- Problem: The sharp increase in prices for food at global level is causing issues in national market. It has increased malnutrition thus given rise to malnourished people. World needs more food, production and yield must increase to feed increase in population. Climate changes causing drought, flooding, pests/disease to spread outside local habitat etc. 80% of the world’s crops depend on rain so farmers watch over unpredictable weather conditions to produce the crops (Adejuwon, 2006). Due to global climate change, extreme weather situation, such as high precipitation is damaging crops, so yield decreased. Tropical storms and flooding destroy crops largely. Flood water brings more toxic element on land, pollutants sewage and pathogens enter into food easily. Hot weather conditions help water evaporation, so water shortage/drought occurs that offers less water for irrigation (Hunter, 2014). 10% of world crops are major food crops and irrigated by nonrenewable ground water, so aquifers are drained rapidly than they are filling.
- Importance: There is an increased need to improve food production to feed 10 billion people of the world till 2050 (Manning, 2015). If food supply does not increase food/nutrition security will not be met globally. Addressing food shortage challenge is critical for policy makers and producers to increase access to adequate food for future generations. By 2050, the global population will reach 9.8 billion so food supply is going to take massive stress because at that time, food demand will be 60% higher than today (Jones, 2013). The persistent issue will be climate change and soil degradation will reduce the arable portion of land. The risk of collapse is increasing, so food scientists are studying food security elements as mycological and botanical collections. Some examples are wild rice varieties that need less water, and enset, a banana like plant that staved off famine in Ethiopia (Scott, Petsakos & Juarez, 2019). These food crops are being considered as insurance of food against the danger of plant extinction in future.
- Goals: The goal of this paper is to address the world food shortage problem. It will undertake to highlight the issue to match production and yield to the demand required by 2050 (FAO, 2009). Additionally, it will discuss solutions to minimize the environmental impact, water demand and energy supply-demand to conserve resources for future. Studying food extinction in near future, doubling food production for world till 2050 and potential factors that can affect this process are key subjects of this paper. The role of food production methods is to feed growing population of world and to avoid the danger of famine due to extreme weather conditions in the near future (Adejuwon, 2006). The potential goal of this paper includes some solutions that can tackle the issue of global food shortage in 2050. For instance, these solutions constitute reduction in food wastage, implementation of genetically modified organisms technique (GMO) and closing the yield gap (Scott, Petsakos & Juarez, 2019).
- Approach: The approach used for this paper will address the aforementioned issues by looking at biotechnologies in agriculture to increase yield, drought resistant crops; reduce food wastage and moderate meat intake to reduce feed demand for livestock. The approach will also cater risk factors for world agriculture that are reducing agriculture food supply (Searchinger & Waite, 2019). Reducing food waste is helpful to preserve some food for deserving. The discussion implies key steps in food security to save humanity from a universal decline. Feeding a growing population needs effective planning well before time because multitude of obstacles is in the way of food production. The approach to discuss the issues is backed by facts and figures from global organizations, such as Food and Agriculture organization, World Bank and United Nations. All the food sources are facing threats from climate change and human practices (Hunter, 2014). The threat to biodiversity is massive because it can decline important vegetation and animals, so the ultimate target of these issues will be global humanity (Thornton & Lipper, 2014).
- If successful: The need to conserve food resources discuss the significance of natural ecosystem and their restoration. If this solution will be successful, there will be a favorable outcome of food security being maintained. The solutions will ensure effective food supply, better lands under plough, increase in fish supply and protection of earth from greenhouse emissions of gases. Bioscience has suggested that if proper attention is provided on global increase in food production, it is likely to increase from 25-70% by 2050. The successful policy interventions for global food security need sustainable and efficient production methods in developing countries and in huge bio-energy market. A global food production step can be successful, only if proper crop production practices in agriculture are undertaken. This approach is aligned with the climate change policies and reducing damage to natural environment. Threat to global climate is due to famine, shortage of rainfall, desertification, aforestation, drought and flooding. These global conditions are getting intense and extreme over time (Thornton & Lipper, 2014). Climatologists suggest that in near future, global warming will be increased due to increased trace gases and carbon dioxide level in atmosphere (Imbert, 2019). Transitioning in hydrological regimes can affect ability to produce global food.
Over thousands years, agriculture is valued for specific yield of food crops. The selected plants with peculiar characteristics are used for human beings and they are responsible to feed entire population. High yield is a significant concept in crop production that also means homogeneity of crops (Adejuwon, 2006). 75% of all human calories are attributable to only 12 crops. A particular pathogen or pest can create potential vulnerability due to changed climate. If there is a lack of genetic variability, entire crops will become vulnerable. In 1950s, global banana supply was carried out by Gros Michel, it was a singly variety. Panama Virus destroyed the crop due to lack of variability (Hunter, 2014). To feed billions of human beings, there is a need to focus on effective genetic variability. Today, there are about 5,500 varieties of edible plants but stills scientists are focusing on a narrow selection of food to bring a balance of meat based diets and vegetable based diets (Hunter, 2014).
Agriculture in 21 century is facing enormous challenge, difficulty in getting desirable production due to growing demand. Better and improved practices are required to increase food production, as world population is expected to grow at exponential rate. The socioeconomic factors are driving an increase in food demand such as rising incomes, population growth and urbanization. UN population prospects have highlighted the growth of world will be projected by 34% i.e., 9.1 billion in 2050. The improvement in food production is required to compete with persistent situations and natural calamities. Climate changes resulting in drought, flooding, shortage of rainfall and pests/disease are some key aspects contributing food shortage in near future. Global agriculture output can only be increased when a systematic control on crop reduction atmosphere will be undertaken (Searchinger & Waite, 2019). The incidence of weather change is also harmful for crop production. To double food production, resources should be maintained at faster pace than the urbanization.
A main cause of loss of biodiversity is the grazing of cattle so extinction of forest is at rise. One kilogram of beef is more demanding (30 times) on environment than a kilogram of protein of plant. This provides that there is a need of quite radical changes in human diet (Imbert, 2019). Most of the developing societies have aligned their directions to meat based diet. If India and China will adopt similar meat rich diet patterns like America, it would be very much demanding on the global resources (Thornton & Lipper, 2014). In human societies, a resistant to new technologies has been observed. The interesting fact is the marketing of plant based burgers is carried out to those, who enjoy beef burgers but not for vegans. In addition, genetic technology is not given due significance but it is a large assistance to reduce the intense pressure on the global environment. Genetically modified crops can require less pesticide or herbicide and water, so there is a need to think about the benefits it is providing to mankind.
There are many reasons for policy failure implemented to enhance food production. A main reason is lack of government action on allowing GMO technology e.g. India and Europe (anti-GMO groups). If you think of more mention them. Second important cause is lack of crop rotation and inability to provide favorable policies to improve agriculture. Improving agriculture is related to increase the assistance to farmers, in order to prevent crop production, high yield crop patterns and implementation of pest resistance. Government needs to adopt applied agriculture research methods that focus on developing efficient systems of production to meet global demand (State, 2019). Helping farmers to adapt practices about emerging environmental challenges such as changed climate, pesticide resistance and yield plateaus is essential (FAO, 2009). The lack of government assistance in favoring crop production methods, provision of revenue and crop insurance is a hurdle in developing better and improved methods of food production.
In 2015, UN provided that global population will increase, with a concentration in poorer countries than developed. Poor countries are characterized by low economic standard, low living style and increased demand for dairy and met production. These kinds of trends are raising feat that in coming decades, world cupboards will be run bare (Jones, 2013). This scenario offers a ubiquitous concern that double food production of world by 2050 should coupled with reduced climate change and improved food production. It defines sustainable intensification about the productivity of agriculture. It needs to focus on increased use of better fertilizers and reduced harmful effects of tilling. Doubling food production is linked with sustainability that is needed to double than historical rates. Food production is needed to keep growing to 25-70% to meet the global demand for food and this should be annually. Doubling output and productivity needs increased soil irrigation, use of pesticides and fertilizer and more water.
If the problem continues, potential, consequences such as starvation, malnutrition, and lack of food security will result. Decline in required quantity of food production will create social unrest. Developing countries are already facing food shortage dilemma in the form of malnutrition children, they will face famine. Decreased food production will increase the prices of food products and its effect on poor countries will be adverse (van der Mensbrugghe, Osorio-Rodarte, Burns & Baffes, 2009). Drought and famine will destroy natural resources and biodiversity. Increased dependence on natural resources will hurt forests so plants and animal species will face serious threats. It needs working with environmental goals. The specificity of agriculture goals are linked with ecosystem functioning (Jones, 2013). Greenhouse gas emission at global level is enhancing gas presence in atmosphere so contributing in global temperature rise.
- Close the yield gap, as it will enhance food self sufficiency practices in near future. Improving food production patterns by closing the yield gap in raid fed cultivation and irrigation mechanism can enhance 24-80% calories. The high and better production level will increase overall food patterns and trade in developed countries.
- Genetically Modified Organisms and technology related to it can bring significant increase in food production. However, in India and Europe, GMO is not initiated. GMO corps will ensure reduce in food wastage and will use less expensive techniques to grow food crops. Insect and pest resistant Bt crops will need less phytosanitary products than conventional crops. The genetically modified crops will be herbicide tolerant so a better control will be maintained on unnecessary weeds. This environmental friendly act can save humanity by producing better food (van der Mensbrugghe, Osorio-Rodarte, Burns & Baffes, 2009).
- Reducing food wastage is an effective solution. Approximately one quarter of food goes uneaten which is produced for humans. Loss of waste from food supply chain occurs from field to dining table. If 25% food waste is reduced by 2050, it will reduce the food gap to 12% (FAO, 2009). The food waste management needs affective policy implementation to monitor food tackling activities at public and private levels.
These three solutions will act significantly to reduce food waste and improve water management.
- If these solutions will be successful implemented, the betterment of humankind will see a rise in global food production methods. The environment will face sustainability in this way.
- The success over time is maintained by systematic set control of polices, and the process can be strengthened by check and balance system and monitoring food rules and regulations.
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