There are four perspectives of scientific management that have been or are in practice across the globe. The Classical perspective, the humanistic perspective, the Management science perspective & the Contemporary Perspectives. Each aspect has its view, and these perspectives have evolved with reference to the current predicament in terms of needs and employee rights. This paper will identify why each perspective evolved and how this evolution contributed towards the evolving of management thinking regarding the employees.
The Classical Perspective of Scientific Management presented by Frederick Taylor contributed on how to improve the labor force in case of shortage of labor. Focusing on the production personnel is integral as it aids in maximizing efficiency at work. The reason for evolution of the management was to find the best possible solutions towards management science, and the methods changed as a result of the evolving needs of management. The contributions it gave to the management thinking are, it suggests to choose the most skilled workers that are the best fit for a job purely based on merit and capabilities. (Taylor, 1996)
The needs of every passing year lead to the further evolution of the system. Giving the workers a proper reward in return to their hard work was necessary, and that adding to that. This was integral as it affects the level of motivation of an employee to do their job with maximum dedication and precision. It also aided in enhancing their skills towards the career and excel.It contributed towardsemphasizing the need to manage accordingly in accordance with the rights of the laborers. They neither need to be overburdened with loads of work; no, do they need to be underpaid for their efforts for the business. (Taylor, 1996)
Max Weber created “bureaucracy” contributed towards the reasonable division of labor to ensure equal and adequate distribution of workload. Adding to that, the power system of hierarchical control was introduced to the system. The operation mechanism of handling affairs in accordance with regulations set was also necessary to be a part of this evolution as that bounds the firm not to violate the employee rights. Forming a formal decision-making document was made a part of it to ensure that the process is reasonable and legal personnel administration system is implemented that protect the employee rights. From an administration viewpoint, it was integral to focus on how managers coordinate and manage their activities within the organization that was made aids in making the system work in accordance with the rules and regulations set by law.
The Humanistic Perspective evolved with respect to the impact it had on the societies, businesses, and employee rights. This perspective is derived from the individuals as well as groups of organizations. Its contribution to the evolution of management thinking is the identification of the concerns that employee has. They have their issue with the management that they aim to communicate, and continuous measurement, as well as evaluation of the working conditions of the employees, can aid the managers in making long-term strategic decisions. (Murray, 2018)
This contributedtowards the overall thinking of management to be concerned regarding employee issues and play a role in solving them. Adding to that, the performance parameters for the workers was based on productivity. This perspective led the management thinking to emphasize building relationships between supervisors and workers. It aided them in learning their problems and help solve them in whichever capacity they can. In short, behavior analysis was made a part of the process to not only better understand the causes of the employee issues but to help them come out of those predicaments. (Murray, 2018)
It also contributed in categorizing the workers on Theory X and Theory Y basis. Theory X workers were Lazy. They lacked ambition and had no reason for it. The theory Y workers who are Innovative. These were the individuals that liked working and had self-control. Elements like motivation and Job satisfaction were introduced that are integral in keeping an employee’s performance. If an employee is not motivated or job satisfied, he/she won’t be able to perform well. These two words evolved the management thinking.Other elements that contributed were Communicate, Interpersonal relationship & the ability to manage. All these elements are relevant and contribute immensely towards the management to perform well. They evolved with the passage of time to ensure giving the rightful place to each employee as per their performance.
The Management science perspective evolved the thinking of management as both the past two perspectives were focused on using either behavioral understanding or employ betterment while the 3rd method is scientific. The reason why it is adopted is that enterprises need to solve some complex problems. With the utilization of statistics, mathematics, calculus, and other aspects to be applied in management decision-making and solutions, it aided in making management more precise. It contributed immensely towards the understanding and realization of any plan’s feasibility. Taking out feasibility and focusing on the cost of production, services cost and other costs lead to a precise and most accurate estimate regarding and the decision that the management would need to make. Hence it is justified by helping prove in terms of how much feasible that plan would be. (Uddin, 2015)
Lastly, Contemporary Perspectives comes from changes in social, political, and economic forces. It evolved management by highlighting the three forces that are not in control of any organization or management. These are external factors that need to be considered as well, so these elements were also brought in as integral elements in the debate. If the political predicament changes in any country that will definitely impact the whole predicament. There is another element of people and situations that change over time and affect the entire scenario. It can automatically evolve/influence the management thinking and lead them to decisions. (Taylor, 1996)
Economic recessions likewise impact the whole predicament, and these differences are needed to be considered in order to decide regarding any dilemma. The modern perspective of contingency plans evolved the thinking of management as it is yet very difficult to predict the future, and contingency plans are required that are applied if all other plans fail. This led to the making of the contingency theory. Adopting as per the predicament is integral in order to face the issue. Contingency managers remain connected with the plight as well as have their understanding. They keep the system intact with the need of the day and act in accordance with their own realization of the matter. They formulate a mutually understandable and viable predicament for all to agree upon.
It can be concluded on the fact that all perspectives are interconnected and evolved with respect to the predicament that came to the realization as factors that impact a predicament. Soon as the other aspects of management were realized with the emergence of Globalization, all the management thinking evolved and led to the understanding of all these integral elements as being essential to be considered. The whole perspective of management still keeps growing with new advancements coming. For management, all these evolving elements have become a part of the predicament. Feasibility is equally important as compared to motivation and interpersonal relationships. Each perspective has its own value and they keep evolving with the passage of time.
Murray, D. (2018). The Humanistic Perspective on Management. Retrieved from https://www.censis.com: https://www.censis.com/blog/humanistic-perspective-management/
Taylor, F. W. (1996). SCIENTIFIC MANAGEMENT. Retrieved from https://link.springer.com: https://link.springer.com/content/pdf/bfm%3A978-1-4613-1421-9%2F1.pdf
Uddin, N. (2015). Evolution of Modern Management through Taylorism: An Adjustment of Scientific Management Comprising Behavioral Science. Retrieved from https://www.sciencedirect.com: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1877050915026721