from the management score high on adaptive performance. Due to technological innovation, there has been a rapid increase in the ability of employees to engage themselves along with the evolution of different occupations. The employees must demonstrate innovative and creative thinking in the face of ordeals by willingly engaging themselves in learning new technology and dealing with it inefficient manner (Dorsey, 2006). Performance measurement through adaptive performance concept entails that employees must anticipate and learn new skills to the extent that managing their work environments becomes easy for them. Adoptive performance promotes multidisciplinary teams, which are characterized by successful project work (Dorsey, 2006). The existing adaptive performance measurement scales, however, have some limitations as the current scales do not only reflect the underlying dimensionality of the adaptive performance concept.Other adaptive performance measures are also restricted to specialized context. A six-item scale that was developed by Ruyter for measuring the ability of employees in a bank did not work well. The scale was designed for measuring the adaptability of the employees in dealing with the demands of the customers, for example, being sensitive to the demands of the customer. Chen, on the other hand, assessed the adaptive performance of flight attendants and pilots in demonstrating adaptation to flight simulation (Chen, 2005). War games were used by Neal to investigate specific problems with the active responses of the employees. However, according to Voirin, none of the scales designed were able to measure the performance well because they were not psychometrically sound and did not have a multidimensional scale (Voirin, 2012). For a performance measurement system to be effective, the method should focus on critical success factors such as employee needs in particular sectors and businesses. Birchall argues that for an innovation performance measurement system to be effective, the innovative actions taken by the firm must be relative to the success factors in the marketplace (Birchall, 2011). The innovative performance measurement has been divided into two terms, known as nature and scope of measures. By the scope of innovation performance, Birchall means that a firm must be focused on the operational activities and aspects of innovation, which are future-oriented and focused (Birchall, 2011). The traditional performance measurement methods happen to include measurable parameters such as quantifiable indicators, which are related to more substantial nonquantifiable factors. Innovation performance measurement has three main clusters, which become apparent. These clusters are different from traditional measures and are based on the functional planned approach and rational approach, which leads to incremental change. Ivanov highlights the importance of performance prism for the interest of measuring the performance of the employees in a bigger picture. The performance prism was first created back in 2004 by Neely, who created the system to offer the management a wider focus as well as a narrow focus, depending on the need of the organization (Ivanov, 2014). Performance prism has interrelated perspectives for the measurement of the performance of the employees. The first perspective is the stakeholder satisfaction that includes key stakeholders, their needs, and wants, such as the employees and customers. The second perspective is the strategies that the firm has to apply for satisfying the stakeholders and for making sure that the needs and wants of the stakeholders are satisfied. The third perspective of the performance prism is the process or processes involved that need to be applied by the organization for satisfying the needs as well as wants of the stakeholder through executing the strategy. The fourth perspective is the capabilities of the organization. This involves the capabilities which the organization has to ensure that strategy is implemented using the core competencies. The stakeholder contribution is the last perspective in the performance prism provides that the needs and wants of the organization from the stakeholder. The management teams can use the performance prism tool for influencing the thinking of the top management when the key issues need to be addressed. This model, however, is not good with analyzing the innovation performance. Still, it can be used for assessing the competencies of the employees as well as the processes of the employees. European Foundation for Quality Management excellence model happens to be a cause and effect relationship based technique that analyses what the employees are doing as well as analyses the results of the organization (Awadallah, 2015).Awadallah develops more on the concept of the Balanced Scorecard, which was initially developed in 1992 as the performance measurement system. The main objective of this method was to overcome the issues encountered by inadequate financial-based performance measurement techniques (Awadallah, 2015). Despite the widespread demand, the adaptation of a balanced scorecard has ranged from being successful to not tangible to outright unimpressive (Awadallah, 2015). Balance scorecard has been applied to almost all industry sizes and sectors, such as from the service industry to those that are mass producers of products, from small and medium enterprises to large and from public to the private sector (Awadallah, 2015). Innovation happens to be recognized as a significant variable for gaining competitive advantage as well as growth. However, change is considered a vague concept in performance measurement because of the differences in the learning and execution of innovation. The Berkeley Innovation Index happens to be an open project which allows for the management to measure the innovative capabilities of the employees in a holistic sense (Sidhu, 2011). The Berkeley Innovation Index covers different facets of innovation through Strategy and Leadership, Organizational Operations, Tactical Measures, and Measures in various domains such as culture of the organization. The Berkeley Innovation Index is considered a pioneer in the field of performance measurement and sets the baseline for measuring creativity at the group level as well as individual level. The intended use of the Berkeley Innovation Index is to maximize innovation while promoting strategic action and planning within the workplace. The algorithm in the innovation index uses a specially designed link between success and creativity levels used in the projects. The report is formed by combining the entire data in the company, including the psychological profiles, knowledge sharing of workers, and teamwork done by the employees to check the potential for success in new projects (Sidhu, 2011). The potential of the company can also be measured using the Berkeley Innovation Index as it can measure the industry position, innovation culture, operational effectiveness, etc. For example, a company can measure the weakness of its operations while another company that is performing well but is having issues in alignment with innovation can use the Berkeley Innovation Index for risk factor failure analysis. According to Akinbowale, managers tend to be capable of forging judgments regarding the performance of employees, which are accurate most of the rimes. He highlights that rating inaccuracy occurs because of a deliberate conscious reflection of the rater’s agenda, which leads to unconscious bias (Akinbowale, 2014). The ratings of employee performance tend to be bunched together as either high performance or moderate. The amount of negative information is less likely to be present than the amount of positive news, and as a consequence, the tendency to rate employees above-average decreases. This occurs due to interpersonal conflict of telling the employee that their performance might be below the average. Emphatic buffering is a process in which the manager posses the tendency to review or mark the performance of the employee at a larger or middle scale. The manager in this situation rates the employee by avoiding negative responses because emphatic buffering occurs. According to Akinbowale, there is enough evidence to suggest that the performance appraisal policy used by the managers for achieving goals is often contrary to what the performance rating displays. Thus the ratings might be motivated or market by the fear of avoiding any form of conflict that might arise due to the poor performance of an employee (Akinbowale, 2014). Performance appraisal can either be negative or positive in impact depending on how the employees perceive it. Employees who receive a positive feedback score might receive the estimate as being motivational. Employees with higher feedback will be motivated to perform well or maintain this feedback (Akinbowale, 2014). Positive feedback is symbiotic with appraisals and feelings of worth or value. Negative feedback, on the contrary, might have reduced impact on the motivation of the employee or it might lead to the grievance. The most tedious part of an appraisal or performance measurement policy is to objectively and accurately measure the performance of the employees. To measure the performance, managers must keep in check the main tasks completed and evaluate the accomplishments of the employee against the period of task completion. Measuring performance also encompasses the quality of the job completed. Different inputs can be taken, such as feedback forms from sources such as employees, peers, supervisors, and customers (Birchall, 2011). All the perspectives received through feedback can thus be combined using an appropriate way for achieving a complete view of how well the employee performed. It is necessary to monitor the performance of employees on a day to day basis (Akinbowale, 2014). Useful measurement and monitoring techniques involve providing feedback on time as well as reviewed that are timely for the work done according to goals and problems faced by the employee. Cox highlights that timely recognition regarding work activities motivates the employees to work harder and achieve goals (Cox, 2012). Measurement of performance is based solely on few factors tends to provide inaccurate results. By measuring the activities of employees, upper management might mark the employees as being outstanding even when the organization might have failed to meet the objectives on a larger scale. Therefore tools and techniques that are balanced in measuring the performance must be used by the employees (Cox, 2012). A popular performance appraisal technique is the 360-degree feedback technique that evaluates the input received from different levels present in the firm along with the external sources such as employer, customer, and supplier reviews. Aggarwal states thatn the 360-degree feedback heavily rely on the customers, superiors, line managers, subordinates, and reports of the colleagues (Aggarwal, 2013). The 360-degree feedback technique is best for letting the employee know how they affect someone with their actions. Aggarwal points out that most of the employees perceive 360-degree feedback tool as being essential for their self-development as the context of competition is eliminated with self-awareness (Aggarwal, 2013). This is because at the end of the feedback, there is no prize to be won except from self-improvement, and it is considered as the highest context of achievement. The behavioral changes required might be demonstrated through the reviews, and the notion of behavioral change might lead to self-awareness in the employee. The 720-degree feedback has become the pioneer for change in the feedback system. Rick Gal, who was dissatisfied with the working of 360-degree feedback, approached the 720-degree feedback for a more intense and personalized look on performance measurement (Aggarwal, 2013). The 720-degree review is more focused on the perception of investors and customers. The 720-degree review focuses on the analysis of those that matter the most and takes into consideration the opinion of the most important stakeholders (Birchall, 2011). The 720-degree method provides individuals with different views relating to that of leaders and individuals that are career-oriented. The 360-degree review, on the other hand, involves a long and tedious procedure in which the performance of the employees is evaluated through feedback mechanism while in 720-degree feedback, provides the employee with tips and insights regarding achieving the set targets (Aggarwal, 2013). Smith and Kendall introduced a Behaviorally Anchored Rating Scale that grabbed the attention of Aggarwal in his research regarding the issue of validity and reliability of performance ratings. The behavioral anchor scale informs the manager about the performance of the employee in numbers. The behaviorally anchored dimensions can also be conceptually as well as operationally understood and distinguished from each other. This means that on the rating scale, the rater will observe rather than judging the performance of the employee (Aggarwal, 2013). Behavioral statements or examples of performance in a concrete sense are used for understanding the multiple facets of the performance of an employee. Human resource accounting is also a technique that can be adopted for performance measurement (Aggarwal, 2013). The theory of human resource accounting states that individuals that work for the organization, such as the employees are the assets of the company or enterprise in the form of information, insights, skills, or investment. These employees invest their skills in the company and this value of the human resource is then used for decision making within the enterprise (Aggarwal, 2013). The human resource accounting method can ascertain the cost of the turnover labor as well as project the development of human resources. Human resource accounting can also aid in planning of personnel policies as well as calculate the return on investment on human resources. This means that the technique will ardently lead to enhancement in the efficiency of the employees. The human resource accounting method, however, has one drawback that it does not measure the value of the employees relative to the organization and focuses just on the cost. Aggarwal states that some of the employers use assessment centers for determining the performance of the employees over a short, long period, such as two to three days by observing and analyzing the behavior in relation to work-related tasks (Aggarwal, 2013). In the assessment center technique, the concepts are somewhat flexible, and the methodology is simple. The main drawback of this method is that it can be quite challenging to handle and is often expensive, so small enterprises might not be able to use it. Assessment centers require large staff, and a great deal of time goes into managing the entire process. Only a limited number of individuals can be processed for their performance, which makes it more detailed but less suitable as a cost-effective solution (Aggarwal, 2013). Some of the exercises used in assessment centers include basket exercises such as simulations, interviews between clients and subordinates, which are staged in a way that role-playing is involved. Fact-finding activities as well as decision-making issues are considered in which oral presentations and written communication skills are tested. Some other techniques which can come in handy when measuring the performance of employees include a balanced scorecard, forced distribution, electronic performance monitoring, human resource costing, 270-degree feedback, confidential reports, and 180-degree feedback. The ranking method happens to be the fastest performance measurement method, which is cost-effective, as well as transparent. The ranking method is also simple and easy. However, it is less objective because morale problems are often encountered in dealing with this method. This method is only suitable for a small amount of the workforce (Aggarwal, 2013).

Chapter 3- Methodology

Current research is based on an interdisciplinary research approach. In this paper, the innovative human management methods will be explored to improve the employees’ performance at work by taking into account the new organization psychology and modern human resource management. The research question in this study will address that how new phenomena like new technologies and innovative organization psychology approach make the traditional human resource management perspective to move away? In addition, how the emergence of new sciences like talent management might contribute to exploring the relationship between the individuals’ performance at work and the organization performance. The hypothesis of study is to find out role of new performance management mindset in the encouragement of motivation and commitment to achieve organizations’ objectives. It entails that according to positive psychology movement, we believe that organizations might go further to produce more innovative outcomes rather than the traditional ones. Ho: significant relation between motivation and technological advancement H1: no significant relation between motivation and technological advancement Ho: significant relation between innovation and organizational performance H1: no significant relation between innovation and organizational performance


The first section is about the organizational learning process, second is about innovation, third discusses the performance of organization and fourth is about demographics. (See Annex)

Organizational Analysis

On the basis of each employees’ activity in HR departmentfollowing table is drawn. Table 1 Analysis of Organizations
Work Future Working practices HRM Technology Other trends
Work Future Home working Human resource Technological Mega trends
Workplace 2040 HRM
Activities of employment Technology advancement Flexible work Role of HR Virtual reality Demographics
Workstation HR based activity
Work context Innovation Autonomy Skills related to HR Augmented reality Multi-generational workforce
Employment HR analytics
Employees HR experts
Workforce 2030 Remote working Employee management Artificial intelligence Globalization
Labor Staffing
Wearable devices Public sector
Government Civil services
(Source:Imran, Maqbool & Shafique, 2014) The organizational analysis is performed to analyze the role of innovation and motivation for employees. By asking participants about their job function, nature and interaction, above table is constructed on the basis of information provided. The information suggests that impact of technology is significant on the work performance of employees. It is necessary for companies to implement technology and innovation in working environment, to speed up the functioning (Pirohov-Tóth, 2019). The scope of technology advancement for the latest trends in work is analyzed and described in the table. This information is divided in six thematic areas, i.e. work, future, technology, working practices, HRM, and other trends. These research implications provided that multiple fields are using technologies and innovative practices. Innovation is increasing the speed of organizational performance (Anbalagan, 2017). It is found out that these emerging fields are likely to have a strong impact on work performance and organizations. For instance, human resource functions are going to have impact of technology, in the form of digital platforms, such as labor market platforms, eBay, and Amazon (Subramanian &Nilakanta, 1996). Artificial intelligence is a key technology augmenting the scope of HR performance, data analysis, making predictions and finding different patterns. Next, the field of robotics is affecting employment level because its use is increased in industry (Ahmad Bowra, 2012). The routine manufacturing is now associated with robots, to save labor costs and training. The augmented and virtual reality is another hallmark of technology that has increased performance of organization. Besides, inspiration as far as money related motivators, thankfulness, criticism and rewards assume huge job (Imran, Maqbool & Shafique, 2014). Members likewise referenced that they feel it empowering when their associations actualize some thankfulness apparatuses and efficiency measures. It is legitimately connected to improve the exhibition of workers just as their efficiency. In multiple industries, like construction, healthcare, aerospace etc. this technology is implemented. Employees’ performance is also increased by wearable devices. For instance, employees are now easily tracked, their performance is measured and motivation is increased (Parshetty, 2019). The member’s job and commitment in various ventures has introduced that they are dealing with various exercises with the assistance of innovation. The associations are utilizing procedures to screen the exhibition of workers, record them and measure it with explicit instruments. HR administrators are supporting their staff through help, alleviation and actualizing potential programming identified with the exhibition. HRM requires the examination of most recent patterns for workers, to improve their presentation, measure their progress and sort out the exercises (Pirohov-Tóth, 2019). In HR field, representative’s association and commitment is explicit to bring profitability, as it serves the office with expanded productivity. Practically, this issue is inferable from the advancement and usage of innovation at work environment. The improvement in issue detail is likewise centered on the usage of innovation. For example, a few members revealed that if a representative is associated with deceitful practices and identification, programming and safety efforts can evaluate the impulses (Long, 1978). it is clear that the association gets all the important supplies and data, at that point the business market will offer sensible costs for every one of the merchandise and ventures. The mechanical progressions significantly affect how a business must be continued and the collaboration with clients and administrators. There are businesses the executives’ applications that pursued new expert administrations and furthermore human asset the board. Another innovative progression is client self-administration. Through client self-administration, the clients can understand their inquiries and can do inquiries to a concerned site on the web. The scope of technology in every sector is engaging employees, boosting their performance and supporting HR functions. The transaction, information exchange and increased level of security are attributable to block chain activities (Zahid Hussain Bhat, 2011). The participant’s role and contribution in different industries has presented that they are managing a number of activities with the help of technology. The exhibition level is improved when workers get significant help about their working and expected set of responsibilities. Emerging technology is significant to support HRM. Managing people, recruiting, training and development of staff is integral for an organization (Subramanian &Nilakanta, 1996). Technology has made it easier than ever. The organizations are using strategies to monitor the performance of employees, record them and measure it with specific tools. HR managers are supporting their staff through facilitation, mitigation and implementing potential software related to the performance. The evidences collected from the participants provided that training and skills are some major elements that are required for employees. The performance level is improved when employees get substantial support about their functioning and job description. Moreover, motivation in terms of financial incentives, appreciation, feedback and bonuses play significant role (Ahmad Bowra, 2012). Participants also mentioned that they feel it encouraging when their organizations implement some appreciation tools and productivity measures (Imran, Maqbool & Shafique, 2014). It is directly linked to improve the performance of employees as well as their productivity. Realistically, this matter is attributable to the innovation and implementation of technology at workplace. In the field of technological performance, artificial intelligence, automation and virtual reality are key concepts discussed by the employees. Today, in various business sectors, banking institutes and in academic institutes, technology is implemented in form of software and management systems (Parshetty, 2019). Its key part is linked with management of staff, training and development and measuring their patterns of performance. The improvement in problem specification is also focused on the implementation of technology (Long, 1978). For instance, some participants reported that if an employee is involved in fraudulent practices and detection, software and security measures can assess the instincts. Developing innovation is critical to help HRM. Overseeing individuals, selecting, preparing and improvement of staff is fundamental for an association. Innovation has made it simpler than any time in recent memory. HRM necessitates the contemplation of latest trends for employees, to improve their performance, measure their progress and organize the activities (Zahid Hussain Bhat, 2011). In HR field, employee’s interaction and engagement is specific to bring productivity, as it serves the department with increased efficiency. If employees are provided with innovatory support for their functioning, and performance, it is likely that they can increase their efficiency. (Ahmad Bowra, 2012)    

Chapter 4- Discussion and Analysis

The studies provide the evidence of employee’s motivation and innovation practices in HR. It has been found out that innovation is positively related to employee’s performance. Significant support to employees provides increase in productivity and output. The results provide analysis of productivity of workers, while working in banks, and a specific relation of innovation and performance. The literature concepts from different organiztaions offer a clear analysis that how motivation of employees can be increased and innovative practices can increase productivity of HR management. The evidences and examples from different organiztaions are used to discuss the authenticity of hypothesis.

Motivation of Employees at workplace

Employees are the ones who contribute most to the business success, most business who are now flourishing or making higher profits higher than their competitors is because of employees, who works tired less to make the company successful. To keep success in the long run, companies try to maintain a good and healthy relationship with their employees, but other things are mandatory for employee satisfaction, which most of the organizations didn’t care much about. One of the most important factors is realistic goals, companies that set an unrealistic goal for their employees mostly ends up in higher turnover rate as compared to the market trend. Setting clear and realistic goals pumps up employee motivation, which directly leads to the higher achievement of targets(Birchall, 2011). Targets that are unrealistic, more often considered employee reasons for resignations. When an employee achieves targets, which were to attain then it should be celebrated, not a lavish kind of celebration, but a small group of people congratulates their piers for the performance he led to high motivation. The regular break is also important, working hours should not be extensive where employees work while day and they don’t have time to maintain work-life balance, this led disturbance in their family life, and they mostly come offices with distorted minds and create reasons for a day off or create organizational environment worst.Transparency and clarity should be important, huge profits are achievable only if there are trust and transparent relationship between employees and managers. Transparency helps to maintain the idea that everyone has the same level of information, and make sure clarity should be in the assigned task and everyone is clear and confident about the task or job which he or she is given. Transparency and clarity both are important in their way, without transparency effectiveness of information will be vague and the result came out from them will be demotivating. Technological advancement for organization With the passage of technological advancement, the organization has adopted some changes that make the business run resourcefully and effectively. Technology keeps the data flow, manage contacts and also try to keep every individual’s record who is a member of the organization. If the organization gets all the necessary supplies and information, then the business market will offer reasonable prices for all the goods and services. The technological advancements have a significant effect on how a business must be carried on and the interaction with customers and operators(Aggarwal, 2013). There are business management applications that followed new professional services and also human resource management. Another technological advancement is customer self-service. Through customer self-service, the customers can solve their queries and can do questions to a concerned website online. Applications such as UserVoice and GetSatisfaction have enhanced the mindset of the software developers to understand what the customers need and also what they want to say. As a result, this has given the right to customers that they can share their views anytime. Web Conferencing has built up an easy communication network between salespeople and customers. There are Webinar Applications such as Cisco WebEx and GoToWebiner which have provided the content to get spread. Also, the webinar apps have become necessarily important to many organizations. Moreover, there is IP Telephony that has moved the organization to VoIP service than to landlines. Keeping communication over landlines and telephones has become very cheap. The organizations have other means of communicating with one another that is skype, WhatsApp, Imo, and many more which has gained popularity worldwide. Mobile apps have also introduced that provides easy access to the CRM systems, different updated documents, and the view. However, an employer can also make calls through an IP phone system and can also get into web conferences.

Innovation and organizational performance

Technological importance is always having a huge impact if you are running a business. In 21st century where the demand of product depends upon many factors for example confectionary items sales pumps up in weekends or during special celebrations like Eid or independence day. This kind of variability can only be met when organization can have technological Help.In many companies like pharmaceuticals where human involvement is highly discouraged where controlled environment is necessary to operate and to maintain medicine life, technology plays great role from making till packaging. Without technology it wouldn’t be easy to do all these delicate jobs, without harming people health and keeping standards control. Technology also improves lives of its employees and customers, due to technology cross border trade, buying and purchasing of items are just one click away. Now on websites you can order from car to a needle from any ware in the world and pay it through your debit car or credit card. This technological advancement led to create new market called e-commerce. Fast track options allow organization to move products over a large geographical area of the world.When this type of technology is used the bond between customer and organization will increase, and customer will become loyal to its supplier and will never trust any other company to choose their product from. As the market further evolve and use of technology increases, invocation involve in the process. Innovation led to the idea to create different thing by using these same technologies or it can be defined as a process that involves multiple activities to uncover new ways to do things., for example now people are nature conscious so by using innovative ideas some companies are making plastic begs which are friendly to the mother nature and can reduce plastic waste, some companies decrease their carbon emission by introducing new technology and making innovation in previous ones that led to decrease sound pollution and carbon emission. As the innovation increases people like their product more than competitors due to change in people’s demand and due to carrying behavior for the mother nature.

Relation between innovation and HR

As innovation increases it makes an impact on HR solution and recruitment as well, know there are multiple and effective ways from which HR recruiters can find their desired people in their respective salary slab. There are multiple ways and platforms through which organizations can recruit their desired employees without going anywhere, for example, online recruitment websites, which is the most popular way of recruitment in the 21st century(Cox, 2012). Through website employer post job opportunities which are available in its organization and suitable candidate apply on it by seeing qualification requirements, experience and personality traits. Another way that HR can help its employees through technological advancement while working is through Real-time learning applications. Through real-time learning applications employees can excess learning and development app any time any ware easily even through its mobile and can get answers on a day to day problems(Sidhu, 2011). Theses application can also provide a solution to any problem related to work that can create ease for managers and staff. Training can also be provided remotely about any new product that is to be launched soon. Talent management dashboard is also an innovation in HR. Through talent management dashboard companies and managers can get a view of the talent pool. This helps them to communicate the nature of talent and professionalism which they require in future development and expansion.While all these development, HR also seeks feedback from organization customers, whether or not the training and close observation of employees needs to bring change in people’s behavior(Akinbowale, 2014). Today performance management applications can give and receive customer’s feedback, whether or not the employees are doing the right thing as directed. This helps the managers to look into trouble if there is and take corrective measure to gain customer satisfaction as customers want. It creates managers’ and peers’ confidence as well.                                                             Technology and innovation are very important whether it’s for organization profit or employee motivation, training, and development. Due to the globalization of the workplace and the increasing requirement of people around the world, technological advancement is necessary to meet the increasing requirement to run the business and maintain healthy relationships and standards.Technology and innovation also help the business to understand its daily cash requirement; it also helps to utilize resources effectively and efficiently. It can manage cost-effective products and its whole process, the product which is highly cost-effective will led to higher profits and employees will get a higher return in against it. With proper technological use, an organization can save time and money; they can start a meeting on the internet rather than on board rooms(Awadallah, 2015). Technology innovation helps in improving employee organization relationships, the employee can better understand what type of work and services the organization wants and can deliver according to it. While the organization will understand its employees according to their desired needs.Innovation also reflects an organization willing to change and making efforts for its target market(Ivanov, 2014). Changing environment create need of its customers, and by seeing innovation and new products according to customer demand and needs, customer loyalty increases, that will never switch to other substitutes or competitors for sake of little difference. Every large or small organization has Information Technology departments that are hiring a large number of people on internships or a permanent basis. The main purpose of the Information Technology department is that it handles all the technical issues or problems that arise in an organization. But when a bank is involved in the department of information technology, it tries to invest as much as it can through this information technology work(Birchall, 2011). The main aim is to find out the effects of information technology on the performance of the employees. When many employees are working in this department, the time is saved and the plentiful work is done within a short time. The product based application likewise gives preparing and improvement to the representative before making or giving over another undertaking. It explains the essential abilities which are important for doing a particular undertaking or work. Innovation makes effortlessness and less outstanding burden on HR, however actually, it makes disturbance and mutilation like numerous representatives don’t feel certain and simple while depending on innovation, they urge and attempt to apply old frameworks that they are utilizing in past(Voirin, 2012). In this situation, the director must persuade and comprehend their worker’s shortcomings and attempt to persuade them to utilize present day applications and innovation which can lead extraordinary advantages for the organization, and unquestionably, these benefits will profit representatives in since a long time ago keep running as motivators, rewards, and examinations. At first, the workload is quite excessive and continuous but the employees are vigilant and control the problems in an instant that occur during their tasks(Chen, 2005). When the information is easily available, the bank employees try to produce good quality service. The team of IT employees must be fully trained in what they are doing and how they are tracking technology to achieve business goals, and efficiently working to maintain systems and operations. Moreover, if employees are focused and concentrated on their work, then only innovation can take place(Dorsey, 2006). The employees are quite motivated and encouraged when they receive appreciation from the senior managers or the branch manager. In terms of HR, all the employees are trying to flourish their information technology department more to get better results. When many ideas and different intellectual skills are gathered, then a change or an innovation can come into existence. In most of the banks, the working hours are quite prolonged which might be hectic for some of the employees but at the end of the day, the outcomes are fruitful and beneficial for a bank(Pulakos, 2000). In this way, the interactive skills of the employees can lead any bank to a higher level.  

Chapter 5- Recommendations

Employees are considered as the most essential part asset of an organization. They contribute most to organizational development, making higher profits for the organization. They create an atmosphere of a company where all can work together and can give greater benefits to the company and its staff welfare. Motivation in an employee can only be shown through his performance. It depends on an employee where he can gain motivation and how he manages everything within a short time. Some employees get the motivation by incentives, leaves, or appreciation by the manager for completion of the task. A new study shows us that during the building of pyramids of Giza, the workers were highly encouraged and had higher pays and used to work with full concentration. This is because to keep them pumped up so that they can do work properly and effectively(Farooq, 2014 ). Managers should encourage employees to involve in work or tasks assigned to them. There must be sound Job descriptions of every employee according to experience, work, and workload. If an employee performs a task on time and with his full efforts, then he should be appreciated. Employees who are little motivated to work could be because of multiple reasons, maybe some disturbance at home, salary issues, irrelevant behavior of line managers or might be dealt with proper strict action. The Involvement of employees in an organization creates progress and better outcomes in organizational work(Striteska, 2012). When the employee is motivated by his work and the praiseworthy comments he gets from his higher authorities, then only he can show his abilities and his determination in his tasks. When the environment of the organization is quite friendly and cozy along with cooperative co-workers, then only his viewpoints and his opinions are considered and he gets a chance to think out of his boundary line. Not everyone is suitable to engage in decision making. However, an organization must judge an employee according to his abilities and how much he knows about his work. Everyone must be assigned a different task that not only earn them satisfaction but also motivate them to work(Mendonça, 2010). The staff creates a plan to connect everyone and those who have capabilities to bring change in better decisions, knowledge, and preparation are applauded. If any important information is shared with some of the employees and not the entire team, then it might be difficult for other co-workers to catch up and register the information. If the small group of people makes change management plans, the staff may be unable to observe the latest ideas after the decisions have already taken(Kennerley, 2003). All the staff members must know what are the pros and cons of the decisions that they have taken and how they have to work effectively to make it successful. Employees who are focused on their work and have worked amazingly with the change must be rewarded(Simmons, 2003). Every employee has a unique tempo to work with his organization and how he manages his work and completes his tasks within a certain time which shows his confidence in his self and his hard work. Having a complete involvement of employees can lead any organization forward and maintaining the enthusiasm at all levels. If the organization shows complete trust in the employees, then only they can trust their performance and display remarkable skills that they have got in themselves(Spangenberg, 1994). When many people are participating in any project, the problems can easily be solved along with various new ideas that exhibit good planning skills. In this way, an organization can reach the heights of success and its development only depends upon the staff members who are determined to make it grow further. An organization must hire well-deserved and dedicated employees who can bring great changes and achieve higher. Technology transformed all the processes of human resources throughout the world. According to recent studies, 77% of Human resource managers used data analyses to help employees and to find an employee according to their needs and works. Human resources are set up to make employees compete and capable enough so that they can do work effectively and efficiently. In this scenario, technology plays a great role while making employees stand out from the crowd(Jha, 2018). There is multiple ways through which technology helps recruitment, selection and empowering employees according to the desired needs and wants of the company. The company always wants its employees to be empowered and willing to do the hardest task in the required time frame with the full motivation that why these changes in human resource recruitment and training are necessary for an organization and employee development. To ensure avoiding risk and to keep the pace of development of work in an organization, big data transforms and digitize the information human resource needs this information can be used to monitor and understand their target market. It also helps to allow Human resource professionals and managers to make decisions that are in favor and can help in making huge profits for the company(Karanika, 2017). The trend of using HR systems is increasing in developing the organization. They can give access to multiple job seekers while sitting on a laptop and doing some clicks. These devices can also be operated on telephones and are helpful for both employers and employees. This type of HR system mobilizes the recruitment and selection process which are both times consuming and cost-effective for the organization, as now a day’s multiple organizations are doing cost-effective business and didn’t entertain products and services which are source cash outflow(Otley, 2013). Cloud bases application and software also helps organizations and HR and are inevitable in the 21st century. It has some problems, like before placement of HR cloud-based solution or process, requirement needs of company should be understood, whether the company needs a cloud-based software or it can continue its operation on a regular software. After cloud-based operations, the collection and restoration process of data will become easier, all documents and important files can be easily accessed online, and are at minimal threat of online virus, natural calamity, and hacking threat(Birchall, 2011). In some companies for employee’s easiness, they introduce software from which employees can do company work from any remote place in the world. The only thing which is required is an internet connection which can get easily at a minimal cost. According to the study it is commonly observed that the employee who works remotely cab have better work-life balance and due to which they can meet deadlines and work effectively for the company profit motive(Ntanos, 2012). The software-based application also provides training and development for the employee before making or handing over a new project. It clarifies the basic skills which are necessary for doing a specific task or a job. Technology creates easiness and less workload on HR, but on the contrary, it creates disruption and distortion like many employees don’t feel confident and easy while relying on technology, they encourage and try to apply old systems that they are using in past. In this scenario, the manager must motivate and understand their employee’s weaknesses and try to convince them to use modern applications and technology which can lead great benefits for the company, and definitely, these profits will benefit employees in long run as incentives, bonuses, and appraisals(Sánchez, 2011). Managers should encourage employees to involve in work or tasks assigned to them. There must be sound Job descriptions of every employee according to experience, work, and workload. If an employee performs a task on time and with his full efforts, then he should be appreciated. Employees who are little motivated to work could be because of multiple reasons, maybe some disturbance at home, salary issues, irrelevant behavior of line managers or might be dealt with proper strict action. The Involvement of employees in an organization creates progress and better outcomes in organizational work(Lendel, 2015). When the employee is motivated by his work and the praiseworthy comments he gets from his higher authorities, then only he can show his abilities and his determination in his tasks. When the environment of the organization is quite friendly and cozy along with cooperative co-workers, then only his viewpoints and his opinions are considered and he gets a chance to think out of his boundary line. Not everyone is suitable to engage in decision making. However, an organization must judge an employee according to his abilities and how much he knows about his work. Everyone must be assigned a different task that not only earn them satisfaction but also motivate them to work. The staff creates a plan to connect everyone and those who have capabilities to bring change in better decisions, knowledge, and preparation are applauded. If any important information is shared with some of the employees and not the entire team, then it might be difficult for other co-workers to catch up and register the information(Burcharth, 2017). If the small group of people makes change management plans, the staff may be unable to observe the latest ideas after the decisions have already taken.

Chapter 6- Conclusion

The study focused on employee motivation and engagement at workplace. The test and results proved that employee motivation and engagement is related to innovation. The technological advancement play significant role for HR activities, monitoring employees and managing them. All the staff members must know what are the pros and cons of the decisions that they have taken and how they have to work effectively to make it successful. Employees who are focused on their work and have worked amazingly with the change must be rewarded. Every employee has a unique tempo to work with his organization and how he manages his work and completes his tasks within a certain time which shows his confidence in his self and his hard work. Having a complete involvement of employees can lead any organization forward and maintaining the enthusiasm at all levels. If the organization shows complete trust in the employees, then only they can trust their performance and display remarkable skills that they have got in themselves. When many people are participating in any project, the problems can easily be solved along with various new ideas that exhibit good planning skills. In this way, an organization can reach the heights of success and its development only depends upon the staff members who are determined to make it grow further. An organization must hire well-deserved and dedicated employees who can bring great changes and achieve higher. Technology transformed all the processes of human resources throughout the world. According to recent studies, 77% of Human resource managers used data analyses to help employees and to find an employee according to their needs and works. Human resources are set up to make employees compete and capable enough so that they can do work effectively and efficiently. In this scenario, technology plays a great role while making employees stand out from the crowd. There is multiple ways through which technology helps recruitment, selection and empowering employees according to the desired needs and wants of the company. The company always wants its employees to be empowered and willing to do the hardest task in the required time frame with the full motivation that why these changes in human resource recruitment and training are necessary for an organization and employee development. To ensure avoiding risk and to keep the pace of development of work in an organization, big data transforms and digitize the information human resource needs, this information can be used to monitor and understand their target market. It also helps to allow Human resource professionals and managers to make decisions that are in favor and can help in making huge profits for the company. The trend of using HR systems is increasing in developing the organization. They can give access to multiple job seekers while sitting on a laptop and doing some clicks. These devices can also be operated on telephones and are helpful for both employers and employees. This type of HR system mobilizes the recruitment and selection process which are both times consuming and cost-effective for the organization, as now a day’s multiple organizations are doing cost-effective business and didn’t entertain products and services which are source cash outflow. Cloud bases application and software also helps organizations and HR and are inevitable in the 21st century. It has some problems, like before placement of HR cloud-based solution or process, requirement needs of company should be understood, whether the company needs a cloud-based software or it can continue its operation on a regular software. After cloud-based operations, the collection and restoration process of data will become easier, all documents and important files can be easily accessed online, and are at minimal threat of online virus, natural calamity, and hacking threat. In some companies for employee’s easiness, they introduce software from which employees can do company work from any remote place in the world. The only thing which is required is an internet connection which can get easily at a minimal cost. According to the study it is commonly observed that the employee who works remotely cab have better work-life balance and due to which they can meet deadlines and work effectively for the company profit motive. The software-based application also provides training and development for the employee before making or handing over a new project. It clarifies the basic skills which are necessary for doing a specific task or a job. On the basis of above discussion, and hypothesis, it is proved that technology and innovation are closely related to productivity and employees motivation. Technology creates easiness and less workload on HR, but on the contrary, it creates disruption and distortion like many employees don’t feel confident and easy while relying on technology, they encourage and try to apply old systems that they are using in past. In this scenario, the manager must motivate and understand their employee’s weaknesses and try to convince them to use modern applications and technology which can lead great benefits for the company, and definitely, these profits will benefit employees in long run as incentives, bonuses, and appraisals.


The purpose of this questionnaire is to find out the organizational learning methods under innovation management. This questionnaire has four main sections. The first section is about the organizational learning process, second is about innovation, third discusses the performance of organization and fourth is about demographics. The research questionnaire is to assess the role of organization. Complete anonymity of gathered data will be provided.  Please answer all the questions and reflect your opinion about the organization. If you feel any statement is not relevant, circle X as (no idea).
  1. Organizational Learning Process
Each statement has different choices, kindly circle them: (1 = strongly disagree, 2 = disagree, 3 = nor disagree nor agree, 4 =agree, 5 = strongly agree; X = do not know)
  1. Employees are important source of information for the organization (1,2, 3, 4, 5, X)
  2. Last decisions offer valuable information for current decisions (1,2, 3, 4, 5, X)
  3. New business services should be tried often (1,2, 3, 4, 5, X)
  4. Hiring new employees is attributable to existing expertise about industrial products and services (1,2, 3, 4, 5, X)
  5. Current organization provide effective trainings to employees regarding new skills development (1,2, 3, 4, 5, X)
  6. Innovation
Please indicate which kind of services and innovation is implemented in your organization.
  1. New services and products in our organization are like first-market (1,2, 3, 4, 5, X)
  2. We focus on new methods of employee’s training and development (1,2, 3, 4, 5, X)
  3. we improve old products continually to enhance quality of new products (1,2, 3, 4, 5, X)
  4. We compete market and manage to cope the market demands by developing new products (1,2, 3, 4, 5, X)
  5. New products play significant role to lift us up against competitors (1,2, 3, 4, 5, X)
  6. Organizational performance
Statement A Options Statement B
Our relations with suppliers are unstable and poor (1,2, 3, 4, 5, X) We believe in maintaining strategic partnership with our suppliers
We do not focus on suppliers’ research and development and do not involve them (1,2, 3, 4, 5, X) We involve them in all research and development processes
Trust level in workers is weak (1,2, 3, 4, 5, X) The trust level in workers is high
Productivity of employees is less than average level in industry (1,2, 3, 4, 5, X) Productivity level is much higher than the average of industry
Absenteeism in this organization is high (1,2, 3, 4, 5, X) Absenteeism in this organization is low
  1. Demographics
  2. Name of organization
  3. Average number of employees:
  4. 1-50
  5. 50-200
  6. 200-400
  7. 400 and above
  8. Function in organization


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[1]David G Collings & Kamel Mellahi, “Strategic talent management: A review and research agenda” (2009) 19:4 Hum Resour Manag Rev 304, at 1-2 [2]Riccardo Peccei & Marc Van Veldhoven, Well-being and performance at work: the role of context, Current issues in work and organizational psychology (London ; New York: Psychology Press, 2015). [3]Michael D Coovert & Lori Foster Thompson, The psychology of workplace technology, Organizational frontiers series (New York, NY: Brunner-Routledge, 2014). [4]“What is job performance? definition and meaning”, online:<>. [5]Michel J Lebas, “Performance measurement and performance management” (1995) 41:1 Int J Prod Econ 23, at 2. [6]Ibid. [7]Ibid, at 3. [8]Ibid, at 5-7. [9]HRM will be defined as a set of practices used to manage the workforce of an organization, that is recruitment and selection, training and development, worker involvement, pay and rewards, flexibility, involvement in decision making, communications and employee welfare. [10]Ibid, at 10. [11]Karina Van De Voorde, JaapPaauwe& Marc Van Veldhoven, “Employee Well-being and the HRM–Organizational Performance Relationship: A Review of Quantitative Studies” (2012) 14:4 Int J Manag Rev 391. [12]“Occupational Wellbeing and Performance: A Review of Organisational Health Research – Cotton – 2003 – Australian Psychologist – Wiley Online Library”, online: <>. [13]Ibid. [14]Sheena Johnson, Well-being: productivity and happiness at work, 2nd, ed, EBook Central (Cham, Switzerland: Palgrave Macmillan, 2018). [15] It is a personality shows how sociable a person is, and how decisive they are, or whether they are more into positive emotions or not. [16]It is a personality which shows how much sympathy one might have with others, and also how cooperative the person is. [17]Johnson, supra note 14. [18]Ibid.


Related keywords: Gender Pay Equity, Gender Equity, gender equity vs equality, girls for gender equity

An economic measure in job employment is gender equity. In different perspectives of the workplace, factors like position, pay behavior, and promotion works integrally. Equal promotion opportunities for females are quite significant to get a balance in job equity. Companies do not hire females for leadership positions because they consider barriers are associated with females. While talking about productivity and commitment, female employees fulfill the criteria of the workplace. This evidence renders it necessary to implement specific measures that can help employers make decisive decisions (Southworth, 2014). For instance, promoting employees based on gender equity is helpful for the organization in providing equal chances.

The significant measures include offering equitable opportunities to male and female candidates for senior, executive, and leadership roles. Organizations in china need to hire people by expanding their recruitment pool. Working against gender discrimination in organizations helps reduce the gap and sets the same standards for all the candidates. Offering equal opportunities for males and females, providing training and development programs, and setting promotion allowances are some crucial measures for male and female candidates. Chinese companies should also vacant high-level seats often to fill them with female candidates (Southworth, 2014). These promotion measures would increase employee engagement and productivity. 


Southworth, E. (2014). Shedding gender stigmas: Work-life balance equity in the 21st century. Business Horizons57(1), 97-106. doi: 10.1016/j.bushor.2013.10.003




The growth of the business depends on the strategies designed by the upper management of the company for the expansion of its activities. However, the profitability of the company relies on the activities for lowering the expenditures of the company. The human resource strategy of any organization plays an important role in hiring and retaining the skillful staff within the company. The study shows that the selection of the human resources owns great importance in achieving the endeavors of any organization (Neves, 2017). It is the employees who achieve the goals and objectives of an organization rather than anything else. Therefore, no one can deny the importance of human resource strategy within the organization. The fundamental function of the human resource department has transformed from the casual ‘hire and fire’ to a more modified and customized system, which is concentrating on another aspect of an organization like considering the techniques of employee engagement (Hoefle, 2019).

HR strategy in any organization is a set of activities that focus on recruiting, observing, supervising, and directing people. HR strategy deals more with queries related to performance management, compensation, employee safety, organization growth wellness, employee benefits, motivation, mentoring, training, and other aspects of the employees. HRM plays a tactical role in handling people and the office values and surroundings. In real, it can add greatly to the overall business direction and the triumph of its objectives and other goals.

Organization Background:

Baskin-Robbins is an American chain of ice cream which is known for its variety of enticing flavors. They are offering cakes to customers in different flavors and sizes. Founded in Canton, Massachusetts, it was originated in 1945 by Burt Baskin and Irv Robbins in Glendale, California where they grabbed the attention of all people across the borders. It also claims to be the world’s largest chain of ice cream department stores, which has more than 7,500 locations all over the world (M.Olson, 2018). Apart from that, it has an estimated 2,500 shops in the United States. However, there are more than 5000 stores that are present in different countries excluding the United States. It is present in more than 50 countries where they have molded themselves as per the norms and values of that specific territory. The company is recognized for its “31 flavors” slogan which aims to make itself unique as compare to its competitors. The idea and concept behind this slogan are that a consumer could have a diverse flavor every day of any month. The company has presented more than 1,000 flavors nationwide since it started its operations in 1945. The headquarter of the company is located in Canton, Massachusetts where the business techniques and tactics are practiced in order to bring more flavors within the system (M.Hedberg, 2018).

HR Strategy:

Methods used to engage and retain employees:

The study shows that employee motivation leads to effectiveness, throughput, customer pleasure, modernization, health, turnover, and wellbeing of any organization. If the employees within any organization are happy and satisfied then there is no force which can keep this company away from achieving its endeavors. However, it is very important for every organization to recognize its employees so that they could perform well in the future and come up with positive and creative ideas which could add value and support for achieving the final endeavor (Bohlmann, 2018).

However, there are many methods that are being used by Baskin Robbins international in order to retain all of its employees. The upper management has designed the best models for employee motivation, engagement, and retention. First, the BR upper management always keeps its employees in the planning process in which the entire business plan is discussed with the employees. The employees are welcomed to share their insights with the upper management so that they could feel empowerment and ownership within the company. All the employees are given equal opportunities to share their ideas related to their concerned departments, then these ideas go into execution if these ideas are workable (Parke, 2018).

Second, the upper management of BR does emphasize communication among the employees and departments. They do share the information from the upper management to the lower management so that no employee could feel isolated. The study shows that the BR management also organizes periodic entertainment activities which do entice their employees. The employees do feel good by participating in such activities as it reduces their stress and other tensions within the mind. These activities make them fresh and healthy. The study shows that employee participation in such activities raises employee engagement and employee productivity (Young, 2018).

Moreover, there is no “Bossy” culture within the organization. Every employee is respected within the organization without any discrimination and exploitation. The study shows that if the upper management encourages and appreciates their employees once they share and participate in the decision-making process of the business then it brags the employee motivation and employee commitment towards the goals and objectives of the company. So, the BR team is utilizing the same concept with its staff and recognizing them once they show their interest in the daily operations of the company (Shikha, 2019).

In addition to that, the company does create the hype of the upcoming activities so that the employees could work hard to avail all of these opportunities. The study shows that such activities do direct the employees towards the right track so that they could follow that path for achieving the ultimate goals (Shrestha, 2017).

The study also shows that the BR management is also offering the “Discount Cards” to its employees which helps the employees availing “31% discount” if they purchase ice cream from the BR outlets. The team is selling happiness not to its customers but also to employees. The study also shows that the BR management doesn’t rely on the traditional practice of terminating employees if they don’t perform well. However, they improve the skills of employees and then they provide them opportunities to grow and prosper (Neves, 2017).

Moreover, the upper management is also organizing the events in the restaurants after the end of every month where the last month’s performance of the company is discussed in front of every employee. It gives every employee an idea of what are actions needed to be considered after this evaluation. The study shows that such meetings and sharing of information do enhance employee productivity in an appropriate mean. It helps the employees to understand their mistakes and come up with a plan for overcoming all of these weaknesses.

Rewards Strategy:

BR management has designed its rewards strategy differently for every department. For the operations and sales department, they do evaluate the performance by comparing the selling figures with the expected figures. If the department meets its target then they offer them monetary awards. They do offer them incentives so that the employees could feel good after receiving such kind of rewards (Neves, 2017).

The study shows that if any organization is providing job security to its employees then it’s a key to retain its employees in the long run”. Moreover, the BR management is working especially on the mantra of recognizing its employees. They do spend a great time seeing how the employees should be recognized. Some employees attach their motivation to intrinsic rewards and some of them need extrinsic rewards. So, the HR strategy of BR does include all the factors before recognizing its employees. The management does offer monetary rewards to its employees bi-annually which bolsters the employee commitments towards the organization.

The study shows that the BR management is recognizing the employees by granting them the title of “Employee of the month” and “Employee of the department”. It helps the employees to feel great, it also stimulates them to come up with more creative ideas for the wellbeing of the organization. Apart from that, the company is exercising this practice of increasing salary at least 8% by the end of every year. If any employee performs beyond the expectations then he gets the salary increment up to 20% as well (Shrestha, 2017).

Methods to monitor and review:

The study shows that the Baskin Robbins International team does arrange the periodic performance reviews of their employees in which they analyze the performance of their employees. They check the performance of the employees by comparing the expected goals with the actual achievement. The findings of the study show that the HR team of BR International does design the job descriptions and KPIs of every employee before the hiring. The company discusses the company’s expectations with the employee before his joining so that he/she could understand the company’s expectations from him. The key performance indicators do share with the employee so that the employee could be reviewed on the same KPIs once the period is completed. They are using fair means for evaluating the employees.

The HR department takes the insights of every employee from the line manager and then looks into it the depth of it. The study shows that the HR team does keep a record of every employee whenever he performs well or deteriorates his performance. If they find it important to recognize any employee then do recognize their employee in front of all. The findings also show that if the HR department sees and finds any review to be conducted on an urgent basis, then they do conduct it. Once the review is completed, they share the insights with the employees so that they could integrate their efforts with the objectives of the organization (Neves, 2017). 

In the opposite case, if the employee is not performing up to the mark, they don’t condemn him in front of all employees instead they find the weaknesses of this employee then they devise a training plan in order to equip this employee with all the techniques which are required. The study shows that the employee performance is evaluated after every training and then they see and analyze the effectiveness of that training program either it has equipped the employee with the expected techniques or not. If yes, then they see the performance of the same employee and then award him for the better performance if it gets improved from the past one (Neves, 2017).

Best Practice:

The study shows that the practice of conducting periodic reviews is one of the best practices exercised by the management of Baskin Robbins international. They conduct periodic reviews and acquaint their employees with the feedback. It puts their employees on the right path so that the employees could land on the right destination in the long run. They don’t criticize and condemn employees if they commit mistakes unintentionally instead they help them in overcoming all of these mistakes.

Apart from that, the results of the recent study show that BR management is emphasizing more on the factor “communication”. They are promoting communication among the employees and department. For them, communication is the only key that can lead them in the market. It is also the best practice which is enhancing employee motivation and employee engagement in an appropriate manner (M.Hedberg, 2018).


To conclude, the Human resource strategy of any organization plays an important role in hiring and retaining the skillful staff within the company. The study shows that the selection of the human resources owns great importance in achieving the endeavors of any organization. Baskin Robbins International is using the best techniques for increasing its employee engagement and employee motivation. They are motivating their employees by aligning their efforts with the intrinsic and extrinsic awards which have improved their performance in a flabbergasted manner. The HR strategy of BR management has stimulated its employee to work day and night for the wellbeing of the company (M.Olson, 2018).


Baskin Robbins International is already following all the standardized guidelines while designing its HR strategy. It is recommended that the BR management must see deeply what their employees want. There would be many employees who might be looking for intrinsic rewards. If they are given extrinsic rewards then they won’t be happy. Therefore, it is important for the BR team to understand the difference between intrinsic and extrinsic rewards so that they could offer the right reward to the right employee at the right time.


Bohlmann, C. (2018). The relative importance of employee green behavior for overall job performance ratings: A policy‐capturing study. human resource management, 66-77.


M.Hedberg, L. (2018). Founder attachment style and its effects on socioemotional wealth objectives and HR system design. Human Resource Management Review, 33-45.

M.Olson, A. l. (2018). The application of human resource management policies within the marketing organization: The impact on business and marketing strategy implementation. Industrial Marketing Management, 62-73.

Neves, P. (2017). Reducing intentions to resist future change: Combined effects of commitment‐based HR practices and ethical leadership. Human Resource Management , 33-44.

Parke, M. R. (2018). When daily planning improves employee performance: The importance of planning type, engagement, and interruptions. American Psychological Association, 59-78.

Shikha. (2019). Managing Organizations Through Employee Engagement: An Indian Perspective. Human Resource Management , 12-25.

Shrestha, A. (2017). Effects of Sales Promotion on Purchasing Decision of Customer: A Case Study of Baskin Robbins Ice – Cream Franchise Thailand. Human Resouce management , 36-57.

Young, H. R. (2018). Who are the most engaged at work? A meta‐analysis of personality and employee engagement. Human Resource Management , 33-88.


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