In this paper, we will be exploring the evolution of language as it happens over social media specially Instagram, with a particular focus on how it develops among the youth. Language is a very valuable resource in the evolution of culture itself. Youth identity, while being performed in various ways including fashion, music, dance, etc. is very much performed through the medium of language as well. Social media is a platform through which this language is employed and developed by the people most invested in their online livesthe youth. The activities of social media are not static but mobile since users can document their movements with the help of phones and their cameras, thus bringing in the language of mobility and description of space, which gives insight into the perception of space as well. In a space where image crafting is essential, people are careful about the language they use and do not use to make sure they express their identities just right. This is also aided by the accessibility that mobile phones provide. Content Analysis is being used to draw finding regarding the youth language on Instagram platform in the UAE. hundredsInstagram comments will be analyzed in order to view the use of language by Youth while using simple random sampling technique.

1.0  Literature review:

1.1 Trait model for linguistic behavior:

In a paper,Kulkarni, & Kern(2018), developed a trait model for linguistic behavior on social media. Given the expanse of data present within social media, they decided to forgo questionnaires and directly collect this data to avoid systematic response biases. In line with trait theory, they developed what they called behavior based linguistic traits that they infer by analyzing the plethora of words and phrases used by social media users. They developed five factors that capture real personality traits and this study aimed to see if these factors are stable across time and subpopulations and generalizable with good predictive power (Kim &Phua, 2020 p.12). Their dataset was also skewed towards the youth with the average age being 25.49 years. They concluded that the factors that they established were indeed generalizable and stable. This proved to be a significant step towards research into inferring personality characteristics online (Kulkarni. 2018)Schwartz Park in an article discusses the use of social media language for automatic personality assessment. In the study they assess personality using open vocabulary analysis of language from 66,732 accounts of Facebook. As per the findings, assessment based on language can aid immensely in constituting the personality measures. It can also aid in assessing the mental/ psychological traits of associated with rich portraits.(Park, 2015)

1.2 Language identification technology:

In a study by(Shekhar, Sharma &Sufyan Beg, 2019) the researchers have tried developing a system using Artificial Intelligence to identify language used on social media. The authors focus on English and Hindi, acknowledging that the language used lately on social media is a mix of both languages, that they call Code-mixed text. Online Hindi is written using the English alphabet and often English and Hindi are mixed together in the same sentence. Since there are no established spelling rules for Hindi when it is written in English script, given that people write them as they are pronounced and some pronounce them differently than others, this process is tricky because words become difficult to identify(Shashi, 2019 p.2).

Souvick Ghosh in an article discusses Sentiment analysis is the (NLP) task managing discovery and order of in text sentiments. While a few assignments manage distinguishing the element of in text sentiments, others target to decide the extremity of the text classifying it as neutral positive, and negative. Sentiment analysis tasks intends to decide the subjects, the objectives and the extremity or valence of the conclusion. In their work, they attempt to naturally extricate feelings (positive or negative) from Facebook posts utilizing a machine learning approach (Ghosh, 2017).  In another study, Instagram influence about brands and campaigns was targeted and influence of advertisement was estimated (Kim &Phua, 2020, p. 12).

1.3 Emojis and their role in relaying emotions:

In “Psyco-emotional Impact of Social Media Emoji’s (Zareen, N., Kareem, N., Khan, U., 2016)the researchers carried out a questionnaire regarding the psychological importance of emoji’s. Ninety-seven people from different workplaces and educational institutions in Rawalpindi and Islamabad in Pakistan filled out the questionnaire. An almost equal number of males and an equal number of females took part in the survey. The results showed that ninety percent of the participants considered messages containing emoji’s more meaningful than ones that did not contain emojis. 42% considered emoji’s a strong indicator of emotional expression. They concluded that, given their importance, the use of emojis can cause stress and psychological trauma (p.7).  They also noted that there was a difference in response rate across age groups and gender regarding the emotional impact of emojis and their effectiveness in emotional expression(Zareen, 2016).

Socialmedia needs a marketingrhetoric that grasps rising language use and the growing communicationnorms(Bookman & Hall, 2019 p.4). The Emoji’shave become major components of communication on socialmedia; yet, their job in supporting attempts of persuasion have not been analyzed efficiently. Based on general rhetoric, this study dismembers, depicts and names influencers on socialmediato initiateengagementthrough emoji’s whereposts from 600 Weibomade by 200 influencers were gathered to build up a scientific classification of emoticons.(Ge, 2018).

1.4 Linguistic diversity and determining authenticity:

Sender Dovchin explores the linguistic diversity in the linguistic practices online of Mongolian students in university.  He takes into account the socio-cultural, historical and ideological meanings behind the use of language in interactions online as well. The paper explores two main questions. One looks into the extent of these Mongolian students integrating varied lingua-cultural resources in their social media interactions (p.24). The second question explores the meaning of linguistic authenticity as perceived by these young people. He drew on sets of data taken from Facebook. His findings provide understanding into the co-existence of numerous authenticities within the increasingly globalized social sphere(Dovchin, 2015).Bookman & Hall (2019) in a study explained the impact of Instagram that has highlighted significance of brand under youth and involvement in gaining knowledge.  Ingrid Piller, in an article discusses the element of social inclusion in neoliberal markets. The agenda of social inclusion has been widely adopted and the policies of social inclusion are blinded bythe ways in whichmediation of social inclusion is made via language ideologies in societies that are linguistically diverse. As per the findings, it has a major impact on the policies of the social medium being chosen. (Piller, 2011)

1.5 Identifying regional dialects:

Jacob Eisenstein, in Identifying regional dialects in online social media (2014), looks at how social media language is influenced by region. The study explores how geography might impact social media language and how it is related to the spoken language of the geographical location and the long-term implications of this variation. His dataset consisted of Tweets containing GPS metadata from the United States of America, taking into account demographic variance. His research showed how language trends in social media change over time and how they vary regionally. He looked at various abbreviations that are used online and how their usage varies across different areas. His study also shed light on how certain dialects have begun to spread beyond their original region of use because of how people from different people, used to different modes of communication start coming into contact with them online. These trends are explored over the years (Eisenstein, 2014 p.8).

YuanHuang in an article discusses the US regional linguistic variation in twitter alongside the analysis of data. It understands the US regional linguistic variation by data analysis. The tagged tweets were analyzed to understand, what are the variations in the language used across the US and as per the regionalization results linguistic variations were found in in the U.S. The discovered regions not only confirm past research findings in the literature but also provide new insights and a more detailed understanding of very recent linguistic patterns in the U.S.(Huang, 2016).

1.6 Social Media and Drama:

Kathleen P. Allen conducted a case study about Tweeting, Texting (2014) into the drama that can take place on social media.  Her case study focused on a mother and herteenage upper middle-class daughter who was at the center of the drama. Her study attempts to confirm if the kind of drama that takes place on social media conforms to the already existing definition of drama. This is confirmed in the case study. Furthermore, her work develops emerging themes and fill gaps within the current understanding of drama and its literature(Allen, 2014, p.2).

(O’Meara) 2019,highlighted the inclusion of dramatic conversation in order to make the conversation effective. The population was secondary school students of Australia. The technique used was regarding the development of digital pretext for the project. The approach generate the examination of the student’s in order to discover the understanding of mistaken identities. The twelfth night from Shakespeare was performed in the classes.

1.7 Language practices based on platforms:

Every social platform has a different way of communication, and that leads to having a different style of language(Soukup, 2000, p.410). For example, Tweeter has allowed users to create status and tweets that include a maximum of 140 characters, so the public does not have a massive space to express or to convey what they want to say clearly. Otherwise, Facebook, which permits people to uses approximately 60,000 characters that mean Facebook’s statuses exceed twitter over 430 times the amount of content.  However, Twitter’s audience more likely to use the shortened style of language to fit their social platform requirement. Compared to Facebook, which does not border its characters as it is difficult to reach up to number 60,000. Most often, users on Facebook do not shorten their expression and words as much as Twitter’s users do(Aeid, 2015).

Alexandra Georgakopoulou, in an article discusses YouTube being a major source of using internet and leading as the top video sharing website, where people from around the world share their video content and over the years, it has evolved as a major source and medium of information sharing. The title and description of the videos alongside thee hashtags are relevant in helping spread the website and content. Using the right words leads to be in the top searches. (Georgakopoulou, 2015)

1.8 Generational gap in communication:

A study conducted by the BBC regarding social media contribution in reducing the level of Arabic language between youth. They say that most of young create a circle linguistic consider as a boundary which does not allow other generations to understand what they mean. Probably, this case is spread between university students that creates thousands of words which only being understandable with them. Furthermore, this study illustrated main reason of why youth abandon their mother language. Some writers and thinkers use a contemporary language, but it is full of ambiguity or vocabulary that is difficult to understand its context at times. At the same time, it brings a book to the difficulty of the task for young people through the use of old and challenging vocabulary and structures that may contribute to alienating youth from classical, and choosing to refrain from reading(Khateeb, 2019).

In the United Arab Emirates, many youth groups see that this contemporary youthful language call “Arabizi”, which mean the mixture between Arabic and English, became a necessity imposed by the dimensions of technology. Moreover, its effects multiplied with the identity crisis in our Arabic societies, making us between a crossroads(Mousa, 2012).

2.0 Theoretical Framework

New Media theory refers to the conceptualization and understanding of digital culture and mediums that are computational in nature. From search engines to video & picture sharing websites, the new media theory helps understand the content and what each image, sign, symbol etc. mean. (Kim &Phua, 2020, p. 15).

The Emoji’s. Comments, tone of the comments, hence each and every element in the study is linked with this theory.

Through the lens of new media theory a content analysis of the posts made by a set of people who use Instagram in the UAE will be analyzed in this study.The new media has introduced the participatory culture where users become a part of the story and directly comment.  Each Post creates its own mythology and shapes the mind of the viewer(O’Meara, 2019, p. 21). Like said, social media Emoji’s have psychological impact on the viewer. One major question that this research plans to address is how much of a role do theseusers deliberately let language play in the crafting of their online personas and theaesthetics of their Instagram profiles.

New media theory will aid in analyzing that how they use certain phrases, abbreviations,etc. to come off a certain way and maintain consistency with a certain aesthetic? This theory describes about digital technologies and sophisticated configuration regarding digital culture. New media is about digital platform that contains information and the theory is organized on socio-political principles (Jeknic, 2014, p.180). Further, how do they feel the language is a significant contributor to maintaining and enhancing their chosen aesthetic? New media theory will also aid in that this research aims to look at the relation between the Instagramusers’ online personas and their real lives and, most importantly, the relationship betweenthe language they use online and the language they use offline. It will aim to establishwhether the online images and impressions are crafted to provide users with an alter egoof themselves – to escape their real lives in a way – or whether it serves to enhance andfacilitate their present selves (Soukup, 2000, p 410).

3.0 Research Questions and Research Methodology:

This research aims to look at what young people in the age (18-25) who use Instagram think of the kind of language they use online for their posts. Instagram accounts usually are deliberately crafted around certain themes or aesthetics. Following are the research questions this study aims to address:

  1. What are the common languages used by youth on Instagram in UAE?
  2. How Instagram raises linguistic trend among youth language in UAE?
  3. How emojis contribute to the meaning message by youth language on Instagram?

The methodology of this research will involve content analysis of the posts made by a set of people who use Instagram in the UAE. The content on their Instagram profiles will be analyzed and they will be categorized into Personas. The frequency of certain words and phrases will be recorded. New Media Theory will be applied as well to see how many different mediums are being used by the participants and how their outreach is affected by new mediums and where the things influencing them come from and how.

The participants will be grouped into Personas and then into the broader communities. Their interactions with different communities and people with different personas will be analyzed to answers.

4.0 Content Analysis:

4.1 Case Background

The case is featuring the comments of the students of University of Sharjah and Higher College technology official Instagram account. There are hundreds of comments regarding distance learning because of coronavirus issue was evaluated on the basis of which the results were drawn. Simple random sampling technique was used in order to conduct the study and on the basis of its findings with regard to the research questions a conclusion will be addressed.

The profiles of the youth will be chosen what are the common language is used by youth on Instagram in UAE. How are they using languages like Arabic, English, Arabize.  In order to figure it out hundredInstagram accounts will be evaluated with the text written and we’ll conclude our result based on these accounts and the comments sample. We studied the different comments, almost every student was worried about the distant learning strategy. Students who are not friendly with the technology were confused of online classes and exams because they prefer to attend classes in person. We experienced different emotions in comments by the students, they seemed to be furious against the decision of this distant learning and online exams. In this pandemic, where people are already psychological disturbed, students are more concerned about their studying techniques and they didn’t find themselves ready to accept this distant learning idea.  We will evaluate the comments posted on these specific posts & the responses gathered in terms of their post likes.

 4.2 sampling

We chose the qualitative content analysis in our study to analyze the youth language on social media. Besides, official Instagram accounts of Higher Colleges of Technology and the University of Sharjah in terms of the new decisions and regulations regarding distance learning and the new grading system. The number of student’s comments on these posts in both universities has increased. However, it was easy to collect a diversity of student’s impressions and assess their uses language on social media.

According to the official Instagram account of Higher Colleges of Technology. Occasionally, they are uploading posts concerning new politics and regulations, which consider as controversial news between college students. In light of the Coronavirus crisis, HCT established new decisions that led to attracting a considerable number of student’s participation. Besides the comments, we will observe the diversity of feedbacks and opinions between agreeing and disagree, and each student has an individual style of linguistic replying to that post. Nevertheless, we have chosen the post that uploaded on the 7th of April 2020 via the HCT account as it gains approximately 717 comments.

On the other hand, UOS has announced the continuous of using its distance learning technology on its official Instagram account on the 30th of March 2020 because of spreading Coronavirus. However, more than 100 students put comments and opinions regards this new decision whether to accept or reject. Usually, university students have using many linguistic styles to express their views.

4.3 Coding

Four main linguistic styles show similar in both accounts, which means the linguistic style of HCT students is identical to UOS students. Usually, the students whether in HCT or UOS, are using professional Arabic, UAE local linguistic, English, and Emojis linguistic. Besides the new decisions issued in both universities regarding continuous distance learning technology and the new grading system. There are a lot of complaints that came from students of these universities, so it was easy to observe their linguistic culture.

4.3.1 Emojis and symbols:

In this case of the university, students have shown their interaction and involvement by using emojis. We observed the repetitive of using similar emojis when they want to express their emotions. Using a happy face, clapping hands, Dancing, and hearts Emojis, all of them consider as an indication of approval. On the other hand, the crying, and angry emojis reflects that students disagree and did not accept the new regulations and decisions. Comparing between HCT and UOS Instagram accounts, we noted that there is a similarity of using Emojis types.

For example, every post, especially that regards to new decisions and regulations; we observe that students depend on similar Emojis. Sometimes they do a combination between comments and symbols, as they consider the Emojis as support to their opinions and expressions. However, the study selected two subjects, one from UOS and the other from HCT, both of them are talking about social learning distance and new grading system policies. We found that students used repetitive Emojis in both universities, such as hearts, happy faces, and clumping for accepting the new regulations and policies. Otherwise, some students in the same posts show the rejection and unaccepted that decisions, so they left the most common Emojis like breaking hearts, angry face, and crying emoji.

Figure 1 and 2 will clarify how the students using the Emojis to express their acceptance between two universities. Also, it shows the similarity of Emojis that have used by students:



Figure2: represents UOS
Figure1: HCT



The current research study shows the involvement of students with the decisions of university authority. According to the objective of this study, comments and emojis are important to understand the nature of decision and response. Comments discuss the common language used by students on Instagram and prevailing trends.Some students show liking and some disliking, based on the fact that coronavirus needs to adopt distance learning approach, it was not appreciated by many. Each social platform specially Instagram uses its own kind of language and emojis as sufficient communication. The study has identified regional dialects that are popular on Instagram because every region is common to use prevalent language with minimal variations.In comments, students’ best explain the expression they can.For example, students commented, ‘how classes can be stopped’, or ‘online learning is no easier’ etc. besides, this part will introduce the comments that have used via students in the posts that shared by UOS and HCT regards the news politics and decisions

  • Complaints and Criticisms

Many students see Instagram as a way of sending complaints, suggestions, and public discussions.  For instance, both universities have students do not communicate with management directly; they are sharing their problems on Instagram and publicly. Although the management of both universities replies to their complaints, still they insisting on creating controversially. For example, some comments were about the new policies of the final exam it shows the students are afraid. The common comment was, ” how will we deal with the online final exam?”. However, both of these universities students show the same expressions about the new policies.











  • Mockery and Irony

The purpose of irony in literature is to stop the audience and let them think about what they are doing. In this way, a criticism mockery is developed to achieve the objective. The objective of study is to find out the impact of youth language through Instagram while social media is a common way to estimate the way by which students behave. It is common among youth and students have shown their decisions in this way. For example, the comments included spoof words regards social distance learning and about their student’s life, and they are missing the parking traffic and university’s crowded.It is a common part of new media that aims at opinion meaning or shows sentiments.On the other hand, there are some students lifting comedian and irony comments on both universities’ decisions. Also, some students thanks to Corona Virus, because it let the universities to cancel the classes and attendance.

Figure5: represents comedian comments


  • Students discussions:

Also, Instagram allows the interaction of individuals through sharing, sending, posting, and uploading statuses. Students of these universities like and enjoy social media because of its trend in UAE. The common posts used for this paper are two posts from official Instagram accounts of Higher Colleges of Technology (HCT) and the University of Sharjah (UOS). Students commented on these posts and reflected their expressions.

For example, students in both universities, reply to each other under the posts regarding the new decisions. Although the universities were clarifying in-depth the details about the new regulations, some students still depend on their colleagues for discussions and questions. Another example, some students put predictable news and analysis the new decisions as they like, such as “they say that everybody will pass this course” or “the final exam will be difficult.” Sometimes the replies on one student’s comments reach to approximately 30.


Figure6: represents discussion comments on student’s reply

4.3.3 languages:

Also, there are a group of students left comments that clarify the reasons for acceptance or rejection of the new decisions. Besides the feedback, we noticed that UOS and HCT students using English, original Arabic, and UAE local linguistic to reply to the posts.for example, it is found out that language practice differs in Arab, Emirati, and international students, specifically at the University of Sharjah. The inference is drawn from the experiment to discuss an element of diversity due to multiple nationalities in this sample. The findings suggest that specialization has a significant role in determining language, such as Arab specializations that have shown students who were inclined to the Arabic writers.

The English language is found as a primary mode of communication because international students with majors preferred the English language. In Higher College of Technology, Emirati language is preferred by Emirati nationality holders, while the English language is also preferred because it is a primary language by college teachers.  There are three main linguistics elements that used by both university students which consists of:


  • UAE local Dialect:

We observed that local students preferred using the local language to express their opinions and feelings according to the new decisions and regulations that changed based on the Covid-19 crisis. There are a lot of comments that lifted by Emirates students, whether complaints or suggestions. Comparing UOS and HCT, we saw that HCT has students using the local language as all of them are citizens. on the other hand, UOS has a mixture of nationalities which shows some different local languages Egyptian.

Figure8: represents HCT language
Figure7: represents HCT language



  • Original Arabic Dialect:

Both universities have students who are depending on original Arabic for many reasons. When they communicate or sending questions to the university, they are using the Arabic language because it will become official participation. Another example, UOS consider as an umbrella of civilizations, so they using Arabic as an understandable way of communicating. Besides new decisions, many students lift a significant Arabic sentence to express if they accept or reject it. most probably they are writing and show more when they disagree as it considers the best method to suggest or sending opinions.

Figure9: represents original Arabic language




  • English Language

The English Language considers as the second primary language in UAE and, it is an essential language in most of the universities. According to UOS and HCT, when they posted about new rules and policies. Some students participated in English, especially foreigners. Both universities are teaching English, so usually, their students will depend on the English language, whether in classes or on social media. Moreover, there are many UAE citizens, and from the Arab region who is witting an English. Also, they are using this language to communicate with their universities or friends.

Figure10 & 11: represents English language by HCT students




5.0 Discussion and Conclusion

The issue of distance learning due to Covid-19 is discussed in this paper, under hundreds of comments by students of official Instagram accounts of the University of Sharjah and Higher College Technology. A random sampling technique is used to know results. After studying different comments, the use of emojis, and texts were written by students, and perception is examined. The content analysis provided a grading system, diversity of feedback, and their opinion about agree and disagree. This structure is analyzed under the linguistic style because it was most familiar with students to show their expression.

Research findings are drawn on theoretical framework under significant terms. Trait model for linguistic behavior analyzes the plethora of words and phrases used by social media. The Language identification technology like Artificial Intelligence Code-mixed text are important to understand the comments. In addition, emojis put psyco-emotional impact on behavior and expression. Emoji is also used frequently because it takes less time and effort to show the likeness. Linguistic diversity represents ideological meanings. It is clear from the study that diversity of language is common among students. The regionalization results linguistic variations such as different dialects.

The current research study discussed the impact of youth language on Instagram with specific reference to the UAE. Common words, phrases, emojis and symbols are popular with youth on social media. Through emojis, a higher proportion of the student’s reflected that they agree and disagree. Research has used different languages common with youth that they frequently used on Instagram.New media theory has added in this research by looking at the relation between the Instagram users’ online personas and their real lives and, most importantly, the relationship between the language they use online and the language they use offline.In UAE, different youth groups are engaged in youthful language, English, Arabic, and Arabize, a mixture of both English and Arabic. Research study has answered the research questions that English, Arabic and using emojis are the common languages used by youth in UAE for Instagram.Arabize is a combination of two languages, and none of such language was acquired that represent dual characters, so it is preferable to say it is an ancient language.

Also, the paper answered how emojis contribute to the delivery of the messageand youth using it. The situation presents that young people need a quick solution, so they preferred quick response through a short emoji expression. Current study has added value to existing literature by focusing on the linguistic behaviors and structural significance through prevailing social media methods.Instagram also raises the linguistic trend on them by using special comments, discussing the case and posts between each other, and taking answers by comments and replying.Content analysis has illustrated the scope of language and students’ perception due to social media and how effectively they describe.

6.0 Bibliography


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Influencer marketing has become a leading strategy of advertising online today. Social media is playing an integral role in promoting brand name, image and recognition to name a few. Five to ten years ago, watch brands were following traditional marketing approaches, like use of advertisement through TV, magazines, brochures and pamphlets. With the advent of internet and advanced social media applications, watch brandsthat have taken advantage of this have seena spike in growth. The objective of study investigates that how watch brands have been using influencer marketing on Instagram to dominate the watch market in the past 5 years.The most popular influencer marketing application is Instagram. Celebrities and influencers are core parts of influencer marketing so they approach followers and make fan following for a brand.

Current research study identifies key dimensions of influencer marketing that play significant role for watch brands. Research study has used qualitative method to find significance of watch brands under influencer marketing, for this purpose, some case studies are used, such as, Daniel Wellington, 5th Watches, and Movement Watches. The research has inferred that influencer marketing in terms of better targeting, advertisement and technology has helped watch brands perform excellent in industry. Current study has clarified past myths about traditional marketing by using real life examples from watch industry. Influence of marketing is measured in terms of segmentation and buyers’ decisions. The research proved significance of influencer marketing and how this strategy has helped in boosting the growth patterns of products in the watch space in the past few years. Social media influencing strategy is superior to traditional marketing strategy in terms of targeting customers and boosting growth of hot trends.


Chapter1- Introduction, Background, Objectives

Watch industry is a popular segment of economy and famous brands are focusing on social media channels to influence its marketing (Martikainen, and Pitkänen, 2019). Instagram is one of these social media channelsthat has used its enormous pool of users to accelerate the sales of brand. Influencer marketing is a key marketing practice to reach followers through targeted messages. Social media channels primarilysuch as Facebook and Instagram use this marketing approach to capture people with opinion(Kim and Ko, 2012).

Marketing was introduced in 1954, Whyte used this term to explain how people talk about different products and services. This term explains the product preferences and similar purchase behavior. The word of mouth is integral to explain the behavior of consumer, their interests, and reshaping of attitude and values (Alaimo, K., 2017). It means that trust on informal communication by consumers is increasing while making a purchase.

1.1 Background

Social media trend is accompanied by marketing strategies to influence customers. Influencers are strong unions that is made up of alike minded consumers in social networking platforms (Ge and Gretzel, 2018).Marketing approaches are developed due to expansion of internet and digital media. For instance, today, on social media, such as Instagram, the discussion forums, posted views and instant messaging is common. Due to the changed scope of marketing, the concepts and strategies have accommodated people’s preferences(Anderson, S. and Neville, 2019). The word of mouth has been evolved into electronic for that helps reshaping purchase decisions of consumers. These influencers work through interaction and value. The common factors behind influence are loyalty, notable stature, size of audience and the authority in a community.

1.2 Significance of study

Social media influencer is an independent third party follower that can shape individual’s thinking and perception through tweets, blogs and vlogs (Kim and Ko, 2012).Independent actors are significant to shape the attitude of audience with the coexistence in social media. Influencers offer novel information and persuasive capabilities to develop brand information.

1.3 Scope of research

A kind of social media marketing that engages product advertisement from influencers, i.e. the individuals who are dedicated consumers and provide expert opinion about their niche. Influencer marketing works due to a large number of trusted influencers who recommend others about a product by providing social proof. Instagram is a similar type of social media that is targeting people, started in 2014, and provides a featured page that constitute successful products (Ge and Gretzel, 2018). The expansion of social media has given rise to education, knowledge and product awareness to people so a new trend of influencer marketing is established. Today, social media campaigns are used by famous brands like Starbucks, Microsoft, Virgin America, and Rolex (Approach, M., 2020).

Figure 1 Journey of Influencer Marketing

Use of social media marketing campaigns under influencers is motivated people to learn about this trend and get involved. This study is a motivation about this trend that has intended to explore this scope within watch industry. The study will discuss influencer marketing used by watch brands, its scope and strengths & weaknesses in same market. This section will further analyze influencer and traditional marketing in watch industry.

1.4 Aims and Objectives

This research study intends to investigate that how watch brands have been using influencer marketing on Instagram to dominate the watch market in the past 5 years?

Sub-objectives are to:

  • explorestrengths of influencer marketing
  • examineweaknesses of traditional marketing
  • describe social media channels, influence of marketing and digital world
  • to find out impact of advertising

1.5 Research Questions

The research question of this study is how the use of influencer marketing in the watch market, and why so many brands have been using influencer marketing in the past 5 years.

1.6 Project structure

The study is organized in following manner. The first section is introduction that will detail about influencer marketing, its scope and implications in the watch industry. The second section will discuss theoretical framework, including that how multi-million dollar brands can be built upon using influencer marketing on social media. The third section will be review of literature, mainly constituting research design. The fourth section will discuss different business models applicable in today’s world of marketing. The last section is about recommendations and conclusion.

Chapter 2- Literature Review

2.1 Use of Influencer Marketing by brands

Today, multiple brands are using influencer marketing, as a digital and innovative tool to attract audience and build their perception. The framework of influence is developed on three main pillars that is playing significant role to assess the effect. These pillars are relevance, reach and resonance. The resonance is a measurement of the interaction level or duration that surrounds a topic, content and the conversation (Silvia, 2019). The higher the resonance means more people are involved. The relevance is the graph of interest or the focus of the community that is reflected from individual behavior, in form of linked relationships where information is spread. The measure of affinity, popularity or potential impact is reach (Backaler, J., 2018).

Influencers are people, who develop interest of the audience into a product or service. The advertisement medium is changing and people are now focusing more on social platforms to approach celebrities. This process is also helpful to get customers involvedand make marketing campaigns. Brands focus on influencer marketing to outstrip the other kinds of marketing (Martikainen, and Pitkänen, 2019).

Figure 2 Cost of Influencer Marketing

Instagram is a social media platform and has gained millions of followers in short span oftime, it is used by brands to do influencer marketing. This photo sharing application is being used as a larger influencermarketing platform to accelerate product recognition and enhance brand value. Brands always focus on consumers’ wants and needs so a brand image is significant to build direct relationship of product and people (Backaler, J., 2018). It raises direct voice of influencer and tend to establish it on different social media outlets. Influencer marketing goals are to build reputation of brand and help individuals to stay aware of different activities, thus soliciting individuals’ feedback.

The success of social media influencers in the watch industry has taken a boom, due to engagement of millions of consumers by targeting their needs and preferences. The watch industry is versatile and it has generated huge sales by implementing latest technology tactics with the help of influencer marketing(Ge and Gretzel, 2018).Watch brands use this marketing approach to increase their connection with the customers and to retain them for the long term, this is because they can build a direct relationship with their customers via influencer marketing on Instagram. Literary studies have addressed the question of this paper and the findings are significant to answer objectives.The objectives and purpose of this research projects are fulfilled by incorporating relevant research studies and synthesizing their evidences. Studies discussed that more brands are engaging social media marketing and influencers to accelerate their sales (Brown, D. and Hayes, N., 2008). These brands use influencer marketing to engage audience and to build level of trust because this trust makes consumers take action and show their preferences. They also use marketing to target audiences because it is a way to ignite people to show their favorite product or services (Chevalier, J. and Mayzlin, D., 2003).Main notion of study is to target current marketing strategy which has been answered by literature evidences.

2.2. Strengths and Weaknesses of Influencer Marketing in the Watch Market

Research has shown that influencer marketing is expanding rapidly after 2017 but from 2018 it has become game changer. It is social media-related marketing in which a company, or organization launches its brand or commodity by using social media channels. In Influencer marketing, brands approachpeople who have many followers. Such individuals are called influencers. Influencer marketing is successful in thewatch market and it has been proven to be successful by many brands big and small new and classic brands (Fries, P.J., 2019). The core strengths are trust building, authority, effective reach to the audience and driving of purchase decisions. Due to influencer marketing, customers show their preferences andattract towards watch brands. It also emphasize that influencers are the trend setters for future(Cleave et al., 2016).

Due to influencer marketing, long term relationships of brandis built with audience.The trust building notion applies to each watch brand because it works on strengthening customer relationship. The efficacy to reach target audience is significantly analyzed from the watch brands and its scope. Recent influence of social marketing has stressed the access to generation Z and millennial. Numerous brands invest their capital on the influencer market to promote their brand (Harvey, P., 1998). This campaign is worth the effort in return and shows its incredible results. The influencer provides beneficial brands to followers and the brand gets 60 to 70 % return on investment. Moreover, it provides a sustainable method to build brand awareness, increases conversions, and demonstrative authority to brand.

Figure 3 Benefits of Influencers

The strengthsof influencer marketing are many. It helps to build trust and show authority.When a celebrity or a social media personality shares content for a brand, it creates trust. It provides brand awareness and brand reputation. The brand gets immense reach due to the reach of the influencer and therefore an increase in brand awareness. Influencer sets the trends,everyfollower follows their favorite influencer (Held, F., 2018). Hence, Influencers are responsible for setting trends.User generated contentis important strength. UCG is a key theme in brands like Daniel Wellington, Movement watches and the 5th Watches, and many brands today use influencer marketing to generate UCG because it shows their content as authentic but it also saves them money because their getting free content from influencers.

Ted Baker London and Kenneth Cole are leading brands in watch industry and they have targeted consumers all over the world. Geneva engages social media and uses influencer marketing (Martikainen, and Pitkänen, 2019).For example, Instagram is usingpaid partnershipthat drives brand value. The brand drive is positive for companies that engage influencer marketing and it generates brand awareness (Lerrthaitrakul, W. and Panjakajornsak, V., 2014).This is the core strength of influencer marketing for watch brands that it helpsgetting immense reach and better visibility.

There are also some weaknesses of the influencer marketing for brands.One of the biggest issues with influencer marketing occurs when the wrong influencers are chosen. Many studies describes that identifying right influencers for watch campaigns is significant to drive the sales (Liu, T.-C. and Wu, L.-W., 2009). Although it can take a lot of time and cost a lot money, finding the right influencer is critical for an influencer marketing campaign. Another weakness can be uncertainty of results(Silvia, 2019). If an influencer is hired to promote brand but they fail to produce goodcontent for the brand, this will not help sales because the content will not be engaging enough for their followers.Another drawback to influencer marketing is that some influencers are not really passionate about the brands they work with, and sometimes only work with brands to get paid and people can see through this and it can damage brand reputation, so its really important brands pay attention and only work with influencers that are passionate about their product. Social media channels are significant to accelerate business growth with the help oftargeted audience, its weakness is a defined segmentthat has not shown interest in the product being marketed or poor interest that do not yield significant sales.

2.3 Influencer Marketing and Traditional Marketing in the Watch Industry

Influencer marketing is different from traditional marketing in many forms(Lommatzsch, T., 2018). For instance, influencer marketing captures all the related factors to compile a targeted audience while traditional marketing promotes a productin limited way, such as Swiss Watch industry has used traditional marketing methods in 2011. Today, social media channels are playing an integral role to capturetargeted audience for a brand. Modern marketing is producing fan basedaudience for a product that guarantees success.The end consumer is realized already in every interest and preferences.Influencer marketing has also made it easy to establish brands for new start-upsso required achievement can be guaranteed (Chaffey, Hemphill and Edmundson-Bird, 2018). Influencermarketing offers choice to the customers through assessable channels and to reachthe right medium for effective communication.

In traditional context, ads and banners work notoriously to make an achievement that can disrupt the experience, however, banner blindness prevails that can ignore different other ads (Cleave et al., 2016). It can rise the perception that consumers feel suspicious towards the credibility of an advertisement. Watch brands using traditional media practices such as Omega watch brand before 2015 was using convention methods of advertising, it recovered its market share slowly, when focused on modern marketing practices (Mouth, W., 2002).Traditional marketing in the form of print media, television and radio is only effective to market a product but limited to influence it. More niches are available and working under influencer marketing as compared to traditional.

Traditional marketing is all about old methods of advertisement in which brands were dependent on print media and customers wereinterrupted in their daily lives. The concept in influence marketing is different as it brings forefront of the influential world where people show their interest in the products. Watch brands are developing betterinterest of audience into their products which is carried out through different attractive ways.

Figure 4 How traditional marketing works?

Traditional marketing cannot target young people specifically for example, you cannot put a banner somewhere in the high street and expect to show it to only 18-25 year old males, whereas with influencer marketing you can work with an influencer who has followers in this age range with interests that align with the brands products (Mukerjee, K., 2020). Traditional marketing doesn’t offer the same tracking as influencer marketing does, for example when a watch brand works with an influencer they can provide the influencer with a coupon code specially made for them so when customers redeem the code the brand can then measure its results and see the ROI, whereas with traditional marketing a watch brand is hoping for results with no real way of measuring results.

2.4 Use Of Influencer Marketing By Watch Brands

Should watch brand use modern way of marketing, a common question that is answered as yes. Real life examples like Omega and Swiss watch brands have switched to modern marketing from traditional.Influencer marketing is a unique form, not new for all the brands but it is productive. To target young generation, genZ and millennials, the use of social media advertisement and marketing techniques are integral. The influential marketing should be used by watch brands to increase the fashion sense in audience as well as bring them productivity of time management. Targeting audience in the form of social media influential techniques will add value to the companies and also generate sales (Silvia, 2019).On Instagram, visual content, attractive advertisement and engaging communication allows audience to focus more on products and value brands. The field of marketing is versatile for watch brands because with the fashion sense, audience can approach watch brands.

Figure 5 Brands’ emphasis

Influential marketing is also suitable for watch brands to pursue. For instance, influencers can share their preferences to engage followers, and majority of Instagram users follow celebrities, so the revelation of brand value by celebrities will boost the brand value(Martikainen, and Pitkänen, 2019). Most users rely on Instagram due to its value and brand advertisement. This fact is productive and valuable for watch brands to target media lovers. In addition, Instagram is an effective way to promote trustworthy brand and its authenticity. The paid collaborations are also on the way to influence young people(Chaffey, Hemphill and Edmundson-Bird, 2018). These factors can add valuable experience for watch brands and deliver better performance.

Instagram is a social leader of brands and businesses(Adams, 2019). Multiple brands get benefit from Instagram, due to its outreach, business horizons are expanded, thus allowing customers expand their potential customers’ reach(Wilson and Anderson, 2019). Instagram is a popular platform that has more than 700 million active users per month. Influence of Instagram on brands has changed the whole marketing game. Influencers are accessible, unlike celebrities, so it make easy for brands to get in touch for collaborations. Multiple fashion brands have broken traditional barriers to expand their reach(Cresswell, 2019). Watch companies need specific advertisement to explore potential buyers. It involves window shopping, which is exciting.Advertisingthrough magazines, billboards and TV ads is common practice for watch brands.

YouTube, Instagram, Twitter, and Facebook pay for aproduct to use. Influencer compelsaudience to purchase. Facebook and Instagram send the post, twitter tweets, and YouTube features the video (Martikainen, and Pitkänen, 2019). Influencer marketing, an influencer that motivates the people to act or to influence the followers to contribute to the progress of the brand is called influencer marketing in the watch marketing.With the advent of internet, watch brands realized the advantage of going online. For instance, Twitter and Facebookemploy effective marketing strategies to advertise watches. Instagram is a picture and video social platform that makes effective yet different connections with people as compared to previously mentioned platforms(Wilson and Anderson, 2019). Instagram has potential marketers and millions of followers who observe their favorite products daily. This allows watch brands to come up with latest videos and eye-catching advertisingto influence people.Watch brands use liberal policies to engage followers and do customer conversion. The Instagram followers provide ease to watch brands, such as providing picture of particular watch, its model number, price and sometimes store location(Influencers, 2019).

Multiple Watch brands, like Rado, Daniel Willington and Tiffany are using modern marketing to sell the products. Influencer marketing is a potential practice to reach the influentialpersonality followers through targeted message. This marketing concept is about a solo person as an influencer, who posts pictures and have an opinion. According to aBlogtoWatch findings, influencer marketing is irresistible to watch brands. The watch industry holds a healthy relationship with advertising and marketing. The confident watch companiesproduce compelling messages about their brands and speak to customers. For example, a luxury watch brand Rado is successfully campaigning in China and India using celebrities.Targeting different Chinese is done by focusing their preferences because they are well aware of the product.The watch industry has been witnessed to have a fractured relation with advertising since it is a luxury industry. In this way, brands do not go to consumers but consumers come to brands, being high end brands(Reviews et al., 2019).

70% of teenage YouTube subscribers trusted a common social influencer and attracted to purchase the brand product (Martikainen, and Pitkänen, 2019). 51% of Marketers influencers depend on video content sources may be on Facebook or YouTube. In this strategy, marketers get the best (ROI) return on investment means the company receives instant feedback in the form of profit which they invest in influencers.  This platform provides a source to earn huge profit, for example, a company that invests1$ on to influence the product while earning 6.5$ (Silvia, S. 2019). It’s the latest source to maximize its profit for the marketers and expected rapid progress in this marketing process.A Sweden watch company Daniel Willington is using social influencers after 2011 to create social awareness. Light weight and ultra-thin design allow consumers to get in touch with social media influencers.

Influencer marketing has two types of influencers.

Celebrity Influencer

Well, familiar brands approach celebrities to influence their product.

Micro Influencer

Common persons involved in marketing terms who built their profiles and are known as social media personalities. They have excess in numbers of their followers. A company approaches these micro influencers to use their product and show it to their audience.

2.5 Price-Quality-Strategy Model

The price quality model helps companies to position their products with respect to market and their competitors. They consider price level and competition in this regard so strategy helps review competitors’ framework.

Figure 6 Price Quality Model

Currently, watch industry is searching for fresh eyes that act as a roadmap to reach audiences, who prefer modern watches. Brands rely on influencers to reach new population, so it is a good investment to get involved social media influencers. It is estimated that in 2020,influencer marketing is estimated to reach 10 billion dollars because more brands are harnessing the sponsored content to getprofit (Cresswell, N. 2019). The watch brand Daniel Wellington has built a social strategyby investing £15,000 to make noise about watches(Cresswell, 2019). This strategy is playing a leading role for the brand to acquire a leading brand status in Europe. The key steps of this process are, sending free watches to Instagram’smicroinfluencers, they post photos on social profile using hashtags, and influencers get a unique room code to offer discounts. This way brands are spurring social users to get involved in regular competition campaigns(Influencers, 2019).

Influencer marketing is rampant due to paid opinion and selling luxury goods. Social media demonstrates the unscrupulous marketing danger because it is an age when brands work on ambitions(Silvia, S. 2019). The most significant part of influencer marketing is to change the public relations, in order to manage stories. The watch makers are eager to show positive sentiment to stakeholders, thus focus on marketing avenues and advertising. Instagram is virtually unregulated place, where paid opinion matter(Reviews et al., 2019). This range of entities that work collectively and offer unlabeled marketing contentis referred as influencers. In the Swiss watch industry, luxury watch media is a common concept, and media today informs educated audience about high end timepieces by complicating the product categories(Wilson and Anderson, 2019). Digital media is a style influencer regarding watch industry because virtual friends share information about products and engage followers to know about luxury watches(Adams, 2019).


Chapter-3 Methodology/ Research Plan

This chapter will discuss the research methodology and design of this study. It will elaborate the kind of research chosen for this study that suits the method and research planning. Research plan is explained as under:

3.1 Research philosophy

The research philosophy used for this study is ontology epistemology. It is about the philosophy of research pursued in qualitative aspects. The research study focuses on ontology Epistemology in terms of reality for different entities. For instance, in this research study, qualitative aspects of watch brands will be discussed with specific attention to influencer marketing. This kind of philosophy explains about the reality categories of product. The explanation of valid knowledge under broader theories is discussed to explore the direction of research (Robertson, 2008). The ontology explains about the interpretation of a specific concepts, such as influencer marketing, that is used in current research study.

The epistemology discusses about valid knowledge in light of information that is accessible. The ontology elaborates about the reality and how it is easy to understand the existence. Current research study has usedinfluencer marketing approachfor the watch brands.It provides that in reality, the products exists that need effective marketing approach to target customers. This research approach will discuss the key techniques and methods used to conduct study. For instance, the strategy plan or design for this study is qualitative (Goertz & Mahoney, 2012). On the theoretical grounds, the philosophical stance will be explained.

3.2 Research approach

The research approach for current study is inductive approach. The inductive approach is inductive reasoning, in which research proceeds after getting some observation of theoretical data. In this research study, the inductive approach will be about getting in touch with an issue, which is influencer marketing for watch brands, and its impact will be seen through social media. It moves from a specific to a general issue, which is influencer marketing and its impact on watch brands. The deductive method of research is to get involved with the social theories and test it with data (Klauer & Phye, 2008). This kind of research moves from general to a specificissue. The current research study stands with the inductive approach because it will move from a specific to general issue.

3.3 Research methodology

The methodology of this research is qualitative and this approach is chosen to elaborate more on secondary sources, peer reviewed journal articles and academicresources. Qualitative research is a significantmethod for the research study in which meaning, concepts and description is carried out with the help of peer reviewed scholarly articles (Klauer & Phye, 2008). A theoretical framework makes the foundations of the qualitative research. This research study is qualitative and will provide in depth analysis and understanding of different theoretical concepts, on the basis of past studies. This kind of analysis is helpful to create openness and encourage people to expand their ideas and responses about different topics. Qualitative analysis add valuable information to research study and explains theoretical evidences.

3.5 Data collection

The data collection is from secondary sources. In the qualitative research studies, data is collected from past studies, documents and focus groups. This way, theoretical information will be gathered that will make it easy to find out central concepts. Secondary sources used for this study are coming from secondary sources, journal articles, case studies and academic research papers.

Secondary source provide a valuableanalysis of existing research studies because scholars have added their viewpoints and conducted empirical research on them (Goertz & Mahoney, 2012). These studies provide an insights about systematicevidences, key factors and validity of data.

3.6 Data analysis

Data analysis in qualitative research defines different theoretical models, foundations, description of terminologies and observations (Robertson, 2008). After discussing different research studies, and scholarly viewpoints, the data will be analyzed in consistent form to find out the answer to research question. Data analysis will give rise to specific theories and structure of data that is adequate to discuss influencer marketing approaches for watch brands.this paper is using qualitative approach in which case studies will be analyzed.

3.7 Reliability / validity

Validity and reliability of data is to find out the internal consistency of gathered evidence. It is a process that guarantees authenticity of data and that there are no loopholes and all the research evidences found are valid. The reliability of study focuses on its generalizability, for examples, research documents, past studies, empirical research, case studies, watch market reports and social media findings will be used to discuss this study. This data will show validity, if gathered documents are from reputable resources (Shaha, 2004).

3.8 Ethics consideration

Key ethical considerations will be focused while completing this research study. These ethical considerations are about integrity & honesty, carefulness while estimating data, openness while discussing, objectivity, and use of authentic & credible sources to gather valuable information (Klauer & Phye, 2008).

Chapter 4-Analysis and Findings

The qualitative study has an objective to discuss how watch brands have been using influencer marketing on Instagram to dominate the watch market in the past five years. The methodology has used some case studies to discuss the influence of marketing on watch brands. Some case studies used for this research are some latest brands like Daniel Wellington, 5th Watches, Movement Watches, etc. a comparison is made of these new brands with those that arise in the past 5-10 years under the influencer marketing approach. The process of using influencer marketing and traditional marketing for the analysis of watch brands is significant in understanding the role of marketing.

4.1 Data Analysis

With the help of case studies, the marketing aspect, and its significance for the watch industry is estimated. For this research, three case studies of watch brands are used. These case studies are Daniel Wellington, 5th Watches, and Movement Watches.

Daniel Wellington is a Swedish watchmaker, it has successfully worked on hundreds of influencer marketing campaigns and acquired a competitive position. It has adopted an influencer marketing strategy, rather than going for traditional marketing campaigns to increase its success ratio (Adams, 2019). Filip Tysander was inspired from a simple strap of Rolex watch (an Englishman was wearing), and wanted to setup own brand. At start, as seed capital, he invested $US15,000. From 2013 to 2015, brand reported 4700% growth rate. In 2014, they produced one million timepieces per year, in comparison to Rolex that took 111 years to attain this success (Anderson, S. and Neville, 2019).

The revenue of Daniel Wellington in 2015 was $220 million, and it used Instagrammers’ power to convert a $15000 worth company into a successful brand only in 4 years. In the fashion world, Daniel Wellington has strategically leveraged modern marketing approaches and user-generated content to convert it into a favorable identity and engage millions of consumers.  The approach of Daniel Wellington was to develop an attractive story to engage customers and later worked on the idea of classic backpack concepts like James Bond. The brand derived consumer’s action by working on coupons, hashtags, and using influencer created content. Instagram influencer’s actions and the hashtag campaign about this brand has generated more than 800K videos and photos.  The brand accountis grown from 850K to 2.1 million, the profit rate increased to 214% in only one year.

5th Watches is a leading watch brand in the industry and acquired phenomenal success due to modern marketing tactics. By focusing on strong brand aesthetics, 5th watches worked on a unique business model to sell products, and the social media presence enabled it to engage more and more people. Its influencers on Instagram have done an exceptional jobby creating content, sharing stories, images, and videos to promote brand values (Marketing, 2017). The good marketing tactics not only resonated with the brand value but also portrayed products in different lifestyles across the world. Fifth watches brand sells online with the help of travel influencers to spread the effect of travel and tourism and high profile bloggers to show different perspectives. The brand is famous on Instagram, and due to marketing campaigns, its influencers are massively engaged in bringing more customers (Kix, 2019).5th watches offer Ronda movement and these quartz watches are making good influence by using influence marketing. This global brand has put so much on marketing and influence that its development and distribution centers are spread worldwide. In no time, this brand has earned the trust and admiration of experts.

Movement Watches is another up and coming watch brand in the same price point as Daniel Wellington and 5th Watches that was founded in 2014. The scope of influencer marketing has increased the success of brands due to the usage of content and messaging. The brand campaign on an average hold 47,000 people as followers, and they created 73 posts. This specific campaign produced a potential reach of 3.4 million. This influencer campaign of movement watches provides the tendency of modern marketing with sponsored posts. In a case, Liza Herland, an influencer, invited its followers to get a custom code for a 10-15% discount on movement watch purchase. It is a common way to get track conversion rates. Movement watches have rationally used its influencers from different walks of life to discover a new selling path (Glucksman, 2017). The case study provides that marketing, in its essence, is a key criterion of engagement and understanding of different brands’ products and their quality. The marketing campaign by Movement watches has found to have a high level of engagement, so engaging more people and getting their likes is a success (Naas, R., 2018). This opportunity expanded and leveraged to huge influencers.

The structure of marketing campaigns by these watch brands provides insights to get more and more followers who are engaged with other people. The influencer campaign coordinators are of the view that fashion brands provide minimalist products at affordable prices. These watch brands are successful and running as hot brands in the watch industry, thus proving the significance of the latest marketing campaigns. The success of positioning and implementation of brand value illustrates the role of influencers approach and their level of targeting people (Satell, 2014). The coordination activities and effective communication transforms the value of traditional marketing. Most of the cases have provided that the ideal candidate for this campaign has a broader understanding of modern marketing tactics, so the passion for building networking and relationship matters (rschl, M. and Steinberg, L., 2017).

The watch industry has entered the realm of influencer marketing. These approaches are significantly linked with follower’s strategies, interests, and preferences. The active role of followers under a media marketing campaign provides the significance of understanding that they acquire from influencers.  These case studies yielded that influencers are engaged in supporting the partnership, building new and innovative relationships, and interactions. These elements work significantly in the realm of modern marketing since they collaborate with internal marketing efforts. In some cases, it is found out that content strategy works enormously, such as for Denial Willington. Influencer marketing is a key concept linked in the watch industry today because all the influencers are guided to get efficient customer acquisition and partnership by adapting core marketing principles. The role of interaction and power of communication matters most in these cases (Renard, D., 2013).

For watch brands, influencer marketing is critical to consider, and other significant aspects related to it are effective communication, understanding of fashion brand’s value, role-playing activities, and evolving environments. The social media wizard is a role-playing platform for the organized campaigns because it contributes in influencer marketing that serves as a long going network to bring more followers (Perspect, M., 2018). The case study knowledge and findings discussed the scope of marketing for the watch industry and currently prevailed trends (Kix, 2019). The findings suggest that internal marketing plays a crucial role in customer acquisition, making a central space and building & cultivating a relationship for the digital space. Moreover, it also elaborates that the core marketing principles are quite important to work for followers and be adept. The other values associated with this kind of marketing are highly organized, strategic scope, gregarious, and detail-oriented. Representation of a brand to large people needs knowledge of fashion, music gaming, and other niches’ knowledge to target more people and to attract them with their respective interests.

4.2 Watch Market in the past 5 years

The past five years show a glimpse of consumer transformation in decision making, particularly when considered in terms of consumer fashion. The realm of marketing has started influencing every sector and every industry (Vyatkina, O.L., 2020). This much fame and fashion-oriented products were not developed past years ago, but a focus was made on traditional approaches. From 2017-21, the aspect of modern marketing is considered to be a boom due to the role of influencer marketing, newly designed social media platforms, and to focus on consumer decision making power (Glucksman, 2017). Prior studies highlight that the boom in marketing is due to the aspirations of millennials. The manufacturing of designer watches needed a modern platform to showcase new tendencies and features of a modern product. Movado group bought Movement Watches in 2018and offered a strong expansion for millennial brand. This transaction holds an initial $100 million payment, and two payments of $100 million (Naas, R., 2018). This acquisition was for the best interest of millennial basebecause digital expansion has given MVMT access to the global networking (Perspect, M., 2018).All of this was not absent but primitive five years ago. Since 2015, the impact of horological products from all over the world was down. Some exporting countries of watches like Hong Kong faced a decline in unit terms and value from 2014 to 2016.

The decline in the watch industry was apparent at the global level, and it impacted the global economy (Zhou, W. and Duan, W., 2013). In addition, luxury watch market confronted a sluggish global economy, where Chinese demand was decreased. Switzerland experts reported that the peak falling trend in 2014 was due to traditional marketing approaches or price-conscious customers that derived price level down. Low and quartz watches also faced intensified competition a decade ago in China. Middle range watches faced abounding opportunities with good value and quality products, in accordance with fashion and personality. Since the early 80s, the weakest position for the watch industry was 2017. The timepiece industry confronted turmoil due to the collapse of several global economies. The watch market faced a two-year slump, and the dip in the sale was spared later with a number of factors.

The slump in the watch market was faced in most of the economies, yet industry executives remained optimistic for the high-end growth of the watch industry. It was a low-end market for the first six months of 2013; for instance, quartz watches volume declined by 6%, but mechanical watches faced growth in volume by 12% (Satell, 2014). The factor contributed to the level of price on average. The mechanical watches by that time period represented 77% of exports and 27% volume. In addition, mechanical watches were ten times expensive than quartz watches in 2012. From 2012-15, the market segmentation was carried out on these two types of products. The quartz segment was divided into digital and analog, while analog watches were a fashion symbol, and digital watches were popular in the emerging economies.

The marketing aspect was not broader, and the segmentation was carried out by specialist retailers, internet retailing, and departmental stores. The global watch market five years ago only considered innovative services and pricing strategies to acquire intense growth in the market. Only a few leading players rule the market on the basis of a portfolio, product differentiation, and pricing. To know the growth of a product, demand, and supply act as leading forces. Smart wearable watches faced an increase in demand due to product differentiation by major companies. The traditional watches were not fit for seamless connectivity and to work in this digitalized world. The innovation in digital watches in terms of health monitoring, personalized experience, and seamless connectivity allowed people to focus on some key connectivity features. Smart wearable watches acquire growth over the traditional watch market, so the potential growth was anticipated in the traditional watch market.

Smartwatches helped inculcate the wearing watch habits in young people. Online to offline strategy in e-commerce was a key factor developed after 2015. Offline purchases influenced the experience of consumers at various digital channels. Buyer behavior changes suggested that effective marketing strategies can be the potential to enter into cut-throat competition for the watch market. The effective sale was started determined by online marketing strategies (Glucksman, 2017). These feature-driven emerging technologies under specified functions, quality improvement, and environmental protection models. Watch companies’ developed new watchmaking technologies by including precision and new material to meet functional and aesthetic requirements, such as surface coatings. Consumers faced increased use of social media and marketing campaigns. The watch market started attracting the young generation to count as future potential customers, due to their interest in digital watches. Informed decision making and product features enable young consumers to be more aware of watch market dynamics.

4.3 Influence of Marketing in Watch Brands

In the last few years, social media marketing has played a major role in promoting watch brands. Smartwatches bolstered the environment of marketing by acting as the game-changer. Smartwatches created a division in watch specialist, which obviously has some positive and negative points. Due to the increased prevalence of social media platforms, such as Facebook, YouTube, Instagram, Twitter, and LinkedIn, people involved with products and brand companies (Watches, 2017). The increased involvement of people with these products allowed companies to cater to consumers’ feedback and views. Consumers rapidly made purchase decisions due to ease of using social media applications and better connectivity.

Consumers found it easy to get in touch with all the brands of their choices and get discounts and coupons. The product personalization, communication, and product designs offered substantial help to consumers to make choices and get flexible purchase. They faced more and better interactions with suppliers and product manufacturers by campaigns. The innovation of social media campaigns is an advanced aspect of traditional marketing that changed the entire game. Marketing got ease through mobile applications because it is always available whenever customer want and need.  The brand-customer relationship is driven through modern marketing campaigns. Facebook and Instagram are now marketing through advertisements to target customers. Only sending a message can help customers get their favorite products.

The brand-customer relationship on Instagram yielded transparency and allowed the business to flourish at an optimum level. The personalized data-driven marketing is friendlier today and has developed numerous ways for watch market. Brands keep targeting new and more targeted customers by segmentation and by targeting customers via their interests which is very easy to do via social media marketing because of the vast data points offered by social media platforms such as Instagram. Deloitte reported that 60 percent of customers today are using digital or online channels to make purchases and reveal their interests. Instagram is using key influencers to drive sales of watches with the help of unique content, photos, and videos. The influence of influencer marketing on the watch market is impeccable. It is unbeatable in a sensethat luxury watch industry foresees trends on social media to design its innovative campaigns.

4.4 Impact of traditional and the new age of marketing online

Traditional marketing is an old form of advertisement that encompasses engagement through radio, TV, and print media. The oldest form of marketing is replaced by digital marketing today due to the influence of social media. Old or traditional concepts are ancient in sending a message to customers, tracking their interests, and pursuing them to buy the product. Print, broadcast, telephone, and daily mail are some tools of traditional marketing that was used for marketing a product (Watches, 2017). Marketing messages through telephone marketing was also a common way that is changed in the modern age. Printed material such as brochures, postcards, and letters are replaced by social media applications where everything is digital and shown in an impressive way of 3D. Both forms are different in terms of engaging consumers and persuading them to buy since modern media utilizes effective approaches to transform decision making of consumers. The impact of traditional marketing is replaced with a modern style of marketing due to social media influencers.

There are positives and negatives for both traditional and modern marketing. For example, traditional marketing methods are good in terms of using newspapers, brochures, and email broadcasting. Traditional methods only worked for people connected to TV, radio and newspapers, they spread limited influence. These methods are beneficial for when working on a small scale but not accurate to measure customers’ demand and quantify potential people. The modern marketing has captured audience from every walk of life, such as multiple groups, communities, and ethnicities.  Modern marketing engages people through influencer marketing campaigns but disadvantageous in terms of sharp memory of the internet since it does not care for consumer privacy. The case studies have highlighted the potential of modern style of marketing and its benefits for watch market.

Chapter 5- Conclusion

The current research study discussed the influence ofinfluencer marketing on the watch market in the past five years. The research question of this study was how watch brands are using influencer marketing to dominate the industry in the past five years. The objective of this study was to investigate the social media channels and the role of influencer marketing in the digital world. The focus was maintained concerning advertising in the watch market and how watch brands have acquired a central position due to the influencer marketing approach. The focus of the study was to explore the nature of influencer marketing techniques employed by the watch brands. This study has answered the research question and fulfilled objective.Research indicated that influencer marketing has changed the brand influence over audience and their decision buying habits are changed. All the results found from this discussion are relevant to the objectives and research questions. Results of study are in consensus with (Kim, A. and Ko, E.2012), about brand awareness, (Glucksman, M., 2017) discussed about influencermarketingstrengths, (Silvia, S. 2019) social media effect on millennials, (Sadler, R. and Kyeremeh, E. 2016), brand influence that capture audience (Chaffey, D., Hemphill, T. and Edmundson-Bird, D. 2018) digital business perform stronger role to promote branding.

Today, this scope is increasing, and emerging brands in the past five years have becomethe hottest brands in the industry, such as Denial Willington, Movement watches. There is an underlying ideology related to the act of influencer endorsements. At the point when an industry expert or a social media performer or a celebrity shares any content regarding a brand, it creates immediate credibility of such brand or organization, understandable and straightforward. The plan is, if any organization can hire a genuine personality to recognize and notice its brand, it develops an opinion that the brand is a market leader and a reliable company, based on the sentiment and endorsement provided by the social media influencer. The acknowledgment is much progressively viable in niche marketing when an expert in your industry promotes your content. Credibility created right now considerably accelerates the period in which brands can establish and build up authority and trust with purchasers.

As discussed above, marketing by an influencer can expand your positioning and reach significantly in the online market. Social media users can get more information about your products, your history, and your services. Influencers can make a powerful contribution to brand recognition, which is one of the most significant benefits of social media marketing. To maximize the strategy of influence, it is essential to create an attractive and reliable content that enhances the social media appearance of the celebrity as well, to ensure the benefits for both the parties. Celebrities are mainly the motivation behind new movements or trends. They often propose new brands, ideas, and products, etc. Thus being noticed as a unique fashion style is one of many advantages of influencer promotion. Aligning the celebrity with the product, which moves the stick in the trend market, proves the consumers that the company is a leader in innovation in the circle.

The significance of this particular advantage cannot be overstated. Compatible personalities present the content to the specific social media users who are already following their profile. There are no additional costs required to find or test your audience, as the celebrity already acquired followers on social media for themselves. Furthermore, celebrities who promote your products increase sales. Users are looking to celebrities for advice more and more on which brands to buy. According to research, around 40 percent of people said that they purchase products or services after social media campaigns by celebrities. And these numbers are gradually increasing as eminence of social media has risen. All watch brands have one fundamental objective which is to increase its sales and brand equity. Influencer marketing can support in achieving both because it can expose the brand to its targeted audience in the millions.

The analysis conducted in this research study involved multiple branding activities and the use of their tactics to attract an audience. With the help of three pillars, reach, relevancy, and resonance, the audience is targeted, and a focus on products determines their level of interaction. The individual behavior towards influence made by the marketing approach is examined under theoretical evidence. Influencer marketing is a driver to get customers the latest updates and information about their favorite products. Research evidence made it clear that Instagram is a great social media application that has accelerated product recognition and enhanced brand value. The current study has addressed the key strengths and weaknesses of influencer marketing regarding watch brands. Currently, influencer marketing is a rapidly expanding strategy that has an enormous reach to the audience regarding consumer buying decisions.

The younger audience has no more interest in television because digital and social media is getting prominence day by day in the and more youthful generation has increasingly contributed and favored to its popularity. That is why celebrity marketing is now a mandatory source for reaching Gen Z’ers and Millennials.  It brings great value to the brands by attracting consumers through digital media marketing. By celebrity marketing, and access to prospective vision with the personalities is increased that they couldn’t reach as fast with the other marketing channels. Especially in this case where a celebrity, they use, has a good number of followers on social media or blog in the particular industry the client operates.

A recent study on social media marketing showed that 37 percent considered blogs are the best platforms for influential marketing. Facebook is second with 25 percent of social media marketing tools, followed by many other social platforms like Twitter, Instagram, and YouTube. There are different types of content used by celebrities that vary from your rational thinking as well. Fresh and unique content can attract more consumers’ attention and maybe get persons who turn out to be desensitized to the company’s message to show interest.

You may even find some new innovative ideas to use in the content for your blogs. A research done by Digital Luxury Group presents that 40% of Google search results for mechanical and branded watch comes from forums and blogs. Not to be surprised, blogger spread is a usual practice for many brands. TAG Heuer, Omega, IWC, Patek Philippe, and Vacheron Constantin use it more often and work in many different ways: from distribution of samples of brand content to visits of the manufacturing sites, invitations to heritage or VIP functions, and publicity to exclusive opportunities.

Conclusion is consistent with the analysis and it significantly addresses research objective and study. The current study has used evidence regarding the influence of social media for watch brands and how it has worked significantly to build brand trust and equity. The case studies used in this research highlighted the notion of influencer marketing that how this strategy helped boosting the growth patterns of products in only a few years. Social media influencing strategy by Kenneth Cole and Ted Baker are leading brands of watch industry that illustrated that Instagram is playing an instrumental role for companies to promote products.

5.1 Recommendations

For watch industry, influencer marketing is working significantly due to global customer base and it has engaged them through multiple styles of posting, videos, and sharing images.  It is recommended that the arrangement should procure a real character to perceive and see its image, as it builds up a supposition that the brand is a market head and a dependable organization, in light of the assessment and underwriting gave by the online influencer. It is also recommended that believability should be right and impressive to accelerate the period wherein brands can set up and develop authority and trust with buyers.It is seen when an industry master or an online life entertainer or a superstar shares any substance in regards to a brand, it makes quick validity of such brand or association, justifiable and clear. The affirmation should be logical in practical in specialty advertising when a specialist in your industry advances your substance.

Though few bloggers are genuinely impactful, less than one-third of digital bloggers are remained from a year to another, even as 90% of discussions and genuine impact in digital marketing are driven by only 3% of personalities. Multiple famous brands started the trend of hiring social media influencers, setting the marketing campaigns direction and their digital media accounts, and have begun to co-create the products. Maurice Lacroix stormed the social media channels of the biggest football fans around the globe by co-designing a special edition timepiece collection featuring FC Barcelona players and fans. This social media campaign was carried out by the Digital Luxury Group that created a lot of attention all over the world. Omega started to develop a new watch with the collaboration of Buzz Aldrin; Aldrin was one of the two astronauts from the ever 1st moon mission of 1969. They named it “Mars Watch.” Aldrin attended the Rio Olympics as part of the Omega family. He comprehensively promoted the brand on Twitter to his one million-plus followers.The journey to be the hottest watch brand today has ensured that influencer marketing was used as a pivotal approach to target people.

5.2 Limitations

Case studies of Daniel Wallington, 5th watches, and movement watch brands made it clear that how significantly these watch brand has acquired a central position in the watch industry only in five years. Thelimitations are the small number of case studies, use of qualitative analysis and the limitation to only watch industry to know the consumer buying decisions.The discussion of this study provides that theoretical evidence about modern styles of marketing and traditional marketing work differently to capture audience. The study has limitation about only focusing on the watch industry to know marketing game which has surpassed all the traditional marketing records by directly involving customers in visually attracting campaigns as well as advertising on billboards and magazines. This research study is significant in terms of explaining marketing activities, discussing key tactics to strengthen the customer base by influencer marketing, and the rapid expansion of watch brands.


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