Animal Farm is George Orwell’s allegorical novel that describes the stories of a group of animals that turn out as rebels against their oppressing human farmers.William Golding in his novel “Lord of the Flies” describes the story of a group of British students that are stranded on an island and later form groups to govern themselves.Orwell and Golding present their Animal Farm and Lord of Flies that refers to oppression that they observed in societies around them.

Orwell was a critic of the Stalin, and his novel Animal farm is the Russian Revolution’s metaphor. Characters in the novel represent actual people and Napoleon and his fellow pigs were actually metaphors for Kremlin. He focused on writing about the greed and lust for power. The In Animal farm, Orwell’s mentions, “Four legged good, two legs bad”(Orwell, 1945) He saw that the leaders had drifted away from Marxism and he used these lines to relate to that era’s leader. This line represents the idea that not all humans are equal. Dinesh Kumar in his articles agrees with the mindset of  refers to the Vision of Society in George Orwell’s Animal Farm” describes how Orwell expressed his views on authoritarianism andtotalitarianism regarding the globe world through symbolically using the character’s in the novel, regarding Oppression, Tyranny and injustice. (Kumar, 2014) This reinforces oppression as a theme of the novel.“All animals are equal, but some animals are more equal than others.”(Orwell, 1945)Here, Orwell refers to a satirical presentation of the idea regarding all the animals as being equals, yet some are equal. He referred to are equal in everything except the ones that is chosen by humans as leaders. Napoleon in this Novel represents Stalin and Orwell symbolizes the started wearing clothes that were not allowed for animals. He also started to walk on two legs. Furthermore  “If you have your lower animals to contend with,” he said, “we have our lower classes”(Orwell, 1945)refers to the class system in animals as well as human beings. Animals have classes where some are weak, and some are strong. Some are fast, and some are slow. That is what ranks them from lower to the upper tier in the animals. On the other hand, there are classes in human beings as well. Golding

Likewise there is oppression in Lord of FliesI ought to be chief…because I’m chapter chorister and head boy. I can sing C sharp.(Golding, 1954)Jack uses these words to claim to be the natural leader of the boys. His choice of words depicts his oppressive attitude towards others. One who claims by himself that he is the one deserving to be the leader of the group claiming he can sing C sharp? with the notion that Jack was actually an oppressor that represents savagery. Xiaofang Li in her article, “On Symbolic Significance of Characters in Lord of the Flies” refers to jack in the exact word as a savage. He is a dictator by nature and forces the followers to do so. (Li, 2009)Jack attitude towards other is belittling and he doesn’t respect his team mates.Golding further writes, “His specs – use them as burning glasses!”(Golding, 1954) Another highly demeaning and insulting comment that Jack passes is for Piggy’s glasses. Soon as they feel the need for fire, Jack refers to piggy’s glasses that can be used as fire. This is another insulting comment by Jack for one of the group members that yet again represents the word oppression. He is so arrogant that in spite of looking for some woods for fire, the first idea that comes to his genius mind is to use his group member’s glasses to be used for fire.Eat! Damn you!(Golding, 1954)These are words used by Jack for his team members soon as he manages to kill the pig, he asks the team members to eat it in his honor. This is another example of oppression where he oppresses his team member to do something against their will and be happy with it as well. Li in her article writes about Jack choosing to hunt because of his urge for blood and that he wants to share a conquest of killing something and enjoy the pleasure of taking life. (Li, 2009) This depicts his autocratic attitude towards others and his oppressive attitude depicts by it. His wants to prove himself strong and powerful. This makes him the symbol of oppression in Lord of the Flies.

In the light of this evidence, it can be concluded on the fact that there was the portrayal of oppression by characters in both the novels. Jack in Lord of the Flies was the oppressor that time and again proved of being  a oppressor in the novel by his actions. On the other hand, Napoleon in Animal farm was the oppressors.He was an oppressor who took charge from snowball by force. His personality changed soon as he became the oppressing leader in Animal Farm..Hence, both Animal Farm and Lord of the Flies had the element of oppression in it.



Golding, W. (1954). Lord of the Flies. Faber and Faber.

Kumar, D. (2014). Vision of Society in George Orwell’s Animal Farm. International Journal of Research, 89-99. Retrieved from

Li, X. (2009). On Symbolic Significance of Characters in Lord of the Flies. School of Foreign Languages, 119-123. Retrieved from

Orwell, G. (1945). Animal farm. Secker and Warburg.




Why are adjusting entries important? What are the consequences of not booking adjusting entries at the end of the accounting period?

Adjusting entries are crucial because they are used to align the books with all the transactions made before financial statements are prepared for a specific accounting period. Adjusting entries, as the name implies, are additions to accommodate the journal entries for the accounting period. Adjusting entries occur for transactions that have occurred but not listed in the books. To add any unrecognized income or expenses for the accounting period, adjusting entries are made into revenues or costs that goes along more than the accounting period. Suppose we have a tax for six months, but our accounting period is three months, then we have to adjust the entries accordingly – i.e., for three months. Moreover, the same goes for expenses. If we have paid for one-year costs, but we are closing the books for three months, we have to make some adjustments.

Revenues that we have received in advance will affect our obligations. However, the costs that we have paid in advance shall affect our assets.

Example of adjusting entries: In January, you sent an invoice of $10,000 to a client for the services you provided. But they pay you in February. In January, you note that money into accounts receivables- as you are expecting to receive it. In February, you record the payment for bank deposit – once received. To make an adjusting entry, you must not go back and erase the initial data and put a new one. Instead, you have to create a new entry altering the initial entries. Let’s assume that the clients ask you for a 5% discount on the service, and you agree to grant it to them. Now to make the adjustment that is in line with the new status, you deduct a 5% amount from your accounts receivables. Besides, the modifications are forced upon the accountants. Because the accounting period is coming to an end, and the financial statements need to be prepared.


By failing to record all the transactions accurately and not adjusting entries at the end of each accounting period and before the financial statements are prepared, those statements will be false and inaccurate. If the adjusting entries are continuously ignored and not added to the books, the inaccuracies and the fallacy of financial statements will significantly cause harm to the company. If adjusting entries are not added, some earnings, costs, assets, and debts/liabilities may not reflect its actual values when documented in the financial statements. Therefore, adjusting entries are necessary to add to the books because a single transaction, if not added, will affect the revenue and expenses in more than one accounting period. A nominal account effect one nominal account and one real account. A real account has an amount that is measured collectively at the end of each period rather than calculating period by period and then adding. However, a nominal is an account where balance is calculated period to period.

The term accrual means money has not changed hands. The earnings and costs are not added to the record of amounts but must be added because a specific transaction has been made, and it should be aligned with the books. However, if they’re ignored, it will have the wrong effect.

Following are some of the examples

  • Supplies adjustment. The supplies are initially added as assets. But, with time when they are utilized, they need be recorded expensed since the cost of purchase has run out. However, if they are not adjusted, the costs will be understated while the net income, assets, and equity will be inflated in the financial statements.
  • Prepaid Adjustments. The adjustment is needed owing to the fact that when payments are made in advance, they are noted as a debit to the asset account. With time, the costs are no longer valid and should be charged as an expense. If not adjusted in the books, the expenses will be understated. Whereas net income, assets, and equity will be inflated.
  • Adjustment of an unearned account-Type: Deferred Revenues. If you made insurance payment to someone, the person/company would defer revenue and unearned insurance as a liability. With time, after the person/company has earned that money, it transfers the cash to a regular income account by debiting the liability account, unearned income, and crediting insurance income. However, if the company makes no such adjustments, it will report understated revenues. Whereas inflated, net income, revenue, and equity.
  • Wage Accrual -Type: Accrued expenses. It is a must to accrue for wages gained but not paid through the end of the year. You should be doing this for payroll taxes as well. If not adjusted, expenses will be understated. Contrary to that, net income, assets, and equity will be inflated in the financial statements.
  • Depreciation. Not adjusting for depreciation will cause an error in your capital expenditure deduction for your company’s federal tax return. If the difference is significant enough, the government may begin a formal investigation of your company and audit your tax return.

Furthermore, there are other adverse effects of not adjusting entries. E.g., the total value of your assets plays a significant role in calculating its overall worth. If the adjustments are not made into accounts, then you will not be able to calculate the actual value of your business. That will lead to confused investors and make it hard for you to raise capital. Furthermore, if adjusting entries are not added, then you will not be able to reflect on each segment of your business.

You will not be able to evaluate each area, which results in an un-strategic business plan and wrong financial forecasting. The financial statements are the backbone of a company; if they do not reflect the actual value of a company, it will discontinue the business in the long run.


In the first chapter, the author has discussed the basic concept of corporate social responsibility and its relation to an organization’s mission, stakeholders, and its culture. CSR is the deliberate actions that a firm applies as it follows its own mission and accomplishes its apparent compulsion to stakeholders, including staff, the environment, communities, and civilisation as a whole. Internal and external communication is essential for the CSR process. Numerouseconomicallyefficaciousfirms have been slated for making and causing environmental harms that their CSR programs address (e.g., Wad dock, 2007). CSR actions should not be proposed to misdirect open observations or shroud bad behaviours. Or maybe, the choice to grasp CSR is essentially perplexing and ought to be predicated on the information that it will help create and execute a sound hidden procedure. This present book’s procedure situated structure is grounded in a correspondence viewpoint that recognizes a partnership’s association with partners, culture, political frameworks, and financial frameworks. (Timothy Coombs, 2012)

In the second chapter, the author describes and explains strategic CSR. When more prominent organizations incorporate CSR in their organizational plans and goals it becomes strategic CSR. Organizations can gain a competitive advantage using strategic CSR by minimizing wastes, reducing costs, producing organic food, which will ultimately help society satisfy their social concerns. There are 4motives & CSR alongside 2 dimensions of CSR. It is esteem driven, cause-oriented, stakeholder/ partner-driven, or delivered as per the desires. Hence, it can be concluded that it is vital while alongside other relevant conventional business targets. The CSR model is a ceaseless procedure that includes 5 phases. The principal arranges is Scanning and observing, second is leading developmental research, thirdly making the CSR activity, fourthly conveying the CSR activity, and in conclusion, directing assessment, and giving input. (Timothy Coombs, 2012)

In the next chapter, the author has explained the whole CSR scanning and monitoring process. This is the first stage of the CSR model. Scanning is done from the environment to seek threats and opportunities. It causes the associations to occupy their attention on the rising social and ecological issues that could influence the CSR-related impressions of the association. In opposition to checking, observing includes evaluating responses to current CSR activities. Observing is a significantly more constrained methodology than checking in light of the fact that it is limited to winning CSR endeavours. Though, Scanning may distinguish a CSR related issue and rank it generally high as a worry. The two procedures ought to go with consistently to get a preferred position for the association. The stakeholders of the organization should be involved in the scanning and monitoring process. Regular analysis of the CSR issues conducted by the stakeholder committee would help them identify the specific CSR issues that need attention. (Timothy Coombs, 2012)

The next step of the CSR model is Formative Research. The formative research analyses the CSR issues in detail which are selected from scanning and monitoring. It provides all the necessary information required for selecting the most important CSR concern and converting it into a CSR initiative. Not many organizations have the budget and time to deal with all the CSR concerns. Formative research helps management to take action quickly with all the essential info available. The expectations of stakeholders should be met while finalizing the CSR initiatives. This can be done by using two of the approaches that are expectation gap and alignment approaches. The gaps cannot be neglected as stakeholders can become offensive because CSR initiatives will not be aligned to societal concerns. Corporations are mostly interested in only those CSR concerns which will have a positive influence over the stakeholders and society. (Timothy Coombs, 2012)


The next chapter discusses the formulation of CSR initiatives, decision making of the top management to shortlist and prioritize CSR concerns. This stage involves the mutual understanding of all the parties taking part in decision making. There can be a clash between the stakeholders due to their different interests and views on CSR which is a natural part of the final decision-making process. Stakeholder concerns should be taken due to three important characteristics. The first factor is stakeholder authority, second is the legality and third is a demand by the stakeholder. These are considered Salience factors. The management should figure out the financial cost and return on investment of the selected CSR initiative. The CSR objectives should be identified as the process of CSR initiative and its outcomes. The stakeholders should also create some assessment methods and standards to analyse the effectiveness of CSR objectives. Stakeholders’ involvement helps the corporation determine their impact on decision making and the effects of outcomes and CSR concerns affecting the Stakeholders. (Timothy Coombs, 2012)

In the next part, after creating a CSR initiative is to present it to all the concerned stakeholders whether external or internal. The employees working inside the organization are the internal stakeholders. Whereas everyone who gets directly affected by the CSR initiative decision or have a mutual interest in the organization. Initially, the internal stakeholders should be informed about the CSR decision. They will help the organization in communicating the decision to the external stakeholders. To avoid any reaction from the internal or external stakeholders before the announcement of the CSR initiative decision, management should make a sound plan to deal with all the opposing acts. Ultimately the management should make a decision of communication method used to deliver and report the final CSR initiative decision. As stakeholders are interested in receiving an authentic report on CSR initiatives so that they can provide their feedback. Currently, there is no hard and fast rule for delivering CSR reports so organizations can provide the information according to their desire. But this step is crucial as it has a vital part for the whole strategic process. (Timothy Coombs, 2012)

The next step is the process of evaluation based on which feedback is provided regarding the CSR initiative decision. The process of evaluation involves systematic procedures for the analysis of the CSR initiatives and the objectives being involved obtained or not. Management should not rely solely on stakeholder concerns but also take into consideration other factors as well. In some cases organizations focus on satisfying the stakeholder’s concerns only. To get a clear understanding of the results of CSR, the outcomes of the objectives should be analysed. It provides a translucent picture of the facts that how efficiently and to what extent CSR initiatives have served the concerns of the stakeholders or the organization. The results would help financial stakeholders get a clear understanding of the exact return on investment. In some cases, non-tangible benefits cannot be estimated after the implementation of CSR initiatives. (Timothy Coombs, 2012)

In the last part of the book, the author has discussed are the problems and issues for fulfilling the CSR initiatives. Problems that arise and affect the CSR initiative can be dealt with easily by taking supportive managerial actions. The CSR initiatives are helping the society in several ways. The supervisors in any organization should do a profound thought process on every process of CSR initiative. There are several benefits of CSR initiatives and their implementation in the corporate sector. It helps to decrease child labour ratio and poverty, improve human rights, pursue social justice, and help people live healthier lives. Many organizations are working together on the same cause to create and implement effective CSR initiatives for the betterment of society. (Timothy Coombs, 2012)



Timothy Coombs, S. J. (2012). Managing corporate social responsibility : a communication approach. Wiley Online Library.


Debate on Corporate Social Responsibility Summary




Ethics has been defined as being an indication of what is considered right and wrong when it comes to the moral context across different communities and cultures. Ethics are formulated essentially for ensuring right practices are implemented over the wrong ones. Various codes of ethics have been forged in the business world; however, despite the existence of ethical codes of conduct, ethical dilemmas evolve, which are rather difficult to resolve. The quote by St. Augustine, ‘Charity is no substitute for justice withheld’ raises a vigorous debate regarding justice versus charity. This is because justice as well as a charity are considered noble social aspects as they reflect the desire and will to aid others(Miller, 2019).

For example, charity pertains to giving to those less fortunate. At the same time, justice prevails over the law of conduct as well as the distribution of resources equally for ensuring that everyone has a better chance at living a fulfilled life. St. Augustine, in his quote, states that for leading a better experience, charity and justice are both important equally, and charity cannot substitute the need for fairness and justice in society (Miller, 2019).

Thus justice has the upper hand because it has rather constructible global impacts as compared to charity. For example, one cannot rely on charity as the element for supporting individuals out of poverty. This is because charity happens to degrade the recipient and makes them dependent as the giver assumes a sense of superiority because of the financial ability of the giver for providing favors to those in need.

On the other hand, the distribution of resources reasonably ensures that every individual has a source of income, which is constant and sustainable. This keeps those in poverty the ability to stand on their feet and gain independence. St. Augustine’s quote can be explained easily using the example of an ethical dilemma faced by Wal-Mart in which the business uses charity to give the millions it makes back to the community.

Wal-Mart is thus, able to make the lives of those who are less privileged better. However, it should be noticed that Wal-Mart engages in this act of charity at the expense of its most valuable assets, its employees (Porat, 2011). These employees are paid extremely less, which is why they are only able to live slightly above the poverty line. In this ethical dilemma, Wal-Mart has to choose between fulfilling the needs of its employees and those of society. Justice pertains that the organizational profits, as well as returns, must be divided into all of the stakeholders specially when it comes to the contribution the stakeholders make towards earning that profit for the company.

Many individuals expect big corporations like Wal-Mart to pay its employees good and hefty salaries since their profit margins are big enough. Nonetheless, many larger organizations tend to prefer to pay meager salaries to the employees because giving charity is fulfilling their corporate social responsibility quota. By giving charity, businesses tend to gain the right word of mouth and become well-reputed in the public eye. This is the main reason why companies consider compensating their employees with donations or charitable gifts as a symbol of goodwill, inevitably creating an ethical dilemma.

Charity is considered as a way of creating a marketing strategy that promotes the company rather than the actual fulfillment of corporate social responsibility. This is the reason why an ethical dilemma is created when businesses tend to opt for marketing strategies such as charity for channelizing their interests rather than making sure that their employees are receiving enough salaries to keep their lives afloat.

Many ethical theories can be used to explain the processes involved in the decision making involved in ethical dilemmas. Such kinds of theories provide various ethical aspects that guide individuals in opting for a specific decision in a moral dilemma. Miller states that utilitarianism, deontology, care ethics, virtue ethics, and care ethics are some of the theories which can be applied to ethical dilemmas set in real-life situations to understand why individuals opted for certain decision over the other (Miller, 2019).

Jeremy Bentham and J.S. Mill happen to be the proponents of the utilitarianism theory, and they believe that when an ethical dilemma incurs, people are guided by the principle which best benefits most of the individuals involved(Miller, 2019). Jeremy Bentham attributes this to the fact that the outcome of a specific action can help in determining whether the decision or the act is bad or good. The utilitarianism theory thus makes sure that the happiness of the majority of individuals involved is taken into account while the decision is being made(Porat, 2011).

The principal used for ensuring the happiness of the majority of individuals involved is known as the “Greatest Happiness Principle” and can be applied in the ethical dilemma of Wal-Mart. The factor which should be considered when making the decision in case of Wal-Mart is the number of individuals affected negatively or positively by any action, and this should be regarded as the effect of the action on a single individual. For example, the train driver analog, in which the driver has the choice to either save his son and risk the life of a hundred passengers or run over his son while saving the lives of hundred passengers on the train.

Utilitarianism theory demands that the driver must run over a single individual, his son, and save the life of all the passengers as well as their children. This decision must be a result of the consequences of such an action, which increases the chances of survival of the majority of individuals and maximizes the positive outcome. However, the same action will enhance the amount of pain the driver feels when his son becomes the victim. This assumption that seeking maximum happiness for a maximum number of individuals happens to have the characteristic of the absence of pain. This is why the proponents of utilitarianism theory believe that morality can only be weighed in by universal happiness and wellbeing because individuals across the world tend to be in need of it.

Those who advocate utilitarianism theory believe that human beings constantly search for attainment of happiness and wellbeing, and one means for achieving this is through human rights and justice. Because of the assumptions of utilitarianism theory, there have been many criticisms as well, and arguments have been made that happiness can be the exact measure of morality in a specific situation, and it cannot be the same measure of morality throughout different cultures. The utilitarianism theory cannot offer justice or ensure the protection of human rights-based just on assumptions.

Different ethical approaches must be applied to different stages of decision making for solving ethical dilemmas. This enables an individual to get rid of any form of biasedness which one might have using just one ethical approach. For example, egoism theory can also be applied in case of the train driver case when he is making the ethical decision on a personal basis, primarily as the egoism theory advocates decisions that improve one’s self as well as other factors such as the needs of the individual.

The business world operates correctly on the standards of profit optimization and enhancing the business leads and reach to all the customers. This is considered particularly crucial because business operations tend to rely solely on the maximization of profits, even though corporate social responsibility and the rights of those working within the organization must be kept in check. In essence, employees of different rank and position work coherently to ensure that the maximum amount of profits are made. However, they are only fulfilling their responsibilities and are just enhancing the profit margin of the company and not filling their own pockets. This brings into question the fact that each employee is compensated by the company depending on their private rank as well as paid according to their job description and performance.

The main issue with rank is that it creates a hierarchy and division of power within the entire organization, starting from the executive level to the line managers and junior employees. The use of egoism theory leads to the exploitation of employees by the owners of the business because they seek to maximize the profits and use the resources such as time and investment of the employees to maximize their profits.

There happen to be those individuals who do not exercise their authority right, and as a result, abuse of power occurs, which eventually leads to resistance. At the individual level, each individual is affected by exploitation because of the universal need for appreciation and respect in employment. Exploitation acts as a form of a hindrance for the employees as they feel underappreciated and feel they have less control over their financial situation.

Low compensation of the employees leads to longer working hours for them and tends to demoralize society as well as reduce their living standards. The example of Wal-Mart is most suitable in explaining how exploited workers tend to live in dire poverty because they have to generate huge sums of profit for their company and obtain extremely less in return. This kind of situation can spill over to the international community, where the company will be blamed for low compensation. However, the company hides behind the façade of charity and aiding the poor to compensate for the fact that they pay extremely less to their employees. Similarly, the quote by Augustine indicates our perspective on justice must be wide enough to allow for the adjustment and re-education of how we compensate others. Augustine does not mean that our moral lives must be impacted subjectively in the sense that we reduce the amount of charity we give; instead, we must discern the actions of injustice that hinder our perusal of eternal good from the framework of charity.

The “ethic of responsibility” Niebuhr parallels the view of St. Augustine that the value of charity must not override the desire for justice. Similarly, Gutiérrez agreed with St. Augustine’s views as he did not consider the act of giving immense charity as sufficient in aiding others as it could only tend to the dire needs such as shelter, water, clothing, etc. but could not provide the poor with sustainability (Bonnette, 2016). This is because charity neglects the main issues, such as the systematic issues, which are the main reason behind the dire needs. Charity belittles the ability of the poor to have the independency or even the agency to work and liberate themselves against their oppressors (Miller, 2019).

Charity should only be considered as a supplement to justice and not a substitute. However, some scholars propose using the utilitarianism theory to evaluate how charity enhances utility in a manner that is celebrated by the efficiency theorists: the enhancement in utility results from the income redistribution from a few individuals to the entire public through the use of generous tax subsidies. In other words, there happen to be two distinct layers to the utility which must be considered when assessing the effects which generous tax subsidies have (Fleischer, 2014). The first layer measures the different gains of utility to the donors as well as to the society. The second layer focuses on the inherent redistribution that occurs because of the charitable tax subsidies.

However, Bonette argues that charitable tax subsidies, which tend to subsidize and encourage charity, largely ignore distributive justice. The “upside-down subsidy” critique states that the philanthropic deductions go against the very idea of charity (Bonnette, 2016). According to this critique, the inferences made in terms of charity happen to be unfair as they grant a huge amount of deduction to those belonging in higher tax bracket such as the top-notch organizations and investors.

Aristotle has defined distributive justice in “Nichomachean Ethics” as the division of wealth as well as resources among different members of society where wealth is not defined as being material assets or resources such as being the land, capital, crops, and labor but also other sources which provide indirect benefits. When it comes to contemporary societies, interests other than wealth also include indirect benefits such as access to public positions, tax exemptions, etc. In consideration of the ethical dimension of charity, R. Joshua states that the charitable act itself is beneficial to the donor as it is beneficial for the recipient. Similarly, when it comes to the social perspective, Porat.states that the existence of charitable institutions that keep a check and balance on the laws of charity, namely the sustenance of the needy, are required (Fleischer, 2014). This is because of charity falls into the wrong hands, absolutely no contribution to society will occur. Although the donations that fall into the wrong hands might attest to the good morals as well as a display of loyalty of the donor, it will not do any form of good for the society as a whole. Conclusion

If the primary purpose of organizations for giving charitable donations is just to benefit those receiving it, then it might not be the best way. This is because the charitable donations only achieve benefit at the donor’s end and not at the receiver’s end. The recipients of the charity are often unorganized, and those giving the charity are unaware of the individual identities of the recipients which means that only the performance reports of the organization are going to be kept in check. At the same time, the state of those receiving the charity is going to remain the same.Thus organizations that impart money just as a form of marketing strategy do not aid society. Charitable donations often target the symptoms and elevate them but do not combat the real cause of the problem. Reinhold Niebuhr states that charity is merely a display of expression of power as well as a display of piety (Porat, 2011).



Bonnette, K. (2016). The Heart of Justice: An Augustinian Ethic of Relational Responsibility. La Salle University Digital Commons, 72.

Fleischer, M. P. (2014). Charitable Giving and Utilitarianism: Problems and Priorities. University of San Diego Law School, 20-33.

Miller, R. L. (2019). Justice according to Reinhold Niebuhr and Gustavo Gutiérrez. University of Tennessee at Chattanooga, 30.

Porat, B. (2011). Charity and Distributive Justice. Hebrew University of Jerusalem, 82.














With increasing impacts of globalization and growing interdependence among financial markets of the world, the importance of complying with the regulations and being transparent with your dealings has reached the highest levels. Whether it is exploiting accounting loopholes to show inflated profits like energy giant “Enron” or mismanaging investment funds like private equity mammoth “Abraaj,” the end of such wrongdoings is always disastrous.

Being the Chief Compliance Officer of W&W Inc., the apparent situation is very alarming. While enjoying a high growth rate for the last 15 years in emerging countries where corporate bribes and loopholes in the regulatory environment are not uncommon, the sudden and mysterious exit of the former COO within a year raises red flags. Furthermore, obtaining store permits faster than in Europe, hiring of shady Third Party Intermediaries (TPIs) without carrying out proper due diligence and paying them higher commissions, and overlooking of controls which were supposed to stop improper payments to TPIs and government officers demonstrate that there must be something going on which is not righteous.

Such allegations can probe regulatory compliance institutions, which can result in the proper investigation against W&W Inc. And a case of a finding of any significant proof, our organization can face risks of hefty fines, loss of reputation, and even rescinding of working license.

As a new COO of W&W. Inc, this situation will give me tough challenges. To cater to the issues systematically and adequately, I will go with the following strategy.

My Strategy:

  • Know the reality:

Being a new COO, my priority would be to know what has been happening with the organization internally. How accurate such allegations are and what are their backings. To understand such things, I would curate a committee mostly consist of outside individuals whose task would be to carry out a detailed and comprehensive audit check of the organization for the past years. That committee would go through the allegations and see what their realities are. The committee won’t be including officials from the organization as this will increase the risk of biases as it has been mentioned in the allegations that even the top leadership of our subsidiaries have been involved in such malpractices.

The committee would also be interviewing the former COO so that we can know why she left and if she knew more than us.

  • Take action:

After the audit and review committee has done its work, it will generate a comprehensive report regarding their findings. If the report points out any wrongdoing, deceit, fraud, or misalignment from the code of conduct, proper action against the notified personally would be taken.

  • Precautionary measure:

Taking action after the misconduct and punishing the culprit is not the end and accurate solution for such issues. To prevent such cases from happening again, I would take proper precautionary measures, which can help in preventing such incidents from happening again, which can significantly damage the reputation of W&W Inc.

Such precautionary measures may include forming a board of governance that would look after the compliance with regulations, ethical conduct, and transparency of deals and transactions. The committee would consist of external directors to make it hard to influence that board. After setting up a board, we will curate a properly documented set of policies and procedures which would tell what and how to do organizational affairs and deals. A proper check and balance procedure would be introduced, which will focus on the review and segregation of duties. This will help in preventing individual level frauds and also in catching up innocent mistakes. Furthermore, a particular focus will be put on communicating the drafted policies and conducts; without proper communication, the desired results of such drastic steps might not be fruitful.

Detailed Strategies:

Setting up a board of governance:

To improve processes according to compliances, among other aims and objectives, align with ethical practices, honesty, and transparency in our business, W&W Inc. should focus on adhering to external and internal laws, methods, and regulations. To enforce the implementation of such a plan which aims to enhance and improve the current compliance environment, compliance and government board should be created (if not already in existence), which should include constituents executives from the government department and executivesfrom the compliance department. If such a board already exists, I would try to remake it through shuffling and adding more executives who have relevant working experiences related to executing ethical practices, making effective external and internal control systems, and transparency mechanisms.

The first task of this board of governance would be to examine and audit the past track records and available data to know the reality about the rumors regarding the violations of regulations.

Documented processes:

Even though there are generally available systematic manuals regarding ethical conduct and regulatory compliances for offices to pursue and follow, an organization ought to build up its very own comprehensive and intensive code of conduct for its internal usage and transactions related procedures. Having a complete set of policies and procedures would serve different capacities, such as communicating openly to all employees of the organization the ethical and regulatory policies of the organization so that the employees know what the organization is expecting from them. Properly drafted a set of policies guides the employees regarding how to deal with business transactions and what to do when they observe something happening, which is not harmonious with the values and policies of the organization.

Without such a drafted set of policies, there would be an element of ambiguity, and the employees may get a chance of pursuing an act which is against the values of the company and not harmonious with the regulatory compliances.

Review of transactions:

At the point when an operation is performed inside an organization, there should be another degree of audit and endorsement performed by an individual that is not involved in that particular transaction. The reviewer ought to have the relevant experience and knowledge to recognize blunders and oversights. The endorsement should be recorded to confirm that a review or audit has been finished. Such analysis and audit help in lessening errors mistakes happening in the proper recording of the transactional data, and even might catch frauds and deceits.

Segregation of Duties:

Separation of duties is an essential and vital internalcontrol and one of the most challenging tasks to accomplish. At the most fundamental level, it implies that no single individual ought to have command over more than at least two phases of any business or financial transaction. It is used to guarantee that mistakes or anomalies are counteracted and identified conveniently by the leadership in the daily routine of business. Separation of duties gives advantages like it makes committing conscious deceit more troublesome as now it would take at least two persons to commit fraud or misrepresentation.

Amendments to HR Policies:

It has been mentioned that “top management is aggressively setting goals for the frontline company officials to achieve stiff targets, which is taken into account for performance evaluation and setting annual bonuses.” Policies like this force top management to set high and sometimes pragmatically unachievable goals for the frontline managers to avail of high bonuses. To fulfill the expectations and achieve those high targets, managers can be negatively influenced to take unethical steps which can violate compliance and transparency standards. To fix this policy, I would align with the human recourse department to make the relevant amendments in the annual bonuses policy.


Communication is the key to the effective implementation of any policy. After drafting up the compliance, ethics, and transparency guidelines and procedures, I would communicate them to the employees of the organization.

Moreover, Iwill curate a specific draft on compliance issuesand it would be available to every employee featuring the main plans carried out, the ethics guidelines, other internal and external procedures, the laws, and other vital documents, like the code of conducts, code of ethics and morality, and code of transparency.



I will primarily focus on the continuous provision of instructions to employees to deepen their knowledge of compliance guidelines, fundamentals, and legislative responsibilities. I would also conduct training which helps employees in identifying, stopping, and communicating situations of misconduct, threats, or risks with signals of deceit and corruption in business transactions.

I would also implement specialized training and workshops for executives who hold positions that are at higher stakes and risks so that they can know the importance and exposure of their roles and the precautions they must take while doing their duties.

Time Frame:

Indeed, implementing such drastic changes will take time. When dealing with issues like misconducts and allegations regarding fraud, bribes, and deceits, we often face hurdles and challenges, which can take a little amount of time to sort out.

However, my priority would be to form the audit committee, which will be completed within the time frame of a month. To review the allegations and audit the records or transactions, the review committee will be provided for two months. After the report of the audit committee, we won’t take much time to make the relevant and recommended actions. However, the “preventing” part of the strategy may take time as it implementing new policies, communicating them to the employees, and providing them with the relevant training would be a timely process.

Expected Outcome:

The expected outcome would be positive. With all the steps mentioned above, I hope W&W. Inc would be able to deal with the regulatory issues in a better way in the future.




Biophilic architecture happens to be a holistic approach to utilizing the best nature-based systems, and the current applications of biophilia include landscape urbanism, green city movement, and ecological infrastructure which happens to be one of the best applications. Throughout history, biophilicdeisgn was used to designate an image of opulence, grandeur and power. The Alhambra is the most prominent example of howbiophilic design was used as a representation of power by the rulers of the Alhambra. Alhambra palatine is the most admired as well as famous examples of Islamic heritage and architecture in Europe. However, in the 21st century, Biophilic design is more than just a technical format for aesthetics. The biophilic framework is now considerd as an advanced methodology for sustainability for the built environment. Sustainability is bound to be an elusive target until states can shift the entire focus on building a fulfilling relationship between humans and their natural environment



Alhambra Palace is located at a strategic point within the city, offering views over the entire meadow and the city, which have aided the rulers inhabiting the castle to gain a vantage point (EggletonL. , 2012). The fortress is surrounded by irregular ramparts, with its eastern side facing the Cuesta del Rey Chico and its southern side facing the valley of al-Sabika (Rabbat, 1985). The palatine fortress, the Alhambra, is a palace perched upon Sabika hill located in the city of Granada.

There are three main areas of the Alhambra, Medina, the Generalife, and the Citadel. The citadel area is for protecting the site and the medina is an area which provides accommodation for the administrative staff as well as the artisans. The Generalife is the summer palace which consists of pavilions, colonnades, and gardens. Analysis of the Palace indicates that there is a spatial order underlying the design patterns. This is a quality closely associated with Medieval Islamic Art.


Alhambra palace was initiated by Muhammad 1 in 1232 who was the very first sultan in the Nasrid dynasty. The majority of the construction of the palace took place from thirteenth to the fourteenth century and was completed at the end of the reign of Muhammed V, Sultan of Granada from 1353 to 1391 and reflects the architectural style at the end of the Nasrid dynasty (Willmert, 2018). The well-preserved fortress complex became archetypal to the “Moorish” architecture of the Western scholars at the end of the Nasrid rule (Irwin, 2004). The architectural style, common at that time, was a mixture of exuberant Moorish and Christian influences which has been known as the Nasrid style (Eggleton E. , 2011). Despite many subsequent alterations, specifically under the many Catholic monarchs, the castle remains symbolic both as a war trophy of the “Reconquista” and as a symbol of the long-lost golden era of the al-Andalus(Eggleton L. , 2012).

The fortress owes as much to its modern-day location in Spain as it does to the European travelers of the eighteenth century who had a huge part to play in its “rediscovery”. After the conquest of Spain by the Catholic Monarchs in 1492 the Alhambra underwent changes in its design. The Palace of Charles V, a Renaissance building commenced by the Emperor in 1526 is located on the hill of Assabica inside the Alhambra fortress. The projected Palace is a specimen of Spanish architecture, designed by Pedro Machuca, and has been characterized by Washington Irving as “an arrogant intrusion” (Calvert, 1904). Charles V installed his royal emblem on every surface and the square plan encloses a two-story circular courtyard. Doric order pilasters and rustication is articulated on the façade on the first story of the Palace (Eggleton, 2012).

There are distinct parallels between the Moorish design and that of the Renaissance, broadly speaking, the formal design of the Palace expresses a Roman and Renaissance style architecture which does not have the incorporation of landscapes or natural elements. Charles V has often been criticized for introducing the incompatible architectural element of the renaissance art within the existing Moorish design of the Alhambra (Abdelaal, 2018). Historians point out towards the tenacity of the rulers who, during a time when political negotiations were intense and warfare an ex veto, managed to produce some of the most phenomenal architectural buildings and sophisticated poetry within the region. The surge of culture within the Nasrid rule managed to leave its impact on the walls of the palace (Barker, 2016).

Style of the Alhmabra Palace

The Alhambra is a medieval Islamic monument in Granada Spain (figure4) that has been in existence for an extended period. The style of the palace was meant for religious rulers and persons belonging to the affluent class. The situation is evident through multiple structural designs and artefacts that were common with rich people such as rulers. In 1894, UNESCO declared the monument as a world heritage site, which is open for the public. People visit the site to observe and learn about its history and design.

The city hosts a rich architectural and cultural history that has continuously changed to modern times. Eggleton (2011, 9) claims that the city qualifies to be a monument as it houses different histories and practices of people who occupied it during the early Christian and Islamic rules. The monument’s structural and architectural designs (figure 5) have a natural feeling that has been re-envisioned multiple times by its occupants to modern-day. Built on a hill, the feature observes a biophilic style, which is evident in its architectural designs. For example, it has gardens, water pools, fountains, and mimics of natural light in most of its palaces.

The Alhambra complex has two describable entities remaining today, the Court of the Lions and the Court of the Myrtles. Court of the Lions was built in the reign of Muhammad V during the time of 1354 to 1359 and has been paralleled with the Villa Rustica. The architectural style common at that time was a mixture of exuberant Moorish and Christian influences which has been known as the Nasrid style (Eggleton E. , 2011). A pavilion project into the courtyard and the light domed roof has filigree walls. The oblong court is thirty-five meters in length and twenty meters in width with white marble colonnade and colored tiles.

The Court is situated at the heart of the Palace, and the main living units surround the court and turn outside while receiving the sun, view, and light from the garden of the courtyard. When one moves through the space, physical involvement with water is induced due to the integration of small water channels and fountains which engage the human body with an element of water. The main technique for the decoration of the walls of the courtyards in the Palace is created through the dado tiling used to cover the bottom and upper part of the wall in the Court of the Golden Room. The stucco art which is covering the muqarnas in the Court of the Lions has different colours such as gold, green, blue, white and red. There is a consistency of the natural elements and themes in historic architecture which points towards the fact that biophilic design is a phenomenon contributing towards codification of history, neural sciences, and human intuition. This shows that contact with natural elements and nature itself is essential for a vibrant existence specifically for those living in urban areas (Jorge, 2018). The natural colour tones create a material connection with nature and reflect the local geology to create a sense of the place (al-Rhodesly, 2018).

The surface of the pool in the Court of the Myrtles serves the function of a mirror, reflecting the biophilic design in the architecture itself. This creates an admirable visual effect. There isarabesqueornamentationofthedifferentvarietyfoundwithinAlhambra.Theseincludegeometric starsandroseswhichrun intoeachotheranddevelopthedesign.Thebestexampleofbiomorphic designpatternsistheornamentalepigraphswhichareinterwoveninthesurfacedecorationsinthe porticos of the Court of the Myrtles because the ornamentalepigraph patterns are reminiscent of nature thus projecting the design element of naturally occurring shapes in nature  (al-Rhodesly, 2018).

Biophilic Design

The term ‘Biophilia’ was first coined by a professor at Yale University who defined the biophilic design as being affiliated with the inherent need of human beings to associate with natural designs within the built environment. Thus the goal of the biophilic design is that an environment is created which consists of elements that promote well-being and contact between human beings and nature. Over the years, architects, have published different works which include a unique form of approaches for realizing the transition of biophilic design from theory to application in building design. Biophilic design happens to be a holistic approach which utilizes the engineering principles, design cues, and nature-based systems to support well-being improved health and performance which can be measured through self-rated biometrics, personal mood as well as work quality.

Since the beginning, the hunting and gathering societies shared what humans today have, the need to connect with nature for obtaining necessities and for gaining mental peace. While analysing the existing literature one stumbles upon the idea that biophilia developed and has its origins within the understanding of the evolution of human beings (Söderlund, 2015). Human species developed biologically in adaptive response to the natural surroundings and not the artificially created forces. Thus, the human mind and body evolved with the bio-centric approach and not through technological advancement (Gullikson, 2010). The main hurdle which humans today have to experience between themselves and nature is the paradigm of development and design of the structures and artificially built environment (Söderlund, 2015). The biophilic design thus addresses not only the problems and deficiencies in modern landscape practice and building but also provides a new method for creating a positive experience for humans with nature (Kellert, 2018).

The term Biophilia has its roots in Greek literature means “love of life”. The Biophilia Hypothesis proposed by Wilson indicated that there is a need within people to connect with the complex geometrical forms in their surroundings just like they require air and nutrients (Price, 2018). Thus, sprang the Biophilic architecture, giving innovation to way architectural spaces are used and paved the way for the dialogue between the need for humans to connect with nature and the patterns as well as natural forms. There are geometrical features such as the scale-invariance and fractals which provide a notion of self-similarity as well as symmetry for people to indirectly connect with natural elements (Ramzy, 2015).

Principles of biophilic design can be seen in the architecture of the Islamic era, in cities such as Damascus, Aleppo, Bagdad, and Cairo. Pointed out that in contrast to the building being viewed as a sculptural element, the traditional madrasa has characteristics of well-arranged interior spaces and exterior patterns that are integrated harmoniously in an interplay with natural elements (Abdelaal, 2018). Moreover, themes connected with natural elements can be found in historical architecture such as that of the Egyptian sphinx with stylized animals, and that of the acanthus leaves on the Greek temples. Thus, this representation of elements and plants as ornamentation represents the tendency and need of human beings to connect with nature (Kellert S. R., 2012).

There is a consistency of the natural elements and themes in historic architecture which points towards the fact that biophilic design is a phenomenon which has contributed towards codification of history, neural sciences, and human intuition. This shows that contact with natural elements and nature itself is essential for a vibrant existence specifically for those living in urban areas (Ancona, 2017 ).


The Alhambra and the Biophilic Design

There is a consistency of the natural elements and themes in historic architecture which points towards the fact that biophilic design is a phenomenon which has contributed towards codification of history, neural sciences, and human intuition. This shows that contact with natural elements and nature itself is essential for a vibrant existence specifically for those living in urban areas. The Alhambra Palace is the perfect example of the historic structure with the biophilic design because the architecture has beauty and functionality which connects people with natural elements. The Alhambra palatine is the most admired as well as famous examples of Islamic heritage and architecture in Europe.  The biophilic design was achieved in the Alhambra palace through the architectural magnificence of the Generalife Palace, which is framed with a panoramic view of different landscapes that extend to different horizons.

Biophilic Design Patterns present in the architecture of Alhambra

Browning allocates the biophilic design into three main categories, the Natural Analogues, The Nature of the Space, and the Nature in the Space (Downton, 2017). There is a visual connection with nature in the design of the Alhambra palace, specifically in the Generalife Palace in which the panoramic views of the landscape is extended out to cover the horizon. The terraces, garden pavilion, and flowers, shrubs as well as plants cover the spaces (Browning, 2014).

Nature in the Space: Visual Connection with Nature

The visual connection creates a stimulating as well as calming experience for the viewers. This pattern is rooted in the idea of biodiversity as researchers claim that having visual access to various ecosystems and biodiversity is beneficial for the health of individuals. Kahn is of the view that viewing environmental elements in an office surrounding reduces the stress level (Ryan, 2014). The Alhambra observed visual connections with nature evident in the Generalife Palace. According to Amoeda et al. (2018, 376), the palace has panoramic views of the natural environment spanning to the horizon. The palace’s gardens are filled with flowers and shrubs, while plants cover its pathways as evident in (figure 6). The oblong pools are fitted with fountains and surrounded by shrubs, as evident in (figure 7) below.

Moreover, the Patio de la Acequia (The Court of the Water Channel (figure 8) and the Patio de la Sultan have are “magnificent” courtyards that enhance the palace’s biophilic design. Amoeda et al. (2018, 376) claim that visual connections with nature enhance positive emotions, reduce stress, and improve recovery rates and concentration. The presence of plants, shrubs, and flowers in the Generalife Palace made it possible for its architects to incorporate direct experience with nature into the Alhambra. The scenery may have served to reduce stress and increase mental engagement among dwellers of the palace.

Direct experience of nature

Direct experience of nature includes the actual contact with natural phenomena such as water, animals, plants, light, natural landscape, and weather. Indirect engagement comprises of natural colour, evoking nature, simulations of natural air and light, and images of nature (Kellert & Calabrese 2015, 11). Notably, people use colour to locate water, food, and other primary resources, making it an essential natural element. The use of natural colours in built environment consists of the utilization of pigments that consider earth tones such as rocks, soil, rainbow, sunset, animals, sunrise, and plants (Downtown, 2017). An evocation of nature includes the use of representations that do not occur literally in the environment but imply specific natural principles. A building can have shapes that evoke specific animal qualities. For instance, the Sydney Opera House has wings that imply the qualities of a bird.


Non-Visual Connection with Nature

This pattern involves auditory as well as olfactory sense simulation through sound patterns and the main objective is to provide environmental elements using scent, touch, and taste to some extent. The main design considerations include prioritizing natural sounds over the artificial urban sounds. The best example of Non-Visual Connection with Nature is that of Calat Alhambra in which these fourteen patterns can be seen.

The architecture of the Alhambra supports the nonvisual experience through the connection of indoor as well as outdoor spaces between natural landscape and buildings. There are solar heat penetrates, sounds of nature and myrtles along with fragrant plants within the palace which create the exquisite stimulation for senses. The non-rhythmic sensory stimuli is present in order to circulate the natural sensory stimuli and to attract the attention of the viewers by relieving their psychological stress.

Thermal & Airflow Variability

There is thermal as well as airflow variability within the palace which makes the spaces in the fortress invigorating, refreshing and alive. The Hall of Comares is the best example of the “Venturi effect” in which air is circulated rapidly throughout the space creating cross ventilation. The Alhambra observed direct contact with nature through the creation of thermal and airflow variability. According to Amoeda et al. (2018, 376), thermal and airflow variabilities are changes in airflow, relative humidity, and air and surface temperatures that imitate the natural surroundings. The aura created by design generates a refreshing, alive, active, comfortable, and invigorating feeling. In the monument, the wall height provided a natural cooling against the intense sun rays. The situation created an indirect illumination at the higher parts, which spread to the lower parts of the interior. The design prevented the influx of heat in the rooms by manipulating direct sunlight while still achieving the required level of ventilation and illumination (Amoeda et al 2018, 377).

Additionally, ventilation in the rooms was achieved by structural placement of the windows that created a stack effect and venture effect. Structural placement of the windows refers to the accurate position of windows. For example, the variation in air pressure and density between the lighter warm air and heavier cold air created a stack effect in the Tower of the Captive and the Tower of the Princess. The Hall of Comaress (Figure 9,10) achieved natural ventilation by rapid air circulation in spaces where cross-ventilation creating a venturi effect. The air ventilation was necessary to enhance human comfort and productivity. According to Kellert & Calabrese (2015, 12), natural ventilation can be achieved by operable windows and or complex engineering strategies. Therefore, by engineering the windows to allow cross ventilation in the Alhambra (figure 11), its architects achieved a biophilic design that allowed the circulation of natural air into the interiors of the buildings.

Presence of Water

The presence of water created compelling as well as captivating presence. The best example is that of Alhambra pools as there is the presence of water in the Court of the Lions design and the Water Stairway which is one of the most breathtaking designs of the Generalife. The presence of water (figure 12) encouraged the connection of nature with the Alhambra’s design. Amoeda et al. (2018, 379) claim that water promotes the experience of a place through touching, hearing, and seeing. People develop a captivating and compelling feeling. The Alhambra has multiple watercourses comprising of canals, water stairs, bannisters, basins, and fountains created in different geometric forms. For example the Court of Myrtles has a reflective pool with pools that gurgle water, creating a calm relaxing, and quiet sound that generates a wonderful sense (Amoeda 2018, 379).


Dynamic & Diffuse Light

Dynamic light effect creates the experience of intrigue and drama within the viewers and buffers a sense of calm.

Connection with Natural Systems

These are the interactive designs such as the integrative educational curriculum, community gardens, horticulture designs in which the use of materials is that which engages the viewer. This form of connection with nature can be seen in the Alhambra palace as well in the ceilings of the Throne Room and in the roof of the Balcony of Dar Aisha.

Natural Analogues

Natural Analogues in the Alhambra

The natural analogs of the Biophilic design are the non-living, organic vocations of nature that are indirect. These include the colors, shapes, patterns as well as materials which manifest natural elements in the form of artwork. These biomorphic forms and patterns can be seen throughout Islamic ornaments which were used for decorative purposes and are present in the architectural decorations in the palace as well. There is arabesque ornamentation of the different variety found within Alhambra. These include geometric stars and roses which run into each other and develop the design. The best example of biomorphic design patterns in Alhambra is the Balcony of Dar Aisha which is considered as one of the most enchanting corners of the palace. Moreover, ornamental epigraphs are also present on the perforated screens and panels (al-Rhodesly, 2018).

Indirect Experiences with Nature

The Alhambra also achieved a biophilic design by incorporating natural analogues into its structural designs. The above elements are incorporated into structures designs creating a mimicry of the natural environment.

Biomorphic Forms & Patterns

The Alhambra has multiple biomorphic forms and patterns that enhance individuals’ connection with the cosmic world through imagination (Gonzalez 2003, 262). In relation to the Islamic decorative ornaments (figure16,17), the cosmic world is made up of three dimensions that include nature, the universe, and human beings. (Amoeda et al. 2018, 381). The Alhambra represents the cosmic beauty through epigraphic and geometric decorations throughout the palace. According to Amoeda et al. (2018, 382), natural geometries are evident through geometric flower decorations and patterns that fill the walls of the monument. For instance, the Balcony of Dar Aisha (figure 18) presents one of the most spectacular epigraphic compositions and spectacular decorations. In this case, walls are filled with geometric representations of flowers, star wheels, and puzzles.

On the other hand, the epigraphs are interwoven with other surfaces(figure19), making the Alhambra rich in information. According to Kellert and Calabrese (2015, 12), people develop a positive feeling towards diverse and information-rich environments. For example, tourists are fascinated by reading ancient writings on monument walls provided they are legible and comprehensible (Garcia, 2017). The epigraphs in most of the Alhambra’s walls are placed above the tile decorations on the lower part of the walls, which make them more visible for visitors. Today, most of the structures have been renovated after abandonment for a considerable period since the 1700s. The palace has been termed as a world heritage monument by the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO).

Biophilic Design Throughout History

The sense of attachment of human beings with their built landscapes happens to be the promise of biophilic design and the distortion of an individual’s values with that of nature in the digital age has only occurred because of conventional design. Furthermore, the distortion in the values also occurred because of the growing alienation and environmental degradation within the world. Thus sustainability is bound to remain a goal rather elusive until there is a shift in the ethical values with the natural world. Sustainability is bound to be an elusive target until we can shift the entire focus on building a fulfilling relationship between humans and their natural environment. This relationship is depicted in biophilic design, which can be seen in the Alhambra. Thus the successful application of the biophilic design relies solely on recognizing how one can remain productive, healthy, and maintain a meaningful connection with nature.

Angkor Wat present within Cambodia happens to be one of the largest religious monument which happens to be 162.6 hectares. The temple was built in the 12th century by Khmer King, and it was not dedicated to Vishnu which was the previous tradition but was rather the mausoleum for Khmer Empire. Angkor Wat uses the Khmer architecture and uses sandstone as the main building stone and has redented towers which have been shaped to look like lotus buds. The complexity and order pattern, which is a sensory element of the biophilic design that adheres to the special hierarchy matching that of natural surroundings (Hartley, 2014). The main design associated with complexity and order pattern, the fractal pattern can be identified in the vernacular as well as classical architecture from the column capitals of the art of Ancient Mayans, ancient Egypt, and Greece, the Hindu Temples, etc. The fractal pattern can also be seen in the Angkor Wat as there is high dimensional fractal artwork such as that of narrative scenes, extensive garlands, bas reliefs, decorative elements like pediments and devatas.

The madrasa and bimaristan design during the 11th century valued biophilic elements which can be seen in the Qubbat&-Bimaristan al-Sultan Qalawun of the 1283 A.D. In contradiction to the western conception of sculptural element of the biophilic design, the madrasa feature uses patterns that are well-arranged within the interior as well as exterior spaces that interplay as well as integrate the natural elements. The biophilic elements included within madrasa architecture includes water elements, daylight, clever manipulation, patterns, wood, and stone (Abdelaal, 2018). These features happen to be essential elements present within the biophilic architecture. The pattern, also known as the complex order happens to use a different form of strategies such as the scaling factor with the fractal geometries, hierarchical symmetry, bio-geometry, universal scaling, and connective symmetries. These patterns can be seen in the Muqarnas dome, which happens to be an Iranian architecture that can be seen in Erzurum Yakutia Madrasa that was built in 1310.

Biophelia in Modern Day

Biophilia started as a display of power and opulence as it was designed as not just a castle but like a mini city with the royal family being the center of attraction. The impressively large castle was constructed with a powerful exterior containing fortified structures that were meant to fend off attackers. The castle was built as a symbol of power and strengthened at a time when the Christian expansionism was at its peak in the 13th century as it threatened to overrun the Muslim rule in the state of al-Andalus.

Alhambra was not only considered as the priced jewel of the Granda but it was also the center of political power within the kingdom and Nasrid Palace was located at its core. The Alhambra Palace, during the Nasrid rule was meant to designate opulence as well as power. The palace was constructed to impress and it worked its charisma on most of the visitors from all over the world, particularly the Catholic Monarchs, Isabella and Ferdinand. Palace of Charles V within the Alhambra exudes majesty and power because of its impression of size, weight, symmetry and ornamentation which suggest authority and dignity. The opulent Moorish styled reception halls, royal quarters and reception halls part of the Nasrid Palace in the heart of Alhambra are a perfect blend of splendor and power. This is because the dazzling ornamentation of the columns and walls dazzles the eyes of the visitors. However, opulence alone is not sufficient to suffice for being the source of power (Eggleton E. , 2011). The other means through which the palace displays power include the disproportion and uncertainty of the layout of the Nasrid Palace communicates a sense of mystery regarding the ruler of the palace. Thus the visitors or the potential assassins will be disoriented by the narrow passages, blind alleys and rooms at odd angles.

Eggleton states that multiple generations of Christian monarchs chose to occupy the Alhambra palace demonstrates that it was considered as a site of immense power and opulence. This shows that the biophilic design implemented at Alhambra represents the ruler just like beauty, architecture, ornament, and the surrounding landscape represents power (Eggleton E. , 2011). However today, architects utilize technology to enhance people’s contact with nature. According to Lin, Egerer, &Ossola (2018), urban gardens provide urban dwellers with diverse animals, plants, and soils. The situation influences an in-depth comprehension of natural processes, such as pollination, climate processes, and pest control, which affect food production. The gardens also allow individuals to interact and engage in physical activity, reducing the risk of some lifestyle disorders such as obesity. Modern designs also infuse biophilic elements by creating plant walls, which enhance positive health among employees in urban places (Lin et al. 2018). For instance, the Pasona Group’s Office in Tokyo utilizes hydroponic technology to grow plants along the interiors and exteriors of its walls (figure 24,25).

Integration of shapes and patterns, such as water ripples, which mimic natural forms, have also gained popularity in giving building a wavy appearance. Glass walls and windows are used to incorporating space and light in most buildings. The materials allow buildings to utilize natural light as they reflect sun rays around spaces. For instance, Genzyme building in Cambridge incorporates natural light and space in its design. The above cases reveal that technology can be utilized to enhance biophilia as opposed to hindering its integration in the built environment.

Among the best practices architecture these days, there happens to be immense demand to reduce the number of carbon emissions which is a concern for developed countries where complex regulations, energy demand, and thermal studies have provided solutions for architectural designs. Thus developing countries these days are also opting towards architectural designs that lower the energy consumptions in buildings (Garcia, 2017).  For example, the thermal condition of the desert in UAE is reduced using high technology design walls that happen to be built by Norman Foster in the Masdar Institute in Abu Dhabi UAE. Biophilic design can also be observed in the ceramic coating overlaying the structure made up of concrete of the Sydney Opera House which has been created by JornUtzon.

Furthermore, the handmade bricks building system at Turpan, China happens to allow moisture release as well as natural cross ventilation because of the clay, dry vegetation and earth mixed together in the bricks (Garcia, 2017). Furthermore, a building in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil known as the GuilhermeWeinschenck happens to compensate for heat through local vegetation which is used for lowering the temperature as well as release the built-up of moisture through balancing the levels of humidity inside the building.  The Dockside Green community in Canada happens to be an example of biophilic design as it represents the non-rhythmic stimuli. The goal of the non-rhythmic sensory stimuli is to enforce the use of natural stimulus which can attract the attention and enhance the ability of the individual to connect with nature which can often be replenished from psychological and mental fatigue. The Dockside Green community design is responsible for rainwater management as well as habitat restoration which can lead to noises and buzz of insects, grass noise through swaying and noise of falling water as well as that of nearby animals that can be visible through windows, porches, and walkways.


The main objective of the biophilic design is to build an environment based on the positive natural aspect. The restorative environment design focuses on the relationship between humanity and nature within a world that is increasingly marred because of the psychological, social as well as environmental alienation. The sustainable designs tend to combine the efficiencies of biophilic design, which makes enhanced connections to complement nature with restorative environmental design. Implementation of Biophilic design at the Alhmabra represented grandeur, opulence, aesthetics and natural connection with nature. However,due to urbanization and development in modern times, this relationship has translated from a personal to a collective level (from houses / dwellings / palaces) to public parks through a transition of power and an increased densification of urban areas which would not allow for “wasted personal space”. Today, the construction industry utilizes technology to promote the design by the use of nature, space and light. Notably, further studies can be conducted to investigate how natural aspects can be integrated into building design from an early stage, where space and resources are limited to enhance human contact with nature. It is incumbent on architects to incorporate nature into the built environment to optimize its benefits in the future.

The aspects of biophilic design such as energy-saving concept, human health, enhancement of microclimates, and green building elements are in favor of making the biophilic design as sustainable. These aspects are now being implemented by states who wish to create sustainable environment and living.The energy-efficient concept in biophilic architecture asserts that passive biophilic design tends to have an elaborate system of insulations, which means that there is a low loss of energy and increased thermal comfort. The biophilic design embraces the green building elements that lower the damage on the ecosystem, whether it is the biophilic design within a city or a building.











American History, Race and Gender

American History, Race and Gender

American History

The differences in society are contemplated that, in turn, shape life events. Race constitutes differences in physical characteristics in sociological terms that lead to unequal treatment. Gender is about social construction regarding males and females in society. In the 19th century, the demographic transformation in Latino was seen in the context of immigration.

The Latino and Hispanic populations faced controversial issues in American history, and in 1960, less than 6 million people were from the Hispanic population. Latinos faced socioeconomic differences in class, and this differentiation had an enormous impact on the cultural and economic life of minorities (Bingham, 1991).

Racial Differences

The notion of racial differences has shaped society in the US and put emphasis on citizenship and non-citizenship. The Pan-Latino population of the US faced regional, national, and economic differences on the basis of race and gender. Latino immigration in the US has a complex history due to the California Gold Rush and the boundary of Mexico. In 1900, about 100,000 Mexicans migrated to the US that resulted in the Mexican revolution. The movement was followed by socio-economic racial difference trends in the early decades of the 20th century.

Racial Minorities

The concept of class and racial minorities is not new; in an example from primary findings, students took over 500 buildings with an aim to offer services to deserved people (Building, 2016). The issue about Hostos community college described the 1970s action about poor facilities to students on the basis of class differences. The voice was raised about South Bronx residents to enable Hostos to acquire necessary opportunities. From the 18th century, the sectional conflicts in American history acquired North, West, and southern states, even after the ratification of the constitution, the federal government ignored policies about immigration, hence neglected to bring forth racial minorities to eliminate the class differences.

Southern states were dependent on slave labor, and the concept of the Free state was quite difficult. Freedmen’s record in 1866 illustrates the poor dimensions of federal policy about education and poor children (Jacobs, 1866). The historical piece of literature provided evidence about the treatment of colored people, who could only use one side to walk through. The famous examples in this regard are Bull Street and Sherman’s march. The concept of class differences has given rise to discrimination among societal classes and races.

Cycle of Poverty

The Cycle of Poverty with the migrant’s framework elaborates on Mexicans’ plight. In 1935, under the National Labor Relation Act, it was discussed that industrial workers should receive equal rights, where powerful farm growers gave rise to lobby against farmers.  Since 1970, the concept of hand labor was promoted, thereby engaged farmers and caused minorities to stay poor and disadvantaged (Gutiérrez, 2015). 

These class differences and migrants’ plight contributed to significant socioeconomic deprivation in the US. The Mexican American population was aligned under the power structure, to hold Negros and keep away minority classes from freedom. The class differences in migrants persisted while in the slave community, human rights were grasped (JUAREZ, 1975). Migrants faced morbid situations, unethical conditions, and a deprived atmosphere.

Socorro Gomez Potter is a Mexican who shared similar experiences about structural inequalities, laborers faced. The gender and class differences, Mexicans faced, prevailed in the daily working environment. The narrator discussed feminism in the 18th century under the civil Chicano movement. The issue of equality of women was basic in the movement. Everyone was against racism, and the choice of human rights was accepted to survive in society (Potter, n.d.). The categorical inequalities, where racial and ethnic differences destroy societies, were condemned by different scholars. Gender equality was given significance by different sociologists to bring harmony.   


Bingham, G. (1991). 9. Democracy in America | THE AMERICAN YAWP. Retrieved 23 November 2019, from

Building, 5. (2016). Students and Faculty Take Over the 500 Building · CUNY Digital History Archive. Retrieved 23 November 2019, from

Gutiérrez, N. (2015). American Latino Theme Study: Immigration (U.S. National Park Service). Retrieved 23 November 2019, from

Jacobs, L. (1866). Digication ePortfolio :: U.S. History Primary Source Reader | HIS 20 BCC CUNY :: Louisa Jacobs, Report from the Freedmen’s Record. Retrieved 23 November 2019, from

JUAREZ, R. (1975). “The Cycle of Poverty”: Mexican-American Migrant Farmworkers Testify before Congress. Retrieved 23 November 2019, from

Potter, S. Interview with Socorro Gomez-Potter. Retrieved 23 November 2019, from


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