Generic Criticism of COVID-19 in Satirical shows

With the advent of Coronavirus, many life situations and systems have witnessed a massive change in how they operate and that includes the change adapted by late night shows such as Jimmy Kimmel Live, The Late Show with Steven Colbert, and The Daily Show with Trevor Noah. They have all shifted to quarantine versions of the shows. Their satirical lens to the current situation has changed little and their views and opinions on this novel crisis and what it implies including life in quarantine, the death crisis, the weakness in the healthcare system, political negligence, mental health, the impactful economic crisis, and many more face the fire of these shows’ satire.


Coronavirus first emerged in Wuhan, China, and very quickly, was transmitted to rest of the world. One of the main reasons for this included the dynamics of the global village we live in today where traveling has become extremely prevalent and fluid. Where China appeared to be the epicenter of this virus, the highest death rate and confirmed number of known cases for the virus is, as of yet, found in the US. Where about 4500 people lost their lives in Mainland China, about more than 90,000 people have lost their lives in the US. This has given rise to many conspiracies such as the virus in itself being used as a biological weapon to gain the global status of “superpower” by having economic and power hegemony by China. Other theories of its origin include that the novel virus was found in the bats in Wuhan and when some people consumed them for food, the virus was contained in them and they became carriers for it, infecting other people unknowingly with the deadly virus until its consequences became apparent.


Soon, this virus took over the lifestyle of the entire world as the only solution for containing it was disclosed to be social distancing and a concept used ages ago was put forward known as self-isolation or quarantine. This resulted in people slowly decreasing their social activities, although exceptions apply, and this later metamorphosed into countries applying national lockdowns and closing their borders to other nations for travel and trade to contain the virus. Dire steps were taken especially after Europe, including France and Italy, and the US came under the bus of Coronavirus. This, however, revealed a lot about the loopholes in the “developed countries” political systems, as in many, it took thousands of lives for country leaders to understand that human lives should be the priority in this case.


The superpower of the United States of America reacted too slowly in dealing with what now has become a pandemic. The Trump administration received international and national backlash. The Trump administration kept making things up and in the mid of March, Trump said that “Nobody knew there’d be a pandemic” in a press conference. However, evidence suggested otherwise. Trump was also criticized for making contradictory statements such as when he announced that there will be a travel ban on everybody coming from Europe into the US. Later his team and his own tweets cleared up the misunderstanding that the travel ban will not apply to US residents, their families and some important businesses. Also, Trump’s body language also spoke volumes about his inner confused, stressed and tense state of mind as opposed to his apparently confident demeanor. Further, some of the promises made by Trump that were consistently insisted that will be met, were actually not met and caused more anxiety and angst in the already endangered Americans. For instance, Trump repeatedly insisted that by Easter, the Coronavirus will go away. However, the consequential impact of the virus instead blasted America by leading to exponential rise in deaths. Moreover, Trump’s promises to open the country to counter the economic crisis that ensues as millions of Americans have signed up for unemployment by May 1st too proved hollow and impractical in actuality. It can be seen from these examples that Trump’s instinct’s on the virus were extremely wrong and so was the case with many other Americans who have faced backlash from the mentioned shows in a subtle manner by using satire as a tool to highlight their shortsightedness.


Using Generic Criticism is extremely useful in bringing about the actions of the status quo under scrutiny by playing it safe and not while doing so at the same time. Many have termed this concept as being one of the many “meta-critical approaches” that ought to paid attention to (Brock and Scott). This concept can be traced back to the Aristotelian times when Aristotle came up with the study of the art of persuasion now known as rhetoric. The need for the specific term Generic Discourse came to be about when a plethora of different discourse found their way in the norm and thus the term was coined so (Black).


Rhetoric is basically a way of trying to effectively convey one’s message or thoughts to other people in their speech or any other form that uses language. Generic Criticism generally encompasses the types of criticism used in a piece of speech, art, or written work and is a great tool to be used to convey one’s point of view in a unique way.


The scripts of the shows mentioned in the introduction can be broken down and looked at with the lens of satire. For instance, in the episode snippet named “The Battle Over Wearing Masks” from The Daily Show With Trevor Noah (it’s quarantine edition called The Daily Social Distancing Show) Trevor uses satire to convey his point brilliantly. The extract mentions, “Trevor Noah: But if we know that masks can help save lives and stop the spread of coronavirus, why are so many people refusing to wear masks when they go out in public? Well, one reason is that just honestly, they’re not super comfortable. And one woman in Kentucky found a solution that totally didn’t work.

NewsMax: A Kentucky woman is going viral for the way she wears a mask. This woman is caught on camerashopping with a hole cut in the middle of her protective mask. She claims it made it, quote, easier tobreathe. Everyone is required to wear a mask while out. Of course, the CDC is advising that masksshould cover both the nose and mouth completely.

Trevor Noah: OK, I’ll be honest. I get where this woman is coming from. Wearing a mask can make it a little harderto breathe. But you know what can make it a lot harder to breathe? Coronavirus. Like, I think somepeople might be missing the point of the mask. It’s not about conforming. It’s about safety.” The genius of this script not only lies in the content but visual effect as well that complement it. The content is effective because it presents a humorous way to humiliate the ones who put comfort higher up in their priorities but whereas, in this time, priorities are clear: masks can save lives and no alternative exists. This is not belittling, degrading or shading the woman but this tactic softly makes fun of the woman who did not actually pay heed to the coronavirus threat as much as she should have.


Continuing the theme of masks, Trevor given another funny example, “Trevor Noah: Although I will say one guy in San Diego got a little too creativewith his coverage.

KTLA 5: Outrage is growing over a man seen wearing a Ku Klux Klan hood inside of a Von’s grocery store nearSan Diego. Other shoppers took pictures of the man seen Saturday in the city of Santee. Store clerksreportedly asked the man to remove the hood or leave. He finally took it off while he was in line, thenpaid for his items and left. Santee’s mayor and others have condemned the incident.

KTLA 5: Detectives from the San Diego County Sheriff’s Department are now investigating and will pursue anyappropriate charges.

Trevor Noah: Wow! Wearing a Klan hood as a face mask. That seems counterproductive.

Trevor Noah: Because, I mean, you might be protecting yourself from Corona, but you’re definitely going to get acase of ass whipping. And I know this guy thought he was being intimidating wearing a KKK mask inpublic. But I’m sorry, man, you’re in a grocery store. I can’t be scared of anyone buying GoGurt. Plus, Ilike how he only wore the hood. Yeah. So he was at home like. Should I put the robe on as well.” This dialogue contains tongue-in-cheek along with satire to criticize the ones making a joke out of this serious situation where thousands are losing their lives. The usage of words in this is extremely important to notice as it sets the satirical tone from the very start by introducing the action of the man of wearing a Klan Hood as being a “creative” action.



Trevor also integrates a similar serious situation of the arms debate in the US with a lighter tone that conveys his point that some Americans care more about not covering their faces than taking an important issue like the ownership of gun with due seriousness. The dialogue mentions, “Trevor Noah: …in America, you don’t just have the right to bear arms. You also have the right tobear face.

ABC 8: In Houston you could get a thousand dollar fine for not wearing a mask. That’s led to at least onelawsuit and complaints of government overreach. These mandatory masks amount to governmentoverreach.

Fox 26: There is now a lawsuit over face mask requirements here in Harris County.

Fox 26: There are many people who are unhappy with the order. Close to 150. Demonstrators protested themask mandate.

CBS: I don’t want to wear masks. I don’t want the government telling me what to do.

Fox 26: You cannot allow the government to overreach the Constitution, because if you allow that, then whatelse is next? Only God knows how.

Trevor Noah: Hell yeah, I’m sick of the government telling us what to do. Telling us to wear masks. You’ve got thosered lights that tell us when we can drive. Stopping me from buying romaine lettuce because it has E.coli on it.”  The rhetorical device Trevor uses take help from simple everyday life examples such as comparing a traffic light to governmental order of taking precautionary measures. This highlights the stupidity of the people who are refusing to abide by the rules set by the government related to Coronavirus.


Similarly, Jimmy Kimmel’s show also showcases satire when viewed using the lens of Generic Criticism. In the episode titled, “Perfect Mother’s Day, Maskless Pence, Busy Trump and Mom Texts,” he blatantly makes fun of the unintellectual nature of Trump and the US Vice President, Mike Pence as the dialogue mentions, “Jimmy Kimmel: Mike Pence, pretending to carry empty boxes of PPEs into a hospital is the perfect metaphor for whohe is and what he’s doing. A big box and nothing, delivering another box and nothing.

Jimmy Kimmel: His boss, King Joffrey, got a bit of unsettling news today. One of the President’s personal valets hastested positive for Coronavirus, which is a big deal because the White House valet works very closelywith the President on a personal level. He does everything from handing him the remote to turn onFox News in the morning to grinding up his Adderall at night.

Jimmy Kimmel: The White House says Trump took a test. He gets tested every day and tested negative. Think he getsthat swab shoved up his nose every time? I wonder what kind of sound he makes when he gets that.But this President doesn’t have time for the virus. He is very busy obstructing justice and redecoratinghis wall. Trump reportedly wants to have his border wall painted black. Now he wants it painted blackso it will get hot from the sun and then people won’t want to climb it.” Two very serious jokes are employed by Jimmy in his dialogues and yet he slides away easily using satire by making fun of the heavy stuff. He questions the cleverness and intellect of Mike Pence by comparing him with an empty box indicating that he is hollow from the inside by insinuating that he does not have a brain. This is the underlying message yet is shrouded in the metaphor. Another serious joke used is by highlighting Trump’s absurdity by mentioning how the evident humanitarian crisis in the US is being undermined by Trump as he prefers to talk about his border wall amidst such desperate times. Using words like “redecorating” the wall really signifies what Jimmy thinks is the superficial and stupid nature of the American President that is costing him a lot.


Building upon the theme of the wall, Jimmy mentions, “Jimmy Kimmel: The paint job will reportedly cost anywhere from five hundred million to threebillion dollars to complete, which is a lot of money to paint a wall that doesn’t exist. But don’t worry,Trump put his number one son in law in charge. Jared Kushner, whenever there’s a job around theWhite House, Jarrett gets it. Jarrett is like Jared Kushner is like the world’s least reliable handyman.” Jimmy also drags Trump’s nepotism under the bus while mentioning his other weaknesses that help in highlighting his overall bad performance during covid-19.


Likewise, The Late Show With Steven Colbert also widely uses this technique of satirically commenting on politics in an attempt to let the general people know what is actually going on. In the episode titled, “Trump’s Valet Tests Positive For Covid-19 As His Campaign Prepares To Deploy Their Death Star”, he mentions, “One of the things about this virus is that itdoesn’t care who you are or whether you believe the virus is worth staying inside for. You can stillcatch it. Case in point, we learned today that one of Trump’s personal valets has tested positive forCoronavirus. Well, maybe this will help the President understand how scary it is for the average American when one of their personal valets tests positive.

Steven Colbert: Now, the President’s fine, but this was a risk given that Trump’s valets do not wear masks and thevalet who tested positive works in the West Wing and serves the President his meals. That soundstroubling. But keep in mind, the way you serve Trump, his meal is to kick the door open. Throw thechicken bucket inside and slam the door before you lose a hand. The President was reportedly prettyupset. A White House source said that “news that someone close to Trump had tested positive forCoronavirus was hitting the fan in the West Wing.”

Steven Colbert: Luckily, the White House fan is so caked with poop at this point; it no longer spins. Now, this news isinconvenient for the President because it gets in the way of Trump’s core message that we’ve got toopen up the country as fast as we can. And to that end, the CDC is actually already prepared adetailed document with step by step advice to local authorities on how and when to reopen. But theadministration has shelved the document. It’s just another part of the President’s long runningcampaign. The less you know.” This dialogue is highly satirical as it mentions the indifference of the American President towards the safety of the people around him that might also affect him in turn. Also, the informal language used such as the fan being caked with “poop” is definitive as it makes fun of the presidency’s apathy. This combined with the jokes made on the entire Trump regime regarding the propaganda related to information being hindered from reaching the public, emphasizes the message Steven is trying to convey in a subtly open manner.


Conclusively, it can be seen that understanding generic criticism is important as it makes one grasp the hidden messages in many different aspects in life and different sources. The examples given of the three shows explore the type of satire in generic criticism and how it proves to be effective in conveying harsh reality to the pupils.



Gustainis, Justin J., (1982) The Generic Criticism of Social Movement Rhetoric, Rhetoric Society Quarterly, Taylor & Francis, Ltd.

Harrell, Jackson and Linkugel, Wil A., (1978) On Rhetorical Genre: An Organizing Perspective, Penn State University Press

Foss, Sonja K., (2004) Rhetorical Criticism: Exploration & Practice





The first part of your final project is a written paper, 5 double-spaced, 12 font pages. In the paper, you will identify a social justice issue present at UA. You will include 3-4 references to course readings to describe why this issue matters and how it impacts learning/teaching. You will offer specifics about how the issue manifests at UA and you will offer an action plan to address the issue. Included in the action plan, you should have a list of resources—organizations, websites, groups—on which you can draw to implement your action plan. For instance, if you identify, sexual harassment, in the form of cat calling and whistling at women on campus, you might include UA’s Women’s Resource Center and Stop Street Harassment as resources and


The term “Public harassment” stands for action, comment, or joke passed in sexual or any other persuasive form, consisting of unwelcome remarks, whistling, trapping, disclosure, or any other sexual behavior in any public place. All of this comes under the definition of Public harassment. Any such sort of touching to strangers in public areas such as parks, public transport, malls, college, etc. It is highly uncomfortable & crime in the eyes of the law across the world. All such explicit comments made to any girl or women can make their life in public very difficult. This study will shed light on causes & various forms of public harassment& suggest the solutions.

According to organization Stop street harassment, around 65% of the females on the street report on being harassed. Approximately 104 million women across the world complain of feeling harassed by strangers. They hear remarks that are sexually explicit & make their life on the street extremely uncomfortable. They think too much agony & it frustrates them to move freely. Such actions at society level are not just condemnable. It is mostly done by strangers & limits the person from moving freely in that area. It is a human rights violation & needs to be addressed right away. (, 2020)

It also includes homophobic comments that insult the other person. Regardless of what that person chooses in terms of personal relationships, making fun of them or passing such comments is very unpleasant. Catherine A Hill, in an article, discusses the issue of harassment on campus. Her book addresses the questions like, Is sexual assault common? What sorts of habits really occur? Who gets threatened & who commits harassment? Why will they do that to students who confess bullying others? Does the sexual assault impact the educational environment? It shows that colleges also have research to do to promote such an atmosphere on campus that is free from such acts and discrimination. All students have a fair chance to succeed in higher education & such action could impact their study flow. This study recorded that most college students suffer some form of sexual assault when in class, sometimes in their first year, etc. (Hill, 2005)

Zara Abrams, in an article, discusses the topic of “Sexual harassment on campus.” As per her survey results, it indicates that learners and advanced students are especially prone to misconduct by teachers inside their programs at AAU School Climate Report on Sexual Harassment and workplace abuse As per her survey, over 150,000 female graduate students who have experienced sexual harassment identified the offender as a teacher or adviser more than three times the rate of female undergraduates; female undergraduates were more likely to be harassed or assaulted by fellow students. (Abrams, 2018). This predicament suggests that on-campus harassment is not limited to students but also from teachers that make the students life at campus, extremely difficult

These are very alarming numbers that indicate that serious actions need to be taken in order to control this predicament. Schools, need to make strict laws, and all sorts of such violations should lead to very serious repercussions. A teacher who is found practicing this needs to be expelled at any cost so that an example is set for the others to follow it. Adding to that, for such students that make jokes about fellow students or bully them, there needs to be strict policies set regarding these. It can be concluded on the fact that all relevant & related authorities need to take stern action to take control of the situation before it gets worse, leading to any unwanted outcomes from either side.



Abrams, Z. (2018). Sexual harassment on campus. Retrieved from

Hill, C. A. (2005, 1). Drawing the Line: Sexual Harassment on Campus. Retrieved from (2020). Share your street harassment story. Retrieved from




how or why is jealousy a destructive force in act4

Othello is one of Shakespeare’s greatest pieces of art that describes the human emotions and how they can completely disrupt everything. Othello’s is the lead character who is depicted as someone who’s jealous. This essay addresses the element of Jealousy is one of the most destructive force as it brings hate, anger, and all negative energy in the human body. Jealousy is what effects everything,the personality gets destroyed during the time a person is Jealous.This revengeful angry attitude of his ended up making the whole predicament extremely difficult for him.

It was like a wind of Rampage as he became brutal in his actions. He spilled out all his negative sentiments in the acts of depicting his rage openly. He became shameless in this regard and created destruction all through the process.He became emotional, and there is a predicament in the play where he became a phase of trance filled with anger and rage. Even at a point in His wife also tells him, “I understand a fury in your words.” An example that directly points out of him being this much jealous in his understanding of the situation is all the schemes that were very destructive in nature. . (Rai)

In Act 4, soon as Iago told him that Cassio having an affair with Desdemona, his wife, Othello, became exceedingly angry, and he was so angry just be hearing about this rumor that he had made up his mind to cut her in pieces. He seems to have completely lost all his senses only after hearing a story that could have been wrong. He was so jealous in himself that his ager would take over everything he thinks, and he would go out in rage to take revenge on the predicament he was in. Lago, who is a very conniving and cynical friend of his & knows about his anger and resentment, tries to manipulate him further. . (Rai)

This is all due to the destructive nature of anger that he had no control over, and that would instead take control over him. He would become furious and make rash decisions.  His jealously would take control of all his anger and make him a monster. He had lost his mind so much that soon as his corrupt friend would suggest him anything negative, he would become utterly senseless in his doings. The jealously and anger could even be felt in his voice as he would rage out, and he would be very angry with his wife. . (Rai)

Every word he spoke. Othello had transformed into a jealous and psychologically unstable person. He’s angry and extremely unstable mindset was making him an animal.  He would lose his mind, and he would lose any control over himself.  This jealousy of his has made him Lose his thinking process. He is not logical in his thinking by any means and the situation. This jealously has made him so vulnerable, and he loses his mind completely at every step of the way. The temper that he loses in a second takes over his thought process so much. . (Rai)

The fact that he doesn’t have that much tolerance in him makes him transforms him entirely, and he becomes very vulnerable. He does not wait at any level, and his rage takes over him. His anger and all sorts of outbursts come to notice instantly. Othello’s lack of temper, he fits the description of a negative individual. He perfectly fits the description of a negative and tragic hero in the play. His jealousy that is so destructive that takes over him time and again makes him, unlike any other individual who is meaninglessly angry.


Works Cited

Rai, Ram Prasad. “SHAKESPEARE’S, JEALOUSY AND DESTRUCTION IN WILLIAM.” International Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies (2016): 53-59.





Sartre wrote for existentialism in a philosophical way. His main slogan was “existentialism precedes essence.” Freedom and personal space are some of the essential themes in his theory. For Sartre, freedom is that man has his own choices to work or to do something. To be free does not mean sitting useless. Because this causes distress feelings in a person’s mind, and the individual thinks that he is nothing. In his mind, the sense of nothingness arouses, which leads to the inauthentic life of a person. (Fieser, 2002)

According to Sartre, freedom is to make a purpose of life and then work freely by one’s own choice for that purpose. As an atheist, Sartre does not believe in “human nature “kind of thing, which he called “essence.” He believed that man is not created for a purpose, or God created the world. For him, a person is what he is, and he is full of himself. In his view, a person can become what he is not and not become what he is, as in his words, “being what it is not and not being what it is.” Man is free to make his character and image in this world. (Fieser, 2002)

He believes that freedom is limitless. His concept of freedom is” freedom entails something like responsibility, for myself, and my actions.” Freedom is that man is free for making decisions, making and fulfill wishes, and getting knowledge. He is free to make choices of work but also responsible for consequences. (Fieser, 2002)

Plato’s understanding of the relationship between God and morality

According to DIVINE COMMAND THEORY, good and bad happenings in the universe are to be done by God. Plato was against this theory. For Plato, God us perfectionist, supernatural and ideal one who runs the universe in an unapproachable way. His orders and motives to run the world are pure of imperfections. (Evans, 2018)

According to him, God is not responsible for evil happenings. He has not written everything occurring in the universe. We can say that God is the author of punishments of moral wrongdoings as the punishments are beneficial for wrong things. For Plato, God is a source of mortality. Otherwise, whatever is good or bad is of itself. God must be a source first time, but after there would generate countless causes of good or bad things. Plato seems not a true monotheist, but he believes that there is a divine and powerful soul behind the planetary motion. He called these gods, The divine theory rejects the idea of religion. Platonism says that morality is not possible without faith. If there is no religion, then how is it possible to decide whether someone is doing good or evil deeds? (Evans, 2018)


Evans, S. (2018). Moral Arguments for the Existence of God. Retrieved from

Fieser, J. (2002). Jean Paul Sartre: Existentialism. Retrieved from



A Critique


During the 1970s, the dim periods of administrative abundance, globalization was obstructed by intense limitations forced by governments on outpourings from their capital markets. The United StatesandUnited Kingdomorganisationstackled a portion of these limitations by contriving equal credit understandings.Whereby United Statesorganisationssubsidisedshares of United Kingdomorganisations in the United States and United Kingdom organizations subsidized backups of United States organizations in the United Kingdom, subsequently avoiding cross-fringe movements. Be that as it may, these courses of action were perplexing and dependent upon legal wheeling and dealing. The swap turned out to be a rather simple solution to the issue.

Organisations in the two nations were getting progressively globalised and required financing for their worldwide ventures. Thus, a back-scratching plan emerged whereby a United States organisation with activities in the United Kingdom would give dollars to a United Kingdomorganisation’s auxiliary in the United States. Simultaneously, the United Kingdom parent organisation would provide funds for theUnited Statesorganisation’s backup in the United Kingdom.

Rather than loaning monetary standards back and forth,the newly conceived swap acquired the ideal outcome by a direct trade of proportionate measures of two financial standards and a reverse trade of equal measures of similar monetary standards in the 10 years, balanced when the estimation of money. The first swap was finished a couple of months after the fact, in August 1976.


The article has incorporated a practical element into an otherwise theoretical topic. Apart from discussing the concepts of both ‘Swaps’ and ‘Parallel Loans’ it provides a detailed insight into the application of both the ideas in the practical financial world by elaborating on a real-life example. Another exciting thing that I believe this article has brought forward is a different way of looking at the existing financial instruments. By laying particular emphasis on how the concept of Swaps was derived by crucially analysing, it has established that there are no limitations to financial instruments by moulding the current financial instruments.There is a universe of different ways of producing new and useful instruments. It establishes that the financial world has unlimited possibilities.

Strengths and Weaknesses

The article, in my opinion, is particularly strong while discussing the background and the context that led resulted in a need for a new instrument to be created. It further provides excellent arguments on the technical fronts of parallel loans and swaps. Weighing down the technicalities of swaps against parallel loans, it has successfully demonstrated how the swaps are much less risky and convenient than parallel loans. However, I believe it has a few shortcomings too. Although it has established how swaps are a better alternative to parallel loans, it fails to analyse the downsides of swaps. It has argued that during the 1980s, swaps and other derivative instruments rose to prominence. Still, unlike for how it provided a practical example leading to the creation of swaps, it fails to back this claim with any actual example of successful and foolproof use of swaps.

The informational role of open interest in the futures market


This article inspects the long term relationship between open interestandfutures markets. It turns out that the open interest rates of the futures markets for products that can be stored havebeen samefor futures prices for a long time, yet we cannot say the samefor the non-storable futures markets. Besides, the futures prices will, in general,be a factor for open interest for storable products over time, butmay not work oppositely.

Open interest is a significant marker of trading movement exceptional to futures and alternative markets and has as of late got much consideration in writing. The examination of the long termaffiliation in inspired by the volatility of future values and also open interestin the writing. Notably, future prices are nonstationary. Correspondingly, earlier examinations have additionally given proof to nonstationary properties of open interest for some futures markets. The article explores the conceivable prolongedrelations among futures values along with open interest, giving extra proof to the effect of open interest on the stable portion of future prices. Next, if there is a long term correlation between open interest and future prices, it is additionally researched iffuture rates move open interest for the long term or the short term. The long term connection test between open interest and futures price gives immediate proof on the long-lastingconnection amongst open interest for futures markets. The discoveries of this examination ought to have significant ramifications for futuresto advertise efficiency.

The outcomes recommend that the open interest date cannot be a sufficient measure to anticipate futures prices over the long term, an outcome encouraging the thought of futuresshowcase methodological and smart planning. The discovery holds for both storable and non-storable futures as showcased in the analysis. The discovery shares the same data between futures prices and open interest streaming after the previous to the last-mentioned for storable futures markets. For the non-storable futures markets, additionally keeping this assumption up, as open interest for these agreements might include relevant long-run data onfutures prices. The significant ramifications are that showcased members will most likely be unable to utilisespecialised investigation using open interest to foresee future conduct of futures costs reliably.


The article has proved to be of immense use to financial professionals. It has provided a thorough statistical investigation which helps in drawing the relationship between long term and short term futures prices, which might be helpful in future for reference purposes. Apart from merely providing statistical evidence to establish an association between futures prices and open interest rates, it has demonstrated how the role played by open interest rates is crucial and essential for the futures market and the futures pricing.

Strengths and Weaknesses

The article has no particular weaknesses; it is as thorough and analytical as is it can get. In portraying the relationship between long and short term futures prices and open interest rates, it doesn’t just use theoretical knowledge. Instead, it backs its hypothesis by a detailed statistical analysis spanning over 10 years consisting of not just stocks, but essential commodities too. It provides an extensive discussion regarding the data and methodologies used. I believe the article is genuinely magnificent.


Critical Reflection

The lesson plan for second language teaching aimed at helping students learn the English language in the most comfortable way that can help them adopt fluency in daily routine. Learning a second language is different in many ways for a young student, for instance, in terms of environment where language acquisition is taking place. The process is unique and different that allows students to develop inherent abilities to understand new vocabulary as well as the content. This experience allowed me to know the essential characteristics of students and offered me a chance to know students better in their speaking and listening.

The lesson plan helped me acquire an understanding of writing skills and how it is significant for students. When they practice short speaking stories with families and peers, it enhances their ability to learn family-oriented vocabulary. The second language learning experience is significant in the sense of participation in a new world of vocabulary, words, and exposure (Montero-Melis, Jaeger &Bylund, 2016). The need for language learning to young students is related to the short and long run. The language approach help students keep motivated to produce output and internalize a language that is not related to memorization. These outcomes have a positive effect on students’ learning, so encourage them to attain fluency.

The language approach made me think about self-motivation. Under this process, students can better understand communication problems. According to language research studies, learning a language is critical to acquire the necessary skills and expertise that help in expressing own personality. My experience of language teaching allowed me to pass an integral concept of learning to students and practice more and more to get rid of mistakes. Most of the students feel shy when they mistake, but the purpose of this lesson plan was to help them gain confidence. The gained knowledge and acquired learning create short term planning of skill development for students when they interact with their families (Lightbown&Spada, 2012).

In my experience, my students in previous lessons listen to stories, when teachers described different people of the community and their interaction. Students learned from this kind of sties about their interaction purpose, family behavior, and community. Due to this practice, students get to know about classroom activities, community-based learning, and understanding of family norms. With the best method, students acquire new words, new meanings, and unique attributes to display emotions and describe themselves (Sahragard&Mallahi, 2014). I believe such understanding to students is significant to move forward in life and explore new things.

A focus on information in LMS is the basic level for students. With the common understanding of classroom practices, students developed attention, listening skills, and knowledge about family (Lightbown&Spada, 2012). The imagination trees helped students gain knowledge of the family. I learned that the role of the teacher is significant in assisting students in learning with fun and engaging them in carrying out certain practices. My assessment for learners was based on their activities, which was related to their understanding of vocabulary, pronunciation and written practices. From this process, I gained the insights that making mistakes is a basic need, and by this weakness, all students will acquire strengths.

Teaching a second language to allow teachers to equip them with competency required to perform in this modern world. (Gibbons, 2014)  The dynamic patterns of this world need well-established concepts of students about knowledge and understanding. English, as a second language itself, needs the expertise to perform with diligence. Learning and second language acquisition are based on language acquisition models. This process is significant in processing new information and conduct tasks in the secondary language (Gibbons, 2014). To enhance the learning of students, language learning strategies are used, and I believe these strategies have affected students in many terms; for instance, career choice, nationality, age, gender, and motivation are some factors that impact secondary language learning acquisition.

My experience allowed me to assess the level of involvement and understanding that every student had with its syllabus. I think teachers’ interaction plays a crucial role in developing concepts. During the lessons and after it, student’s involvement allows teachers to know about their involvement style and learning aspects (Bagheri, 2015).

Being a teacher of the second language, my focus of understanding and delivery is related to capable students. I acquired knowledge that the degree of mistakes and vocabulary pronunciation should be focused much when students are directed to memorize a new concept. I also gathered the idea about student’s participation in how much is necessary to get involved in a new lesson to gain new knowledge. If students participate with confidence and act in a new session, it is most likely that they are enjoying their learning and ready to get into the modern world (Alimirzaloo&Hashemnezhad, 2015).

Many studies have focused on second language teaching practices and requirements to help students gain more understanding; I believe that it is crucial to involve students by instilling them need to interact with others. I think cognitive techniques by teachers should be applied in the classroom to understand students more. Teachers should improve their level to make students aware of a new language, its role in life, its importance, and the significance of communication. Thinking skills also matter a lot and facilitate new language learning because unfamiliar language reflects some issues that students face. Still, thinking skills can increase students’ awareness and develop their language autonomy.  To me, this secondlanguage teaching experience is significant to gain new insights about transforming knowledge and practical to learn ways to improve my skills. I monitored students while writing, speaking, and reading, and it helped me get to know where they are weak and what their strengths are. I also got an understanding of improvement in how I should improve to support students’ performance better. For example, family tree understanding is common for some kids but difficult for others, so I helped them with specific real-life examples to understand the idea.

Current lesson plan is weak in terms of parents’ interaction and logic making steps that can manage learning difficulty. These weaknesses are hindering the way of improving students’ learning. One of the approaches to improve the teaching plan would involve developing a rich curriculum and developing a learner focused partnerships with parents. The teaching plan could be improved by incorporating these strategies. In future teaching plan, I could consider sequence steps to improve students’ learning and incorporate parent opinion. This will help improving the lesson plan.



Alimirzaloo, E., &Hashemnezhad, H. (2015). An investigation on the relationship between critical thinking skills, language learning strategies, and thinking styles of Iranian EFL learners. International Journal Of Research Studies In Language Learning4(5). doi: 10.5861/ijrsll.2015.1106

Bagheri, F. (2015). The Relationship between Critical Thinking and Language Learning Strategies of EFL Learners. Journal Of Language Teaching And Research6(5), 969. doi: 10.17507/jltr.0605.08

Gibbons, P. (2014). Scaffolding language, scaffolding learning (2nd ed., pp. 23-48). Heinemann.

Lightbown, P., &Spada, N. (2012). How languages are learned (4th ed., pp. 35-74). Oxford University Press.

Montero-Melis, G., Jaeger, T., &Bylund, E. (2016). Thinking Is Modulated by Recent Linguistic Experience: Second Language Priming Affects Perceived Event Similarity. Language Learning66(3), 636-665. doi: 10.1111/lang.12172

Sahragard, R., &Mallahi, O. (2014). Relationship between Iranian EFL Learners’ Language Learning Styles, Writing Proficiency and Self-assessment. Procedia – Social And Behavioral Sciences98, 1611-1620. doi: 10.1016/j.sbspro.2014.03.585

Differentiation in Teaching a critical appraisal of the literature

Different methods of assessment in educational systems

Educational Inequality Issues in China




            The dynamic rise in the trends and practices of globalization and internationalism in the past few decades has yielded a great number of benefits and advantages to the business organizations and companies around the globe. It has equipped them with the tools and resources required to not only strengthen their businesses in the local markets, but it has also enabled them to explore and expand their business activities to markets which had previously been impenetrable. The practices of globalization have eliminated the limitations imposed by geographical borders and barriers and have opened new opportunities and avenues for the business community in a similar fashion as it has done for the rest of the world.

Firstly, the essay looks at the concept of expatriation and its role in the growth of multinational organizations in the modern world. Secondly, it evaluates the framework of international human resource management presented by Perlmutter (1969) and analyzes the impact of ethnocentrism on the progress of modern day business organizations. Thirdly, it presents some of the advantages and disadvantages of utilizing an expatriation strategy for multinational corporations and provides the example of Coca Cola, which utilizes expat managers for its multinational business operations. Lastly, the essay looks at some of the challenges and implications for human resource practitioners posed by Brexit as they attempt to develop a common and an effective recruitment and selection strategy.


Siljanen and Lämsä (2009) suggest that “expatriation in the traditional sense refers to individuals working in subsidiary offices of multinational enterprises in different parts of the world.” The concept of expatriation in multinational enterprises also falls in line with the ethnocentric approach to recruitment put forward by Perlmutter (1969). His ethnocentric approach to staffing argues for the recruitment and selection of managers of the same nationality as the parent organization. The development of a recruitment strategy involving the processes of expatriation is, therefore, central to the ethnocentric approach to recruitment and selection.

Minbaeva and Michailova (2004), through their research work on the topic, argue that the multinational business organizations and their managerial leaderships rely heavily on the practices of expatriation in order to conduct their business operations and activities in subsidiary offices in an effective and efficient manner(Minbaeva and Michailova, 2004). They also suggest that “the primary goal of expatriation was explicit and well-defined control and coordination: by relocating expatriates, parent organizations have been able to exert control and achieve global integration across subsidiaries” (Minbaeva and Michailova, 2004).

However, given the developments and the evolutions that have characterized global business operations and strategies over the past few decades, the nature of expatriate assignments and projects has also changed(Harzing, 2001). The expatriate employees and managers today are not only expected to maintain organizational control within the subsidiary offices of the company, but they are also expected to develop the local talent within the subsidiary units in accordance with the company’s vision and to support the effective transfer of skill and knowledge from the organizational headquarters to the local offices. (Harris et al., 2003)


Perlmutter’s Typologies and Ethnocentrism

            The work of Perlmutter (1969) is considered by many to be fundamental in the domain of human resource management practices in order to effectively deal with the evolving relationships and dynamics that exist between a corporate headquarter and its subsidiaries (Minbaeva and Michailova, 2004). The EPRG model of human resource management presented by Perlmutter is considered to be a significant tool in order to understand the relationship between the headquarter of a multinational company and its subsidiary offices situated in foreign counties. The EPRG framework involves four basic principles namely ethnocentrism, polycentrism, regio-centrism, and geo-centrism(Onodugo et al., 2017).

The Polycentric approach to recruitment revolves around the idea that multinational corporations restrict their hiring practices for subsidiary offices by only recruiting management native to the country in which the foreign office operates. The polycentric approach allows for the organization to understand the local cultures, business practices, and other dynamics that influence market operations in a more effective and efficient manner(Lakshman et al., 2017). The regio-centric approach to hiring, on the other hand, focuses on the recruitment and selection of managers and employees from countries in which the organization operates. Similarly, the geocentric approach to recruitment and selection in multinational organizations refers to the hiring of the best and the most skillful employee irrespective of the nationality that he may belong to. The geocentric approach enables the company to fill its organizational ranks with the most suitable managers that can take the company forward. (COLLINGS and SCULLION, 2006)

The ethnocentric approach to human resource recruitment and selection focuses on the deployment of managers from the organization’s headquarters to its subsidiary offices. The ethnocentric approach calls for the recruitment and selection of subsidiary management that is essentially of the same nationality as the location of the parent company. Banai (1992) argues that the “general rationale behind the ethnocentric approach is that the staff from the parent country would represent the interests of the headquarters effectively and link well with the parent country”(Banai, 1992). The ethnocentric approach to recruitment and selection generally involves four primary stages, namely self-selection, the creation of a candidate pool, capabilities assessment, and identifying the most suitable candidate for the foreign role. (Michailova et al., 2017)

The ethnocentric, polycentric, geocentric, and regiocentric approaches to international staffing can be utilized solely or in combination with one another depending on the workforce requirement and the nature of the international job responsibility(Isiaka et al., 2016). The selection of the best possible hiring approach for multinational business operations is influenced by range of factors and dynamics including monetary resources, time constraints, immigration procedures, sensitivity of the foreign job, impact of culture and language etc. The managerial leadership of multinational enterprises should, therefore, critically evaluate and analyze such factors associated with international hiring before deciding on a common recruitment and selection policy for its subsidiary offices. (Thoo and Kaliannan, 2013)


Merits and Demerits of Using Expats

            Using expatriate employees and managers for foreign and subsidiary offices and divisions is one of the most common human resource and management practices used by the multinational organizations today. There are many merits and advantages of deploying expatriate employees and managers in subsidiary divisions that the organizations can exploit in their bid to strengthen and expand its business operations and activities. Firstly, it allows the managerial leadership of the organization to maintain their control over the business activities and operations of the subsidiaries(Yamin and Andersson, 2011). Secondly, it keeps the strategies and practices of the subsidiary employees in line with the strategic goals and objectives that the organizational headquarters has set and, ultimately, helps them in achieving such goals in an effective and efficient manner. Lastly, the usage of employees as expatriates enables the organization to transfer essential knowledge and skills to subsidiary offices. It also allows the management to instill and cultivate a culture of leadership within its foreign offices in order to foster leadership and managerial qualities amongst the employees of the subsidiaries. This, in turn, enables the organization to not only prepare managerial leaders for the future, but it also helps in the retention of the best employees (Harzing, 2001).

However, there are certain demerits and disadvantages that are also associated with the deployment of expat employees and managers in subsidiary offices. One of the primary disadvantages of using expatriate employees in subsidiaries is creating a culture of control and centralization. Expatriate managers are most commonly used to exercise and maintain control of the subsidiary and foreign business operations and activities. Hence, it can develop a sense of frustration and dissatisfaction within the workers of the subsidiary offices if they believe that expat managers restrict their freedom and workplace independence. Another disadvantage of having expat employees and managers is related to the costs of implementing such strategies(Gabriela, 2013). The procedure of sending expat employees and managers to foreign offices can be very costly and time consuming for the organization as immigration and residential processes tend to be both lengthy and expensive. It is also evident from research surrounding the topic that expat employees are prone to high burn out rates. Due to demanding nature of expat assignments and lack of knowledge of local cultures, expats are generally called back earlier than the life of the project. This can be regarded as another substantial disadvantage of using expat employees(Bossard and Peterson, 2005).


Coca Cola, Expats, and International HRM

            The Coca Cola Company is one of the leading multinational organizations in the world that utilize the strategy of deploying expat employees and managers to its foreign offices in a bid to manage business operations and activities in an effective and productive manner. The cola giant is present in nearly every corner of the world and sends expat managers to conduct its business operations effectively. The same is the case of Coca Cola UK which operates as the European headquarters of the multinational giant. Coca Cola UK generally sends its UK managers on expat assignments to its European subsidiary offices, but its approach is not ethnocentrism only as the company also utilizes polycentric and geocentric approaches depending on the workforce requirements. The company deploys expat employees to foreign offices primarily due either a lack of domestically available talent or a lack of appropriate experience amongst the managerial leadership within the subsidiary office in consideration(Baruch et al., 2002).

The selection of the right employee for the expatriation assignment also depends on a number of factors and dynamics. The nature of the expat project plays a critical role in the process of evaluation and selection. Similarly, the time limitations and monetary constraints are also critical in order to undertake such a decision. The cross-cultural suitability of the expat manager is, arguably, the most significant factor in the process as the success or failure of the project substantially depends on how well the expat manager is able to connect with the employees in the foreign office(Harvey and Moeller, 2009).


The Brexit Challenge

The issue of United Kingdom’s ongoing departure from the European Union (EU) is one of the most significant challenges for multinationals having business operations and offices both within the UK and in any other EU member countries. Brexit poses a number of different yet complex challenges and problems for the human resource practitioners of such multinational enterprises and severely impacts the recruitment and selection strategies that such organizations adopt. The managerial leadership, along with the human resource experts, of such entities have to address the issues and challenges created by Brexit in an effective and efficient manner in order to maintain the effectiveness of their recruitment and selection processes, so thatthe company maintains its growth and progress(Elliott and Stewart, 2017).

The most fundamental challenge that Brexit poses for the recruitment and selection strategy of a multinational enterprise is the issue immigration. The rules and regulations regarding the immigration of workers to and from other EU member countries are bound to change. It can severelyimpact the operational activities of the multinational enterprises as many expat employees and managers will have to obtain documentations in accordance with the new laws post Brexit. Another significant concern for the multinational companies is the retention of its existing workforce. The current organizational workforce might be comprised of employees belonging to other EU nationalities and their retention after Brexit becomes a major concern for the multinational organizations. If the human resource practitioners do not act effectively, the companies are at risk of not only losing potential best performing employees but then also face a significant challenge in filling vacant positions due to a shortage of talent caused by lack of foreign workers(Teague and Donaghey, 2018).



            It can be concluded that a common recruitment and selection strategy can be developed to an extent for a multinational company with business operations in UK and France through the utilization of one or a combination of international staffing approaches discussed. The example of Coca Cola UK suggests that, when used properly, expat employees and managers can unlock several avenues of growth and progress for the company. The issue of Brexit, however, is a significant challenge that needs to be tackled effectively so that the multinational organizations can gain the most out of efficient recruitment and selection processes.




















Banai, M., 1992. The ethnocentric staffing policy in multinational corporations a self-fulfilling prophecy. Int. J. Hum. Resour. Manag. 3, 451–472.

Baruch, Y., Steele, D.J., Quantrill, G.A., 2002. Management of expatriation and repatriation for novice global player. Int. J. Manpow.

Bossard, A.B., Peterson, R.B., 2005. The repatriate experience as seen by American expatriates. J. World Bus. 40, 9–28.

COLLINGS, D.G., SCULLION, H., 2006. Approaches to international staffing, in: Global Staffing. Routledge, pp. 33–54.

Elliott, C., Stewart, J., 2017. What are the (C) HRD implications of Brexit? A personal reflection? Taylor & Francis.

Gabriela, S.C., 2013. Expat-a Challenge for Employers. Ovidius Univ. Ann. Ser. Econ. Sci. 13.

Harris, H., Brewster, C., Sparrow, P., 2003. International human resource management. CIPD Publishing.

Harvey, M., Moeller, M., 2009. Expatriate mangers: A historical review. Int. J. Manag. Rev. 11, 275–296.

Harzing, A.-W., 2001. Of bears, bumble-bees, and spiders: The role of expatriates in controlling foreign subsidiaries. J. World Bus. 36, 366–379.

Isiaka, S.B., Aliyu, M.O., Abogunrin, A.P., Aremu, N.S., Abdullah, A.S., 2016. A Conceptual Analysis of Global Human Resource Practices: Challenges and Prosp. Covenant J. Bus. Soc. Sci. 7.

Lakshman, S., Lakshman, C., Estay, C., 2017. The relationship between MNCs’ strategies and executive staffing. Int. J. Organ. Anal.

Michailova, S., Piekkari, R., Storgaard, M., Tienari, J., 2017. Rethinking ethnocentrism in international business research. Glob. Strategy J. 7, 335–353.

Minbaeva, D.B., Michailova, S., 2004. Knowledge transfer and expatriation in multinational corporations: The role of disseminative capacity. Empl. Relat. 26, 663–679.

Onodugo, V.A., Adeleke, B.S., Ike, R.N., 2017. Ethnocentric Behaviour and Business Performance of Multinational Enterprises (MNES): Evidence From South-West Nigeria. Int. J. Adv. Eng. Manag. Sci. 3, 98–106.

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Teague, P., Donaghey, J., 2018. Brexit: EU social policy and the UK employment model. Ind. Relat. J. 49, 512–533.

Thoo, L., Kaliannan, M., 2013. International HR Assignment in Recruiting and Selecting: Challenges, Failures and Best Practices. Int. J. Hum. Resour. Stud. 3, 143.

Yamin, M., Andersson, U., 2011. Subsidiary importance in the MNC: What role does internal embeddedness play? Int. Bus. Rev. 20, 151–162.



Financial futures and options are subcategories of financial derivatives that are primarily used for trading financial risks associated with the price fluctuations of different assets.( Statistics Department, International Monetary Fund, 1998).  Before 1972, the utilization of futures and options was fundamentally limited to assets about agriculture; however, with time, traders started to take advantage of this financial instrument in their tradings of foreign currency, interest rates, and stocks, etc.(William L. Silber , 1985).  As the term refers, derivatives are instruments that derive their value from the performance of their underlying assets; unlike debt instruments, no principle amount is advanced to be repaid later, and no interest rate is charged.( Don M. Chance, PhD, CFA, 2019). This paper will further assess the similarities and differences between the subclasses of financial derivatives, futures, and options.

Future contracts are instruments through which two parties mutually agree to trade a specific asset at a fixed price on a predetermined date in future – as both of the parties are bound to complete this transaction, future contracts fall in the subcategory of financial derivatives known as “Forward Commitments.” ( Don M. Chance, PhD, CFA, 2019). On the other hand, financial options also fulfill the same objective as of future contract,s but here the instrument provides the right but not the obligation to complete the transaction to the buyer of the instrument; hence, categorizing under the subcategory of financial derivatives known as “Contingent Claims.” ( Don M. Chance, PhD, CFA, 2019)

Besides the similarity that both of these instruments grant the opportunity to trade a particular asset at a predetermined price in the future, other commonalities between these two instruments also exist. Just like other financial instruments such as stocks and bonds, both – future and option can be traded on standardized exchanges and over the counter (OTC) markets.(Ernst Juerg Weber , 2008). Derivatives, which are regulated, are traded on exchanges whereas customized derivatives trade on OTC markets; standardization of a financial derivative contract means that the terms and conditions are specified explicitly by the exchanges. (Jaffee, Dwight M., 1986). Another similarity between the two financial instruments is that both provide the holder an opportunity to multiply the power of the cash; hence, making them leverage instruments. Here leverage precisely means that the buyer of the derivative can make more profit by buying a future or an option on a similar move on its principal asset than the buyer would have if he had purchased the same underlying asset with the same cash.(C. Sherman Cheung Clarence C. Y. Kwan Patrick C. Y. Yip, 1990).

Although both futures and options may appear similar on the surface, there exist few stark differences between both, which is essential to understand before getting into the trading of these instruments.

The fundamental difference between the future and option is that the parties involved in the future contract have to buy and sell the underlying asset at a scheduled date, making futures as legally binding agreements. (Flesaker, Bjorn, 1993). Whereas, the buyer of the option has the right but not an obligation to exercise the deal, and it relies on the inclination of the buyer that whether he would want to trade the underlying asset or not. The second key difference between the future and the option is standardization. ( Don M. Chance, PhD, CFA, 2019). Futures contracts are highly standardized and regulated as per the requirements and regulations of exchanges where they are traded. Hereby standardization, it is meant that features of future instruments like the specification of underlying assets, date and time of expiration, conditions of settlement and delivery, the quantity of the underlying asset, etc. are usually regulated and standardized. (Park, Hun Y; Chen, Andrew H., 1985). On the contrary, option instruments are flexible and customized as per the requirements and desires of the trading parties. Having a substantial level of standardization makes the futures more liquid than the option agreements.(BRADFORD CORNELL MARC R. REINGANUM, 1981).  Future contracts also enjoy a central clearing facility from the trade exchanges; moreover, these exchanges also offer protection against losses and defaults to holders of the instruments. ( Don M. Chance, PhD, CFA, 2019) . Option contracts are generally traded at over the control market which is not as regulated as proper future trade exchanges; hence, making option contract less liquid than its counterpart. (MENACHEM BRENNER GEORGES COURTADON MARTI SUBRAHMANYAM, 1985)

Another dimension where future and option differ from each other is the level of risk. As the buyer of the future has the obligation to complete the deal and has to buy or sell the underlying asset even if the price movement is against his benefits; whereas, the buyer of the option has the right but not any forceful binding to exercise the deal, if the price movement of the underlying asset is against his benefit, the buyer won’t fulfill the agreement and reduce the amount of losses he has to bear. As to conclude, a future instrument doesn’t provide any floor or ceiling to the potential loss or gain the buyer can achieve; however, an option agreement can bring unlimited gains to the buyer, but it does protect from losing the unlimited amount of money.( Don M. Chance, PhD, CFA, 2019)

The last distinction this paper will discuss is the advance payment. While getting into a futures contract, the buyer doesn’t pay any money upfront at the time of entering the agreement but has to pay for the underlying asset in the future eventually. Whereas, in option contract, the buyer of the instrument has to pay a premium to the other party as this premium payment grants the liberty to the buyer to not exercise the deal later; hence, compensating the other party for taking the risk. If the buyer of the option contract decides not the complete the trade at the exercise date, the premium amount he paid earlier would be the amount he would lose. ( Don M. Chance, PhD, CFA, 2019). Commission fee has to be paid for both of the instruments.

Both instruments, futures, and options, help the traders of the financial world in hedging the risk of uncertainty. With several similarities between them, there exist few stark differences which set them apart.



Don M. Chance, PhD, CFA, 2019. Derivative Markets and Instruments. s.l.:CFA Institute.

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            One of the many distinct traits and qualities of an entrepreneur is the tendency to think out of the box and find solutions to effectively resolve the problem at hand that might not have been possible to achieve while working in accordance with the defined set of procedures and practices. The entrepreneur’s non-compatibility with standardized rules and regulations appears to be the fundamental reason behind the belief that entrepreneurs are not capable or suited for working within an organizational or corporate setting. However, the concept of corporate entrepreneurship provides a unique perspective to the subject of entrepreneurship.

The essay looks at the academic research and discussion surrounding the domain of corporate entrepreneurship. It studies the various models and frameworks that are associated with corporate entrepreneurship and tries to evaluate whether corporate entrepreneurship should be considered an oxymoron, or if the concept has enough advantages and benefits for an organization that it can be regarded as a necessity for the attainment of the organization’s strategic goals and objectives.


Corporate Entrepreneurship

            The entrepreneurial individuals working in an organizational setting are typically termed as ‘Corporate Entrepreneurs.’ Donald and Goldsby (2004)describe corporate entrepreneurs as “those managers or employees of the company who do not follow the status quo of their co-workers” (Donald and Goldsby, 2004). They also highlight an important trait of such employees by suggesting that the corporate entrepreneurs are often regarded as the ‘visionaries’ within the organization and are critical to the progress and growth of the company in the long run. However, the corporate entrepreneurs, in their bid to take the company to the next step, are often prone to disregard the established processes and procedures set in place by the organizational leadership. (Chau and Siu, 2000)

Despite their disregard for defined structures and working processes, the corporate entrepreneurs account for being extremely resourceful and creative employees of the organization. Sharma and Chrisman (2007)argue that the corporate entrepreneurs are the best suited employees in order to deal with challenging issues and problems in an effective and efficient manner. While, they have indicated towards many unique qualities and traits of corporate entrepreneurs, (Donald and Goldsby, 2004) have also argued that the practices and activities of corporate entrepreneurs can hamper the organizational progress as well. The corporate entrepreneurs tend to work “with a fine line between unique resourcefulness and outright rule breaking which can easily cause substantial damage to the company” (Donald and Goldsby, 2004).


Why is Corporate Entrepreneurship a Necessity?

            There are many benefits and advantages that the managerial leadership of a company can utilize by instilling and encouraging entrepreneurial capabilities and practices within its organizational workforce. One of the most fundamental advantages of establishing an organizational culture that promotes the values of corporate entrepreneurship is productivity. When employees are allowed to generate and pursue new and innovative ideas and solutions to business challenges, it not only has beneficial results for the growth of the organization, but such entrepreneurial freedom can also open new opportunities for the employees and propel them to greater career heights(Tseng and Tseng, 2019). Similarly, some of the other major advantages associated with the practice of corporate entrepreneur are the efficiency in pursuit of new ventures and projects, the effective implementation of change processes, and the retention of the organization’s most productive employees. (Dess et al., 1999)


Essential Models and Frameworks

Some of the primary models and frameworks that highlight the necessity of corporate entrepreneurship are presented below.


  • Stealth Innovation

Stealth innovation is one of the fundamental concepts that aid corporate entrepreneurship is the concept of stealth innovation. Miller and Wedell-Wedellsborg (2013)argue that stealth innovation is one of the most effective ways of promoting the culture of corporate entrepreneurship within the organization. It allows the employees to seek and pursue their innovative ideas and strategies that can be extremely beneficial for the company. Stealth innovation enables the employees to work undercover on their planned project or innovative idea first and then engage the managerial leadership of the company in order to get their approval. In order to prevent the project from being shot down, stealth innovation enables the corporate entrepreneur to work on his idea in silent and gather enough working evidence to support his plan so that it cannot be turned down when presented to the higher management.

An example of stealth innovation is of Jordan Cohen of Pfizer. Cohen successfully implemented his project pfizerWorks which allowed the employees to outsource their daily tasks to focus increasingly on important business activities. This, in turn, led the company to benefit from higher productivity levels. Cohen applied stealth innovation and worked on his idea under the radar and gathered allies and evidence for its support. He then successfully got the management’s approval for his project as he was able to back his idea with substantial data and evidence of its effectiveness.(Forbes, 2013)

However, there are certain demerits and disadvantages associated with the utilization of stealth innovation as well. One of the major drawbacks is that the corporate entrepreneur tends to lose focus on his regular roles and responsibilities and works excessively on his project under the radar. It can lead to adverse effects on the company’s operations and overall productivity. Similarly, the corporate entrepreneur can lose sight of the business goals and take more and more risks to get his project successful. The case of Jérôme Kerviel is evidentof this as he allegedly madeillegal trades costing Société Générale more than $7.2 billion(Iskyan, 2016). Such risks can, however, be avoided by establishing a culture of clear communication, regular feedback, and by ensuring that the project falls in line with the organization’s business objectives.


  • Greiner Framework

The Greiner framework is a strategic business tool that provides an effective understanding regarding the age, growth, and progress of an organization.The framework involves five stages of development or phases of growth during an organization’s life cycle, namely the creative phase, the direction phase, the delegation phase, the coordination phase, and the collaboration phase. Each of such phases is marked with its unique set of challenges and problems that have to tackled effectively for the company to ensure its growth and progress in the long run(Greiner, 1998). The practices and procedures of corporate entrepreneurship can be applied effectively during such phases of organizational growth in order to address the potential challenges in an efficient manner. Hence, corporate entrepreneurship becomes a necessity for organizational success and prosperity.

For instance, the primary challenge during the direction phase as per the Greiner framework is the issue of decentralization and autonomy. This stage is characterized by employees demanding for autonomy and workplace independence while the managers are unwilling to lose control of business decision making processes. The practices of corporate entrepreneurship can be implemented here in order to provide an appropriate degree of freedom and delegation to the employees who have been identified by the management to be most suited for such responsibility. It will also allow the managers to keep the activities of the employees in check by ensuring effective communication and consultation. An example of this practice can be the workplace delegation model in place at Google which allows creative freedom and decentralization to its employees.


  • Organizational Ambidexterity

O’Reilly III and Tushman (2013) define organizational ambidexterity as the “ability of anorganization to both explore and exploit—to compete in mature technologies and markets where efficiency, control, and incremental improvement are prized and to also compete in new technologies and markets where flexibility, autonomy, and experimentation are needed.” The utilization of corporate entrepreneurship practices is essential to the dynamics of exploration and exploitation within the organization. The corporate entrepreneurs are central to exploring new business opportunities and exploiting viable project leads which can be highly beneficial for the business. Hence, corporate entrepreneurship becomes a necessity for the company when viewed in regard to the concept of organizational ambidexterity. An example of organizational ambidexterity is Apple which effectively engages in both exploration and exploitation activities by inventing new devices as well as making efficient modifications and improvements to existing products. (Mootee, 2012)


The Challenge of Corporate Entrepreneurship

While corporate entrepreneurship holds many unprecedented benefits and advantages for the company, it is, nevertheless, a risky proposition that comes with its own set of issues and challenges(Garvin and Levesque, 2006).Donald and Goldsby (2004) have proposed three primary applications in order to tackle the problems posed by corporate entrepreneurship. Firstly, the organization mustcultivate the required flexibility, freedom, innovation, and risk appetite within its culture. Secondly, the managerial leadership must actively seek and identify the possible barriers that might become a hindrance for employees in order to practice the values of corporate entrepreneurship.

Similarly, the management also has to align the individual objectives and goals of the entrepreneurial employees with the organizational vision and strategic targets(Dess et al., 2003). Ultimately, the development of an ethical framework holds substantial importance for the organization to train and guide the corporate entrepreneurs so that they are able to utilize the available resources and capabilities in the most effective and productive manner. (Donald and Goldsby, 2004)



            It can be essentially concluded from the above discussion that corporate entrepreneurship is not only an oxymoron, but it is also a necessity. Research has shown that the values and principles of corporate entrepreneurship hold substantial benefits and advantages for any organization and can guide it towards progress and prosperity in the long run. The concepts of stealth innovation and organizational ambidexterity, along with the Greiner framework, provide significant evidence to the necessity of corporate entrepreneurship for an organization.



Chau, L.L., Siu, W., 2000. Ethical Decision Making in Corporate Entrepreneurial Organizations. J. Bus. Ethics 23, 365–375.

Dess, G.G., Ireland, R.D., Zahra, S.A., Floyd, S.W., Janney, J.J., Lane, P.J., 2003. Emerging issues in corporate entrepreneurship. J. Manag. 29, 351–378.

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Executive Summary


This paper is focused on the details of the rentier state. There is ample literature available on the history of the Middle East and why the countries residing in that region came to be known as rentier states. This paper explains the concepts behind the rentier state theory. It will also shed light on the theory’s limitations. Recent studies and geopolitical environments around the globe suggest that the economic and political conditions and development in Middle Eastern countries cannot get explained with the help of the rentier state theory. And as times progress, it has become less and less relevant.



Energy has always been a fundamental part of world politics. It has been responsible for shifting the authority and dominance from the hands of one country to the other throughout history. It has influenced alliances and wars between the world’s most powerful nations. The Middle Eastern countries play a vital part when it comes to the energy resources of the world. The political and economic framework in Middle Eastern countries is not the same as the countries in the West or even China, which is another essential country. It is safe to say that the political relations of the Middle Eastern world with the other powerful nations, especially those in the West or more particularly the United States, haven’t always been very cordial. They are often at an edge with each other. Middle Eastern countries follow the rentier state theory, and it plays a critical part in their political and economic development. However, as we approach modern times, the theory alone may not suffice to explain the countries’ political and economic development. The global energy geopolitics plays a vital role as well. A lot of research has been done on the rentier state theory in light of the Middle Eastern Countries. In this paper, we will be discussing the political and economic development of Middle Eastern Countries and whether or not the rentier state theory is enough to explain it, given the global energy geopolitics.


Rentier state

Let’s begin by explaining what a rentier state is. The rentier state theory aims to explain the politics and economics of the Middle Eastern countries. It was given majorly by Lisa Anderson (Anderson, 1987). Her work is based on the studies that majorly emerged in the 1980s (Altunisik, 2014). The idea of the rentier state was, however, first put forward by an Iranian academic by the name of Hossein Mahdavi (Mahdavy, 1970). It was further worked on by economists who put forward their work in the 1980s. Middle Eastern countries required another politic-economic framework because they are different from other countries in one central aspect. They are all oil-producing countries and, like mainstream countries, do not collect taxes from their population for revenue generation for the government. Instead, they collect rents and depend on them (Altunisik, 2014). Hence, the pace of economic and political development, and the approach towards it, is different in rentier states in comparison to rest of the world. They depend on their energy resources, and up till now, they seem to have been doing well, at least on surface level.

Altunisik (2014) mentions in his paper the three main characteristics of a rentier state. The first characteristic says is that revenues generated from oil get paid to the government as a form of rent. It makes oil a “strategic commodity,” hence, weakening the bond between the production price and the market price. The second characteristic points out that oil is sold and marketed in global economy to maximize revenues. And lastly, whatever profits get accumulated over time from the sale of oil in the global economy all comes under and in the hands of the state, which is solely responsible for deciding what they want to do with the money. Since these characteristics are prominently observed in Middle Eastern countries, they have earned the title of a “rentier state.” Concisely, a rentier state can be simplified as a state that depends on oil rent to sustain a major chunk of its economy and also use it as government revenues. It was later given by Luciani, who said that any country whose economic dependency on oil is up to 40 percent or more would get classified as a rentier state (Luciani, 1990). Based on this number, the following countries are rentier states: “Kuwait (88%); Qatar (87%); UAE (84%); Oman (81%); Saudi Arabia (80%); Bahrain (59%); Libya (58%); Iraq (n/a); Iran (55%); Algeria (53%); Yemen (46%)” (Herb, 2005).


Economic, Political and Social Implications of Rentier States

Rentier states are heavily dependent on oil and they accumulate profits earned from oil. Their economic framework does not include the usual modes of investment, interest, market prices, or various industries as in other countries. Hence, their growth and development, in comparison, gets affected. These arguments have been presented in the literature on rentier states. Mahdavy (1970) has talked about some of the economic effects in his article. Oil is a commodity that almost the entire world needs in one way of the other. So, of course, there is a significant inflow of money that goes into rentier states. It is much faster-paced than the revenue influx in mainstream economies where it is much smaller and slower. Now, this should seem to be a good thing for the oil states, but research and study suggest that this damages the economy and its steady development. Oil revenues have little to do with the local community and economy. They go directly to the state.  The oil industries do not contribute much to the domestic sector. It also builds up a façade of productivity and prosperity which surrounds a rentier state. The more accurate depiction includes development on surface level. Other sectors in the economy, and various other industries often go neglected (Altunisik, 2014).

Similarly, there are different political and social implications in a rentier state as well.Many of the most popular economic frameworks try and promote the idea of keeping the state intervention to a minimum in the economy of the country. Their involvement is to encourage the growth of the economy through policies and investments. Otherwise, it is highly dependent on market functions. The other role the government plays is to ensure welfare and security for the local population. Democratic governments also idealize autonomy and liberty for the citizens. All these values and concepts get contradicted inside a rentier state. The negation starts from the fact that the state is in direct control of the country’s most significant revenue resource, and also the sole bearer of all its fruits. So, the state automatically becomes very centralized and plays a vital role in the economy of the country (Luciani, 1987). However, there isn’t much the oil-state does for the local economy except for distributing the rent amongst them. They are majorly responsible for public goods and services and also are the main employers (Anderson, 1987). Rentier states still, however, do lack the proper frameworks for administration. Since they do not take taxes, most of their institutions, such as, fiscal, legal, or research institutions, are not well developed (Chaudry, 1989). So, rentier states are also “institutionally weak” (Altunisik, 2014).

The political and social structure of rentier states also impacts the general mindset of the people living in them. They have been conditioned over the years to accept these ways of things.They are not very concerned about development,in terms of industries and job markets, rather than what they can access from the state’s rent money. On the other hand, many outsiders are working in rentier states as well who come seeking jobs. The state does not give them the same incentives that are given to the natives, despite of their higher level of productivity and hard work in comparison. There are vast levels of disparities between them. Migrants don’t even get citizenship in Middle Eastern countries regardless of the decades they spend there and the services they do. It also impacts the unity and class system inside rentier states. The community gets divided as per ethnicities, tribes, or religion (Delacroix, 1980). Oil rents get given out in the forms of “employment, social welfare benefits, subsidies, and interest-free loans” or as a form of annual payments as is done in some Gulf monarchies (Altunisik, 2014).

The oil money has resulted in immense power in the hands of the rentier states’ leaders. It has helped them make powerful relationships and alliances with other influential groups, and similarly, it has also allowed them to downplay opposing powerful groups. Examples from Saudi Arab, Libya, and Iran can be given here. Oil revenues enabled the Nejdi al-Saud family to undermine and ignore the strength of the Hijazi group of merchants, which were a power threat to the state (Chaudry,1994). Furthermore, Libya was able to reform its political, economic, and social structure during the era of Qaddafi being a rentier state as well (Altunisik, 1994).

Similarly, the shah of Iran was able to dominate the “landlords and ulemas” due to the increase in oil revenues collected. It automatically shifted Iran’s power base paradigm. Homogenous cases of power are seen in other Middle Eastern countries such as Qatar and Kuwait as well. The bottom line, it has become the common conception around the globe that having oil resources means having power, and it is what the world is after, specifically the United States. Rentier states themselves function through this game of power influence. It further reinstates the fact that the weight of democracy or liberalization in these states is close to negligible. They are significantly bent towards authoritarianism (Luciani, 1987). There is hardly any political participation by locals in a rentier state (Anderson, 1987), which further indicates why the governments do not care for societal concerns or demands (Altunisik, 2014).

Limitations of a Rentier State and the Rentier State Theory

The rentier state theory, as seen above, aims to give a generalized, common framework that could fit in all the states that we know as rentier states. It tries to consolidate their similarities. We can also see from the literature presented above that rentier states have certain benefits and specific cons as well. As time has progressed and more research has surfaced, the rentier state theory has faced more criticism than applause. A prominent weakness in the theory is that it does not take into account, effectively, the differences between individual Middle Eastern countries (Altunisik, 1994).

Another problem with the theory is that it was based on previous studies and collection of histories.  It did not involve any quantitative or qualitative analysis of the earlier times or for the times to come. It also does not account for, of course, the changing climate of the world’s energy geopolitics. The advancements that were made in terms of technology got neglected as well. Scholars have also criticized the link between the theory and the concept of authoritarianism (Ohrulik,1999).  The logic behind taxation and distributive policies also remain ambiguous. They say that the two do not relate with each other unanimously (Altunisik, 2014). It should be noted that taxation has begun in some aspects, and increased in the rentier states.

These criticisms led to the need for the rethinking of the rentier theory model and to make some sound changes in it. First of all, new studies focused on including the effects of the individual state policies on their own political, and economic situation rather than considering them all as one. Via in-depth studies of these states separately, it was also revealed that they differed in terms of their oil-related histories, and social and political structures (Altunisik, 2014). Their historical accounts have greatly influenced the coalitions and social frameworks these states have formed over the years (Crystal, 1995). There also came an oil bust in the 1980s which did not go accounted for in the theory (Chaudry,1994). This downfall in prices of oil leads to the question of the sustainability of the rentier states. In times that the oil will not be sufficient to generate the expected and desired amount of revenue, what fiscal policies would these states need to adopt? It was a question of how the financial crisis would get controlled to maintain stability, which previously depended on the distribution of oil rents.

The economic conditions of rentier states deteriorated with the slump in oil prices. Since the states had not previously worked on other viable sources of revenue to meet the demands, they faced complications. There was a risk for social unrest as people would no longer be able to get the same chunk of oil rent, but the states could not afford this either because this would lead to their opposers and rivals to believe that the states’ power had been compromised. Sure enough, Saudi Arab and Libya weren’t able to successfully control the crisis. On the other hand, Kuwait, having well-organized business institutions as well, was able to handle the crisis effectively. In fact, for businesses in this gulf state, this was an opportunity to grow and develop further and restructure the economic framework of the country. It also brought political stability as the state now depended on these business elites for the power image in front of opposing groups (Karl, 1997). Similar events followed in Qatar as well despite a weaker business system initially.

The banking and financial sector of rentier states or Middle Eastern countries is also quite flawed. Once again, it is highly influenced by the state, and even private banks are discretely working as state-disguised institutions. Secondly, of course, the fluctuations in oil prices and the oil market directly impact the financial sector as well. The function of financial markets is to facilitate consumption and provide investment to businesses. Still, they do not assume this role at all in rentier states, which makes one question their existence in such an environment in the first place. All the handles of the financial sector are in the hands of the regime, and it has suffered from a severe lack of reform in comparison to the rest of the world (Creane et al., 2003). It shows a sustained disparity between the political economy and society, and it is also one of the main characteristics of a rentier state. They discourage reforms and liberalization since the state is adamant about safeguarding its own interests only.

Over the years leading to present times, the rentier theory has become limited mainly to the lack of democracy in the Middle Eastern states and their persistence towards authoritarianism. Even though the world has seen several waves of democratization, but Middle Eastern countries continue to resist it (Brynen, n.d.). It was stated by academics such as Michael Ross that that “the oil-impedes-democracy claim is both valid and statistically robust; oil does hurt democracy” (Ross, 2001). There was also stagnation in social growth, development, and modernization of the state. All these factors become a hindrance in the democratizing of a nation.

Conversely, some studies put forward the argument that the rentier states have wisely used the oil wealth for the betterment of the society and economy, and the criticisms made on their methods are exaggerated for the worse parts (Altunisik, 2014). Furthermore, Benjamin Smith (2004) also emphasized that even though Middle Eastern states faced economic and political shortcomings during oil price slumps, it did not shatter the overall survival of the states in the long term. However, these counter-arguments don’t do much to justify the incompetency of the rentier state theory.

The rentier state theory is also not sufficient to stand alone for all Arab or Middle Eastern countries. Countries such as Syria, Egypt, or Jordan simply do not fit in the same paradigm. While all Middle Eastern countries lack most natural resources, these three lack even oil. It means they do not benefit like other rentier states. Neither do they have that sort of wealth. And yet they maintain the same outlook towards how the state runs, meaning that other institutions, including democracy, are not developed. They want to keep the same kind of political and economic structure as their oil-rich neighbors (Malik, 2017).These countries are known as MENA economies, which stand for the Middle East and North Africa. They have faced war as well, which has led to further downfall in political and economic stability and growth (The World Bank, 2017).

The MENA states still, however, have been able to accumulate some revenue through three primary sources, which are “aid, remittances, and rents from government regulations” (Malik, 2017). They get foreign aid way more than other needy and low-income countries around the globe, which is peculiar. Even countries with sufficient oil resources such as Iran and Bahrain got to share foreign aid. It is suggested that this because of their strategic position. It shows how geopolitics is in play, which is beyond what rentier state theory can explain. These countries also have many expatriates working and earning.  The state receives a massive portion of its GDP via remittances from these expatriates. For example, Jordan and Lebanon’s 20% GDP consists of these remittances (Ahmad, 2012). Remittances help relieve some of the political pressures off of the government of these states, making them less concerned about the public and increasing unemployment (Malik, 2017). All this makes the relevance of the rentier state theory loom larger as a question mark.

Furthermore, remittances also play a part in slowing down long-term economic growth (Rajan and Subramanian, 2011). They act as a protective shield along with the incoming foreign aid, weakening the prospects for economic reforms. Last but not least, the third resource is government rents. All these states are centralized with their governments at the centre of everything, the same as all rentier states. It gives birth to monopolistic type of behaviour where prices are controlled and in hands of the government rather than the market. The states also place and face trade barriers, which further hinders economic growth. Furthermore, there is not much fiscal monitoring in these countries, and elites often abuse their influence to accumulate these rents (Malik, 2017).

From the above analysis, it can be seen that the rentier state theory that revolves around only one main component of the Middle Eastern countries, that is, oil, is not sufficient to explain the rest of the complexities these countries face. Many would disagree, that oil resource is the only lethal element to the political and economic growth of Middle Eastern countries. It is important to note that rich Middle Eastern states do not only have a market for oil but also a market for capital. They provide monetary funds and investments to foreign countries as a geopolitical measure, which helps them to sustain their image as being influential. They also finance the less-richer Middle Eastern states such as Egypt, Jordan, and Yemen as the last straw in these countries’ financial struggles.

Similarly, a lot of money also goes to military-related investments, since terrorist organizations in the Middle East are active, and this investment is on the rise. These terrorist groups present a threat to the rest of the world as well. Hence, the need for Middle Eastern states to have an authoritarian approach in the broader geopolitical framework arises (Malik, 2017). The rent system in the middle east is the main reason behind its lack of political and economic growth and reform, and it is, at the same time, challenging to remove as the people have become dependent and used-to it. The authoritarian regimes continue to last despite occasional pitfalls. A lot is at play here, as discussed earlier as well. Many elite and influential groups and coalitions that benefit fromMiddle Eastern methods, and they also play a role in the global geopolitics, would not want this framework to change.

When we look at the current times, we can also observe how some of the states that are so-called rentier or oil-dependent as part of the rentier state theory are not so much of that anymore. A highly applicable example of this is Dubai, which is the largest Emirate from the United Arab Emirates. This state has become one of the most popular tourist spots and a business hub. It is highly diversified, and much away from oil as a primary source of revenue for the economy. It is also highly developed and technologically well-equipped. The state authorities there promote privatization, and the rentier mindset has drastically decreased over there. Hence, this brings up the question of whether or not UAE qualifies as a pure rentier state and whether the rentier state theory is sufficient to describe its political conditions (Zicchieri, 2016). Herb (2005) presents further shortcomings in the theory as well. First of all, wealth in the rentier states is not only a result of oil-rents, as we see from the Dubai example, so it is wrong to assume that. So, wealth cannot be broadly framed to be responsible for the failure of the formation of democracy in Middle Eastern States.

Another significant observation is that the political structure of Middle Eastern states such as the UAE is highly influenced by their histories. The people have been used-to for hundreds of years to form tribal links and to have communal unities while being ruled by one ruler. It is not just a result of rentier-ism. The social constructs in these states have modernized over the years slowly to adjust, but they can still be linked back to their historical origins. Furthermore, the rentier state theory also does not include the domestic economy of the states and hence, also does not have space for the current non-rent economic changes and developments taking place over there. These developments are perhaps most prominent in the UAE, which is also working towards diversifying its economy and taking it away from oil dependency (Hvidt, 2013), promoting the private sector (Toledo, 2013). The rentier state theory ignores all these advancements. While many other Middle Eastern countries may not have reached the level of UAE and may seem to conform to the theory more, the argument still cannot be forgone because UAE is also a significant part of the Middle East.

The only thing the rentier theory focuses on, and deems responsible for the social, economic, and political conditions of the Middle Eastern countries, is oil-rents or other rents. It does not take into account the increased participation of foreign organizations in the policymaking processes and all the geopolitics that is involved. So, RST fails to provide reasoning’s for civil unrest, or its risks, in different states as it cannot explain geopolitical, foreign relations. RST also ignores merchants and business elites that are becoming increasingly influential in the Middle Eastern countries unlike before, making it no longer relevant and consistent with the recent changes in the political-economic structure.


Conclusively, it can be said that the rentier state theory is indeed not sufficient to explain the development and growth of the politics and economy in the Middle Eastern countries. While it may be relevant in the past because its entire premise is history and the states’ availability of oil as a source of revenue, in the present times, a lot more comes into play. Middle Eastern countries have evolved ever since the theory came into existence by a great deal. And The global paradigm of power is shifting as well, now more than ever and geopolitics plays a vital role in that. But the rentier state theory is not much concerned with geopolitics. While we do not have to discard the theory altogether, it is safe to say that its relevance has decreased significantly today and for the future. Beblawi (1987) noted that “there is no such thing as a pure rentier economy.”



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