Humans are spending hectic and bustling lives, they have a short time to approach such commodities that accomplish their demands, and therefore marketing is the best source to get a desirable product. Marketing movement is a source to stay in touch with potential customers to satisfy their needs by providing those engaging commodities and products. Business flourished when promotional opportunities and different strategies are applied to meet the expectations of customers. These promotions are administered in different ways and advertisements also encouraged by marketers to capture the customer’s attention (Fraj-Andrés & Salinas, 2007).
Purchasing and selling movements is the origin of marketing that provides the means of conversation to customers and organizations. Different strategies can be adapted to develop a business-like including signboards, pennants, advertisement, public association; direct marketing, product installation, promotion on social media, and buy one get one free opportunity. These marketing strategies hit the consumer’s mind and emphasize them to use these products that are dealing with promotional activities. Gangai, & Agrawal, (2016) explained that if the organization establishes a vast network of advertisements, it will be essential to target the positioning of consumers.
When a company introduces its promotional strategies by using different ways, it directly affects consumer’s psychology because every customer has a different choice and demand. This psychology of consumers is helpful to meet the consumer expectations, to understand and by creating more innovative product to relax the consumers with the commodity, because consumers usually focus on such products that would not be time-consuming, readily available, fulfil their needs, and advertisement strategies also gain the attraction of users (Genchev& Todorova, 2017). Several companies follow various ways for promotional merchandise, which provide the substitution procedure to the buyer. Culture is also a well common factor that affects the marketing strategies and assists to promote any commodity because it examines the behaviour, features, and self-individualism of humans. Hulten, & Atwal, (2010) mentioned the cultural properties implement on individual demand and need. Organizations need to implant such promotional activities that would not hurt the other cultural values because every culture possesses its customs and traditions.
Every organization has to introduce its product by informing all features to captivate the possible buyers. The company can adopt various techniques to notify the essential elements of the product. Pamphlets, samples, internet websites, publications methods, electronic media also fascinate the users to consume the product. These are conventional methods but effective ways to promote the product (Jerman, &Završnik, 2013). These ways leave a long and lasting impression on the consumer’s mind and compel them to use. All advertisement techniques create a sense of purchasing into consumers. Besides this, the features, ingredients, quality, and price must be mentioned in the advertisement. When a company provides the necessary information of the product through publication, it assists in gaining the consumer’s demand and in reaching the company’s target level.
Celebrities play a criticalpart in the commercial purpose, and gain the trust and promotion of the product. Celebrity attachment has a motivational effect on consumers. Most people follow their ideal celebrity. The followers want to use the popular product of their personality (Griffith, 2017). The company needs to be aware of the needs of its buyers and bring changes to the product according to the user’s demand to compete with the business among the other rivals. A conversational method toward the buyers is also helpful to manufacture the desirable and profitable commodity to run the business efficiently.
Fraj-Andrés, & Salinas, (2007) discussed that market competition is becoming worse with time because the marketing strategies are improving to obtain the consumer’s attractions. The organization gives preference to the consumer’s psychology. The company should focus on consumers’ thoughts, emotions, ideas, expectations, ways to fulfil the need, and also give an alternative source in case of skipping the first one product by changing its ingredients, or manufacturing methods. The organization also keeps it in mind the environmental conditions because it directly interacts with the needs and demands of buyers. Promotions of different offers are also an effective way to get the target consumers and interact with the consumer’s psychology.
Psychology directly influences the marketing tools; it establishes a way that developed the business by understanding the consumer’s expectation. Consumer psychology is a helpful subject to be aware of the companies with the consumers need and critically analyze their expectations and prepare the source for development to the company. Psychology also encourages people to purchase the product. This study also analyses the habits, customs, and traditions, preferences of the followers, and craft research on people’s behaviour, which makes it helpful to formulate the alternative source for the buyers which meet their expectation level (Gangai& Agrawal, 2016).
An experienced and honest marketer uses psychology’s legal and ethical techniques to achieve the attraction of the buyers. Although marketing and psychology have an inverse relationship, when we examine the needs of people by using psychology, it creates a close relationship between them. Psychology is helpful to promote the marketing attempts that flourish the business.
With theincrease in internet adaptation, (E-Marketing) like online, web, and digital platforms have expanded the business. These are modern techniques to access the customer. Internet marketing can be conducted on wireless media or by email. There are four-dimensional strategies available in electronic marketing like electronic mail marketing, web marketing, mobile marketing, and online marketing provide a promotional tool to convert the perception of consumers toward the product. This type of marketing offers a variety of technology to engage consumers with commodities (Hulten& Atwal, 2010). This is the most advanced feature to introduce the product in front of customers that provide the online facility and save time.
In this type of marketing, bargaining cannot be done, so it is an easy and safer way to gain maximum profits. It provides a global approachability. It’s a comfortable way of marketing with respect to conventional marketing, and it facilitates the consumer and marketer equally (ChandraSekhar, 2012). E-marketing provides a list of relatively products with its price list but also presents the complete awareness to people to encourage the beneficial outcome. E-marketing just needs a limited but high-speed internet connection, and complex websites, to gain the consumer’s viewpoints.
The current study attempts to focus on marketing tools that influence consumer behaviour. Marketing techniques can change the behaviour of consumer due to their outreach, and they spread the message to a targeted audience.
The specific purpose is to identify the role of marketing tools in influencing consumer behaviour.
The first chapter of the study is the introduction. It is about problem statement and objective of research. The second chapter is the theoretical framework. Multiple theoretical concepts and critical definition of marketing and consumer behaviour will be explained. The third chapter will describe the literature review. Extensive literature review of scholarly studies will be included to gather crucial evidence and facts about marketing tools and their influence. The last chapter will be about concluding remarks of study.
Under multiple theoretical concepts, this paper will discuss key themes related to marketing.
The behaviour of consumer pertains to critical concepts related to consumer, buying motives, consumer involvement and the decision to change its preferences. Consumer behaviour is widely the study of persons, or companies and the processes customers used to search, choose, use and dispose of services, products, ideas, or experiences to satisfy desires and its effect on the customer and society.
Apparently, the customer is easy, yet studies show it is complex to analyze, since irrational elements are significant to alter the wants, needs, and demand of consumers (Boulding, &Staelin, 1994). The term customer is strongly related to cultural, social and psychological factors that impact consumer behaviour.
Consumers versus Customers:
The term consumer is an individual who involves typically the activities of search, chooses, utilize and dispose of the services, products, ideas, or experiences. Whereas, the customer is particular in terms of company, brand, or shop. It reflects individuals who regularly or customarily buy a specific brand, buy a specific company’s product, or buy from a particular shop. So, an individual who purchases Nike shoes or who uses Levis clothing is a customer of these companies (Jerman&Završnik, 2013).
Need – Want – Demand
Need is a necessary element for people to live and survive. A want is the desire of people that can be current or in future. Demand is also desired that relates to the consumer when they need a product. Wants and demand can be differentiated on the basis of desire. A desirable product can change wants and allow customers to change their preferences.
Consumers have a motive for buying a specific product. The rationale is a powerful urge, feeling, desire, emotions and instinct that develops the purchaser to make a decision to purchase (Babu, 2016).
It is described as, those considerations or influences which give the urge to buy, provoke action or decide choice in the buying of products or services. This motive is generally controlled by social, psychological and economic influences etc. (Barutçu, 2007). The buying motives can be classified into two types, (i) patronage motive, and (ii) product motive.
(i) Patronage Motives:
These can be described as impulses or consideration, which influences the individual to particular patronage shops. These motives can also be categorized as rational and emotional as like product motives.
Rational motives are such motives that come up when deciding a place depending upon the satisfaction of buyer that it provides a wide selection, latest designs, offer better after-sale service etc. (Ashraf &Shahzadi, 2017).
Emotional motives that influence a consumer to purchase from particular shops, without any proper reason. For instance, the consumer may be just wanted to buy from his favourite market.
(ii) Product motives:
These can be described as those desires, impulses and considerations that provoke the customer to buy a product. These are further classified into two types on the basis of satisfaction nature.
Rational Product Motives are described as those urges which come upon the basis of proper evaluation and logical analysis. The buyers decide rationally after detailed valuation of the purpose, available alternatives, cost benefits and same valid reasons (Makkar, 2009).
Emotional product motives are those urges that influence the customer on the grounds of his emotions. The person doesn’t think about the reason or analyze logically the desire of the purchase. He buys any product to satisfy his pride, urge to instigate others, ego-sense, and his wish to be unique.
Why Study Consumer Behavior:
This study supports every person in the world, as all our customers. It is essential for merchandisers to understand customers to succeed and survive in this competitive environment of the market (Chen&Zhou, 2017). Following are the reasons which highlight the significance of this study as a discipline;
Importance in Daily Life:
The reason for analyzing a study is to support someone to understand its contribution better. The idea behind consumer behaviour study is the cause of the part it plays in human lives. People spent most of their free time in the markets, shopping or involving in other leisure activities (Su & Tong, 2015). People usually pass their extra time in thinking and knowing about services and products, talking about them with their friends, and following commercials related to such products and services through different media channels. The utilization of them considerably shows the lifestyle of people. All such reasons develop the study needs.
Relevance to Decision Making:
Consumer behaviour is taken as the functional discipline, as many decisions are importantly influenced by their behaviour and possible actions. There are two perspectives which seek function of its information are societal and micro views.
The macro or societal perspectives use the information of consumers to collective-level confronted by society or mass as a whole. Consumer behaviour has a considerable effect on the level and quality of the living standards (Sarstedt& Lehmann, 2017). The micro perspectives engage consumer understanding to help an organization or firm to achieve its targets. The persons involved in this fieldwork to know consumers for the purpose to be more efficient at their duties.
Several consumers are identified to be more engaged in shopping and products than others. A consumer who is much engaged with a product would take an interest in getting a lot of information about it before buying. Thus he studies catalogues in detail, compares models and brands available at multiple stores, asks questions, and requests for recommendations (Qureshi et al. 2017). Hence, consumer involvement can be described as a resounding state of knowledge that inspires consumers to attend to, seek out, and learn about the information of the product before purchasing it.
Reasons for Consumer Involvement:
Following are the factors that affect consumer involvement in the markets;
The consumer involvement increases as the level of observed risk in the buying of service of the product grow. It is expected that people will believe more engaged in the purchase of a house for them instead purchasing a shampoo, it can be a more risky purchase. Differentiation of product influences involvement (Loureiro, 2013). The relationship grows as the quantity of alternatives increases. The reason behind this is the reality which consumers think the variety that means more significant risk. The happiness a person finds by using a service or product can also affect involvement. Some products can be a more substantial source of joy for people than others. Coffee and tea have comparatively a high level of satisfaction value than let’s say hand wash soaps.
The three personal factors are needs, self-concept, and values that affect the amount of consumer involvement in a service or product. Celebrities, for instance, present specific values, self-image and needs. They use to utilize services and products that reveal their living style. The get much engaged in buying expensive products like imported cars, designer shoes and clothing etc.
The situation in which something is got or utilized can create emotional involvement. The purpose of buying or event of purchase influences involvement. For instance, purchasing a pair of shows for their own self is very less involved than getting a gift for someone very close.
A process of communication that can implement, develop, and evaluate driver of persuasive communication in relation to a current and potential customer. It can be linked with customers, employees and stakeholders. The marketing process involves the exchange of offerings, so it brings value to customers and advocacy campaigns and business activities that can actively change consumer behaviour (Loureiro, 2013).
Marketing tools are inherent to contribute to the marketing mix, which is a set of tactical and controllable device for a company to target audience. The concept of the marketing mix relates to execution and planning steps that are employed by a company to influence the demand of its product (SAM, 2017). In 1953, Neil Borden introduced the concept of the marketing mix that generally takes the sense of different factors that can influence the decision of the consumer to buy a product. In an effective marketing strategy, the tools of marketing acquire central space under the marketing mix. These are designed to meet the objective of a company to market its products, thus gain value.
Frame of Reference
What is 4P’s
The four P’s are Product, Price, Place and Promotion. The 4Ps’ of the marketing mix is common in marketing, and collectively they establish the customer value. They also position the target market of customers. The 4P model was first introduced by Jerome McCarthy in 1960 with a framework that is used for business to design campaigns and strategies that can promote goods (Labeaga et al. 2007). This framework is useful to increase the conversions and targeted audience because each P is valuable to influence the decision of the consumer.
Product is goods and services that a company offers to its customers. The product can be quality, variety, brand name, features, design, services and packaging. A product is a physical good that provides a unique experience to the consumer. The users of this product can be attracted to the features, packaging, name, support, quality of ease of use. The transaction of this physical product influences the whole buying experience of the customer. Ideally, a product should be compelling for consumers. To that end, marketers tend to the understanding product life cycle and plan different methods to deal with these life cycles (Iglesias et al, 2011). The type of product determines what should be the price, and how should it be placed and promoted.
A cost that consumer pays for the product to use it is its price. Marketers link the products’ original price and perceived value because they have to seasonal consumer discounts, supply costs and the price of competitors. If the product is intended to be more luxury, its price level is increased. The marketers also determine that whether discounting is valuable because it sometimes draws in more customers (Pulido Polo, 2018). Price is a critical element to consider because the often high priced product is viewed as unnecessary by the user unless it is a luxury brand. Key pricing strategies are used by businesses such as competitive, bundle, economy, subscription, psychological and discount.
This decision allows the company to sell and deliver a product on the market. Business executives, in this regard, tend to get their products in front of most readily consumers. Placing a product in different stores is about to garner the attention of the user. This concept is related to the placement of a product on TV shows, web pages or in advertisements. The distribution of product is placing, and this concept is based on resellers, wholesalers and intermediary businesses. The decisions about placing allow the business to set up product stores for display. Placement helps to enhance reviews and attract customer. Some businesses set up catalogues to display product effectively. It is a useful activity to analyze competitor’s policies and get the idea to differentiate.
Public relations, advertising and promotional strategy are some critical ways of promotion. These activities allow consumers to participate in buying actively. This P of the marketing mix set a value for the consumer and show them the need for the product. Marketers unite placement and promotion together to get the audience involved. In today’s’ digital age, development and place are acting elements of online and offline activities (Kumar &Rajan, 2011). It is a mere communication tool for people to choose a product, so it encompasses the entire marketing function. Promotion allows people to set target according to their needs. In this form, communication will enable people to know what they need and how will they benefit from it.
Influence of Marketing Tools
Marketing tools have a significant influence on business. To establish a business, various techniques are applied in which some conventional methods are planned like signboards, pennants, pamphlets, newspaper, brochures, through a video station, and phonic directories are some strategies which are used by organizations to promote selling quantity and capture the target consumers. All methods are just adopted for a flourishing business (Goldsmith et al. 2010).
Electronic media has also impacted on marketing methods. Different software is used to attract consumers. Mobile marketing, email marketing, and online marketing technologies are established for these purposes. These are advanced and modern marketing tools. The online partnership is to run associate marketing and sponsorship as a marketing tool.
Web investigation is also a necessary element of digital marketing that produces pieces of information for internet users following online movements. Through this method, companies can possess the positioning of buyers (Iglesias et al. 2011).
Social media marketing is a subgroup of E-marketing. Social media also reacts to online marketing and has the similar ambition to meet the expectation level of consumers for business promotion. Social media facilitate the marketer by granting the equipment like online journals, twitting, posting, linking, liking, binding, bookmarking, sharing, networking, and commenting on various websites like Facebook, YouTube, Twitter, and different additional social media platforms provide the strategic resources to consumers and marketers (Išoraitė, 2015). Social media marketing offers a source to organizations and marketers by offering a low rate of advertisement with an attractive profit.
Marketers follow this kind of tool to keep in touch with users and to make a communicative relationship with them to be conscious about their needs and demands toward the product. People usually use social media to be in touch with relatives, comrades, and to be aware of new fashion and trends and also to discover the product reports. This platform informs the consumers about upcoming updates toward their beloved product (Schnerrer, 2014).
By using social media, platform organization wants to engage demographic consumers to deliver the marketing thought. Marketers should follow passionate, thrilled, delightful, engaging, true, and genuine marketing tools. Promotional drives also promote marketing affairs because these strategies help shift the buyer’s attraction to the product. All marketing tools are supporters and promoters of relevant brands or products and have an impact on online and offline marketing services.
Organizations use leverage methods to capture users through online and offline facilities. Marketers should prepare such tools that affect emotional feeling. Psychological techniques are much helpful to stay connected with the emotional feeling of buyers. When any brand has an emotional attachment with its customers, it will never lose them all. Marketers should apply promotional tools for business growth; these tools are booklets, business cards, informative broadcasting, merchandising strategies, and use of websites (Goldsmith et al, 2010). Several elements provide the complete detail about the product, and which highly supports the characteristics and features of the commodity. Business cards show the trademark and stamp of the business and provide contact to the supporters and audience. All marketing strategies have a basic purpose of increasing the selling level and encouraging new customers. They also provide awareness to buyers, but the price also must be controlled under full attention for the growth of the business (Hulten& Atwal, 2010).
Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM)
An internal communication tool is a persuasion that is a convincing argument backed up with valid reasons. John Cacioppo introduced the elaboration likelihood model that seeks to explain the process of humans’ stimuli and how it works to change the attitudes, so behaviour. ELM elaborates results when a certain amount of effort is used to communicate a message, so people react. A high elaborative model scrutinizes the content of a message because it is backed up with high motivation. Users invest time to know what is in the message, so they make a pronouncement. Marginal processing of routecontributes to elaboration of low level in case user is not scrutinizing a communication to gain efficiency (Griffith, 2017).
Some communication forms used in this model can be attractive for people; they give endorsement to people. For instance, enticing imagery appeal to people, imagery related to food, travel, or free products attract people and forms their attitude. High motivation makes their decisions, and they get high capacity (Francisco et al, 2014). Marketers incorporate ELM in their designs to increase access of the user. It is a form of communication that is not risk alienating, but it frames behaviour by persuading them.
Analysis of Empirical Data
Extensive literature has discussed the role of marketing tools to influence consumer behaviour. This section will discuss some key themes under marketing tools that change the behaviour of the consumer.
A study accomplished by Genchev& Todorova (2017) discussed marketing tools, i.e. sales promotion as an effective strategy to win new clients, so increase profit margins. The sales promotion acts as a drive to attract new customers while retaining old; this marketing activity adds value to the products. Authors discussed that it stimulates the effectiveness of intermediaries and stimulate purchases of consumers. The study investigated 60 participants about sales promotion impact and found out that it is an effective instrument that directly impacts the behaviour of the consumer. It is also found out as the most suitable communication channel that gets information about the user’s perspective of marketing.
Marketing communication is an active activity to make the differentiation. They enhance firms’ capability to shield itself from price competition in future. Boulding, &Staelin (1994) discussed that advertising and sales force are key instrumental variables of marketing that represent differentiation measures. These variables represent their own price elasticity which is helpful to attract a large consumer base. Future differentiation is carried out with the basic premise of communication that provides positive messages. The study found out that unique messages and strong conversation allow the customer to believe over price and quality of the product. Sales promotion leads to more price elasticities and generates positive message about the product. A marketing plan that constitutes product offerings allows desirable attributes, so customer acquires desirable attributes.
Schnerrer (2014) elaborated about sales promotion in a book that it can work most importantly in marketing communications. The channel of marketing through sales promotion can attain specific objectives as compared to any other marketing communication tool. Sales promotion theory and practice has a central position at the global level because it is based on retail outlets and guarantee success in influential B2B businesses. The element is invaluable in advertising due to its capability to enhance consumers’ interest. Under sales promotion techniques, advertisement and communication acquire huge involvement and build customer base (Ercis&Yildiz, 2019). Advertising promotion is the main aspect of integrated marketing because it is linked to inherent communication.
Sampling has been proved as an important part of marketing research. Sarstedt,& Lehmann, (2017) examined research about sampling techniques and how they work for advertising. Authors observed 1028 studies from 2008-16 from leading advertising journals. The sampling procedures have been proved beneficial for the estimation of customer involvement. Researchers focused on the sampling fluctuations that relate to fundamental aspects of sampling in the advertisement. Chen, & Zhou (2017) described the free sampling process as a digital format that is a common business practice.
The marketing framework undertakes sampling to offer the consumer a good experience with products. Word of mouth is an online marketing strategy that enhances product visibility. The research study explored other literature to know key dimensions of marketing and drawn that free sampling has amplified sales and has a strong role in marketing (Coelho et al, 2018). CNET under free sampling lead allows a large volume targeting for amazon in the online market. Free sampling has a positive impact on products sales, and its role in online word of mouth cannot be ignored. This study suggested free sampling strategy has an interplay with low-cost methods and word of mouth strategy in marketing.
A fast way to promote products and employ effective communication tool is coupons under marketing. Coupons are a nice marketing tactic and marketing tool that develops brand image and enhances customer loyalty. It needs modern infrastructure, and coupon campaigns are the main source of data tracking to build a loyal audience. Kumar &Rajan (2011) highlighted the role of coupons in a study that they are an emerging trend in the marketing perspective that attract customers and provide a profitable business model to marketers. Social coupon service is a part of the analytical model that works for profitability and recover any shortfalls occurred in profit. Authors used data from three different business endeavours and worked on customer acquisition that can be a future orientation in marketing.
Išoraitė (2015) analyzed the framework of coupons under theoretical aspects and how they can be used as sale promotion tools. Coupons are readily available tools for shopping, provided by marketers or companies that give flexibility and discount to purchase customer’s favourite products. Coupons are an important source to follow the latest business trends, so they promote sales. Online shopping, advertisement and marketing strategies frequently use coupons as a part of a sales tool. Hulten& Atwal (2010) illustrated the concept of promotional tools for retail marketing that inspire consumers buying patterns. The report discussed the reputation of samples and coupons to change consumer behaviour and found out that two main behaviours are related to it. One is brand switching; second is customer loyalty. On the basis of multiple kinds of literature, marketing is found to be playing a special role to change consumer behaviour under these promotional tools (Esmaeilpour, 2015).
Buying Behaviour of Consumer and Brand Loyalty
Thebehavior of consumer is linked to the new-fangled concept of advanced marketing. ChandraSekhar (2012) explored the dimensions of consumer behaviour under the decisive aspect of advertising. The upshot of the consumer is brand loyalty. It asserts influence on consumer behaviour because the quality and pricing of a product help consumer decide about purchase decisions. Finding a product and sticking to the brand is a brand value that is determined by quality and price, so it changes consumer behaviour. The image of a brand is the main element that determines purchasing power and decisions related to it. Ashraf, &Shahzadi (2017) examined the relationship of marketing variables like brand image and consumer buying behaviour. The study undertook key dimensions that play a major role in determining consumer behaviour; for instance, marketing tools act as big communication methods with consumers that shape their decisions.
Branding is influential for consumers to take valid decisions. Brand knowledge allows consumers to choose healthy dimensions about the product by knowing its value (Qureshi & Malik, 2017). The loyalty of a brand increases as consumer ages, so family culture and social factors play a significant role in determining the consumer decision. Authors of this study analyzed the research by finding gender the main variable that can impact consumer buying behaviour. The consumers are status-conscious, so they carefully select products and use brands when it comes to their choice (Ercis, 2019).
The study has investigated the behaviour of consumer and change in decision making due to the influence of marketing tools. The promotional tools are significant to shape consumer behaviour that leads to brand loyalty. Influencing factors that can shape consumer attitude are linked to marketing, perceived quality perception values. The study analyzed consumer behaviour, needs, wants and desires. Different kinds of motives are worthy of explaining consumer attitude and preferences. Marketing is a consistent framework that allows various channels of advertising to work and shape consumer attitude. The study reviewed extensive literature to find out its objective, which is to analyze the marketing tools in influencing consumer behaviour.
This study found a strong relationship between marketing tools and consumer behaviour due to mediating variables such as promotional tools and techniques of marketing. Each association needs to present its item by illuminating all highlights to enthrall the potential purchasers. The organization can embrace different methods to advise the fundamental components of the item. Handouts, tests, web sites, distributions techniques, electronic media additionally allow clients to expend the item. These are ordinary strategies yet powerful approaches to advance the product. Psychology straightforwardly impacts the showcasing apparatuses; it builds up a way that built up the business by understanding the customer’s desire. It is a useful concept to know about the organizations with the purchasers’ need and basically break down their desires and set up the hotspot for advancement to the organization.
The theoretical concepts contributed to explaining the consumer perception, attitude and behavioural framework, which is influenced by marketing. The targeted market is based on positive perception about a product, so that company can create a better product to respond to consumer wants and needs. This study is found to be helpful for future research because it has explained key dimensions of marketing under promotional tools that work coherently to alter consumer behaviour.
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