1.0   Introduction


Entrepreneurship is defined as that mind-set that gives someone the ability to see opportunity everywhere (co-founder of Sweeten) This can be a business idea and it can also mean the ability to see the opportunities in people that can help someone grow the company.

Mauritian economy encourages young entrepreneurs with great incentives.  SMEs contribution to the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) is 40 percent and accounts for 54.6 percent total employment in the country.

Pet Care is a good investment opportunity in Mauritian market as people love their pets, and they are willing to provide them with the standard quality of grooming and care when they are away or busy.

1.1 Opportunity Analysis


For the past decades, there have been many incentives and supports given to enterprises for the promotion of the SME sector in Mauritius. The Start-Up Scheme that provide financial support of up to a maximum of Rs. 100,000 to entrepreneurs to set up their enterprise.

The trends that effect the pet care industry includes the increase in disposable income of middle-income group and rising trend of nuclear families. Moreover, people are adopting more pets and demanding higher quality pet products and services (Market, 2019)

The Mauritius commercial bank had teamed up with the DCDM Research to investigate on the mindset of entrepreneurs, their behaviours and motivations with regards to same.

In Year 2016, the SME sector contributes approximately 40% to the GDP and employs around 300,000 people in the country (55% of total employment).

1.2 Company


This report provides not only the opportunity analysis, but also my affection for pets. I have always been a pet lover and the idea for pet care business originated from my passion for pet grooming and pet sitting. The goal is not just to start a business, but to form a work family who work with integrity and radical transparency with clients and provide services with excellence.


To provide innovative, high-quality, consistent, value-for-money, pet friendly service that will make your pet want to come back again and again.


Vision: To bring integrity and excellence in the pet care industry and become the number 1 service provider in Mauritius.


1.3 Key People and Skills


Pet Coach intends to open two branches, one in Balaclava and the other one in Trou aux Biches

Training pets require skills and time; therefore, the firmwill employ professionals with experience in dealing with pets but most importantly animal lovers. The veterinarians possess technical skills, e.g., first aid, wound stitching, sterilization of surgical instruments. The administrative clerk with top communication skills and administrative, two carers who have the know-how of Pets’ grooming and especially those who know the premises and safety measures of Pets (especially dogs). There will also be 2 drivers, one of which will be on part time basis, and the finance administrator in charge of all financials of the company.


2.0 External analysis


The World Trade Organization considers Mauritius’s investment apparatus as “open and transparent.” (Freedom, 2019). Mauritius’ GDP expanded by 3.4% in June 2019. While the GDP per capita reached 10,992.3 USD. Mauritius Consumer Price Index (CPI) for February 2020 was estimated to be 2.1%. Moreover, the Gross Saving rate of Mauritius was 6.8% in 2019. (CEIC, 2020). These macro indicators show the financial condition of Mauritius. Over 4 million pets are transferred by air, Millions of people are choosing to take their pets while they travel. According to LA Traveling magazine, Millions tend to marry later, and often spend a vast amount of money on their pets (Forbes, 2019).



A robust legal framework protects property rights and improves business acumen. Political stability will help pet coach in many ways including traveling, tax payments.


In terms of Business Confidence, Mauritius has moved up the ladder to 161.60 index points in 2019. The average compensation for labour has increased by 5.1 percent (Anon., 2019). The literacy rate of Mauritius is 93.16 percent (UNESCO, 2016), having educated and well-spoken staff and employees will prove to be beneficial tothe business.


Poverty and inequality is not a serious challenge in Mauritius which means the residents are not too poor to afford pet care services. Moreover, the government of Mauritius contributes a lot to social inequality and social justice, enabling businesses and service providers a safe and secure environment, social benefits will help pet care expand its business further.


Smart cities and techno parks is another pillar, which the government believes can assist inturning Mauritius into an intelligent island. Pet Coach is a mobile pet care service provider and is directly associated with technological improvement in the country.



Intellectual property rights are protected in Mauritius by the Trademark act of 2002 (Bheenick, 2018) making it secure and safe for pet coach to purchase new assets. According to Mauritius workers’ law, 2019 monthly salary of an employee must not increase MUR 50,000 (except for some sections), and an employee shall not work more than 12 hours a week (Yuen, 2019). Pet coach will provide its employees all the required and legal incentives.



Environmental protection Act of Mauritius is responsible for assessing and reviewing environmental regulation. Pet Coach will abide by the rules. Tropical cyclones can cause damage to property. However, there is a system of warnings and Pet Coach will adhere to the advice issued by local officials (Environement, 2019)


3.0           Industry analysis


Some of the noteworthy trends in Pet care industry:


Pet Parenting

Pet owners are treating and taking care of their pets, like family members. Pets provide companionship to their owners. Pet care and Pet products are associated with pet humanization because pet owners want to buy similar products and acquire the best services for their pets as they would for their child. Pet humanization gives rise to other trends in the pet industry. Few examples of pet humanization are per-friendly traveling service, therapy sessions, opulence grooming routine. (INTERNATIONAL, 0CTOBER 2016)


Pet Obesity

Obesity research done in the United States by the Association for Pet Obesity Prevention (APOP) found that almost 35% of the dogs and about 28% of the cats in the US are obese. The pet obesity is the cause of inappropriate human food provided by pet owners, not having a proper exercise routine, and too much eating. (INTERNATIONAL, 0CTOBER 2016)


Premium Products 

Pet premiumization means getting the premium level products for pets. Consumers who demand premium products and tools for their pets are middle class and urban living pet owners. (INTERNATIONAL, 0CTOBER 2016)




3.1 SWOT



  • First-ever mobile application-based Pet grooming and Pet care platform in Mauritius
  • Managing the business will be easy as most of the time, pet-sitters will be traveling places, which reduces the operating cost.
  • No inventory; this reduced the cost of business.
  • Pet grooming tools and products are easily accessible on e-commerce platforms.



  • Establishing a brand name for any new business is a hurdle. Marketing and Advertisement will help overcome this problem.
  • Initially, getting your business started could be very costly. Having a low budget will prove to be a big hurdle.
  • Having strong business links and PR (Personal relations) is essential. It might take time to establish ties with clients and locals.



  • The increasing use of the mobile and internet will make it much easier to reach out to new customers, making it easy for business expansion.
  • Increase in Business confidence (Economics, 2019)
  • Turning passion into profit. Being a pet enthusiast could be profitable and a great opportunity for business.
  • Once the business has successfully made a brand image, then further franchising to other passionate pet groomers is another opportunity to grow business further.




  • Increasing competition
  • The higher cost of services (Economics, 2019)
  • Volatility in the exchange rate
  • An already established business might start providing mobile-based facilities as well (copying our business idea)

4.0           Financial analysis


One thing is clear that there would always be a demand for organizations and individuals pet owners whose demand is extra coaching and grooming for their pets. That is the primary reason why Pet grooming and training will still be required. To start-up capital estimated for Pet Coach is 2.3 million MUR (USD 53,000), which constitutes of 1.3 million MUR loan from a bank and 1 million MUR is personal deposits and some loans (from relative and family members).

One of our primary goals of initiating the Pet Coach is to start a business that will survive off its cash flows without the need for financial resources from outside sources once the business is officially running.

4.1 Investment Outlay

Total number of employees 20 Employee wages per month 35,000 MUR
700K total
Advertising and Marketing
Billboards, Social media marketing
40,000 MUR

Transport (10 bikes and twotrucks)

300,000 MUR
670,000 MUR
Tools and equipment 100,000 MUR
Tax and legal payments


50,000 MUR
Inventory and warehouse 200,000 MUR
 Total 2 million MUR

Source: self-work


Generally, for Pet grooming and Pet sitting, prices are charged on an hourly basis, but Pet Coach’s pricing strategy is different. They will charge a flat fee for the service, except for, few cases which may require different pricing. E.g., Pet Coach will invoice 700 – 800 MUR for pet sitting. Additionally, if the client needs 24 Hours service or more than 24 hours, the charges will vary. Similarly, during holidays prices charged shall be a little higher than usual due to excess demand for service. Keeping in mind that there would be some clients who wouldn’t mind paying extra bucks for their pet routine and grooming and for that Pet coach has established a premium and tailored services, according to clients’ needs. The Payment policy will be entirely inclusive. Payments transaction shall be accepted via Bank Transfer, via Cheques, via Mobile Payment and Cash payment.

5.0 Exit


Pet caring is considered a “hot” opportunity for business start-ups. But, in a situation where the business doesn’t go as planned, the pet coach has an exit strategy.

  • Merge with an already established business. Sell 51% of the business shares and the controlling power.
  • Complete sell-off to another firm or business who will acquire the management as well as the capital of the business.

6.0 Conclusion


As per the report, it is concluded that Pet Coach is a viable business opportunity. Bringing a revolutionary and to the Mauritius market. It will prosper in the future as the business is technology-driven, and the targeted audience is expatriates and tourists. With extensive research and business strategies, Pet Coach has the know-how of consumer taste, preferences, and, most of all, customer needs. With PESTEL analysis on the front, the business will be sustainable in the long run producing more jobs to the locals and expansion of business opportunities.





Potential of New entrance


§  Initial cost is low

§  Tools and products are easily accessible.

§  No barrier to entrance


Power of Customers


§  High customer loyalty

§  Pet coach has different service identity

§  No mobile pet grooming in Mauritius

Power of Suppliers


§  Higher number of suppliers

§  Similar products are available

§  E-commerce platforms provides variety of tools and equipment


Threat of Substitutes


§  Online available free platforms

§  Freelance pet care business

§  Veterinary shops

Competition in the industry

§  Pet industry is growing

§  People are fond of conventional pet shops

§  Well-known retailers









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With all these emerging technologies and globalization, when it is not so hard to travel from one place to another, several aspects of our society have modified, including the nature of crimes and their investigations. Whether it is a case of Pablo Escobar, the most notorious drug smuggler of the world, or Osama bin laden, nations have struggled in investigating the crime and prosecuting the culprits when the guilty has moved to another country. (Caroline Morgan, 2010)

To fulfill the right and provide the opportunity to authentically investigate the case and punish the culprit in order to provide justice and promote peace and harmony in the world should be the priority and goal of every respectful society. The crime is crime, no matter where is it committed and the societies should fight it together and punish the guilty. (KIMBERLY PROST, n.d.)

One of the key challenges for the law enforcing agencies is the sovereignty of countries, which sometimes come under the way of successful investigation and extradition. Countries may have reputational issue in providing access of their own nationals to some foreign government or organizations. The case even get worse when the relationship between the countries are not so well. The people or organization who commit transnational crimes are very aware of such techniques and they try to exploit the differences between legal systems, the fight of bureaucracies, the protection of sovereignty, and the complete inability of countries to work together to overcome their differences.(Greece-OECD Project: Technical Support on Anti-Corruption , n.d.)

In order to legally fight such people and organization who are involve in transnational crimes, the countries and governments invented tools like extradition and mutual assistance so that such entities would not be able to exploit differences between the legal systems, protection of sovereignty and simply the clash between bureaucracies. Mutual assistance and extradition, both, are tools which help creating bridges between two counties in order to mutually cooperate in providing free and fair trial and investigation so that the real culprit can be punished without having any barriers. (David Chaikin, 2006)

Extradition is the process where the country surrenders its national or expat to the other country where that person has committed any crime. Extradition is one of the older example of mutual cooperation among countries, starting from Egyptian, Chaldean,Chinese, and Assyro-Babylonian. As per record, the first extradition treaty happened in 1280BC. However, in older years or till 1800 century, extradition or mutual assistance between countries were solely used for the purpose of politics and religion, in recent years it has become more common and useful in competing with crimes and promoting peace in the society. (Sharon A. Williams, 1992)

The first challenge the prosecutor or the judge finds when they get to know that the person who is found guilty or is required for investigating is in some other nation, that whether they would be able to bring the culprit back to that country. As per the international law, no country neither legally nor morally is obliged to extradite anyone. In order to cater this situation, countries have started to sign treaty agreements among them so that they can extradite the culprits and fight such transnational crimes together. Today, there exist several extradition treating among countries and even regions. Few famous treaties are The European Convention on Extradition, Commonwealth Scheme, The Inter – American Conventions, The Benelux Extradition Convention, The Nordic States Scheme, and The Arab League Extradition Agreement. However, keeping in mind the increasing number of transnational crimes, money laundering and illegal offshore accounts, the number of treating should increase in order to effectively extradite the culprits. (Manley O. Hudson, n.d.)

How Mutual Assistance can help in Stolen Asset Recovery:

Several cases on flight of stolen assets can be found today. One, as mentioned in the handout of World Bank, The Puppet Masters, is of Kenya when its government invited bids to replace its passport system. Even though the government received bids as low as of £6 million, the contract was awarded to a firm named, Anglo-Leasing and Finance Ltd., a shell company registered in UK, for a amount of £31.89 million. This is a simple case of how through massive amounts of black money, corruption, and stolen assets are driven out of the country to a place known as safe havens.

The complexities usually involved in such cases can make it almost impossible to recover stolen assets. For the above mentioned case, till now not any individual or company been convicted of a corruption offense, despite the millions of dollars of illicit payments allegedly involved. So what methods, countries and legal bodies can utilized to ensure successfully recovery of the stolen assets?

With the common ways of criminal proceedings and confiscation, a handbook of World Bank, Public Wrongs Private Actions, suggest another way to deal such criminal offences which is linked to civil remedies. (Emile van der Does de Willebois, n.d.)

Whereas criminal laws present society’s disapproval of the wrong doings like corrupt acts and vows to stop, punishment, and confiscation of stolen assets, civil law aims on victims’ interests and focuses at restitution and compensation. Both of these methods may occur sometimes in parallel, or sequentially sometimes. Hence, a useful and effective answer to corruption and wrong doings would generally asks for concomitant utilization of both civil law remedies and criminal proceedings to achieve the desired outcome. (Jean-Pierre Brun, n.d.)

Dual Criminality:

In order to successfully extradite any person, the alleged crime must be illegal and punishable in both the countries, requesting and the requested. This principle is known as Dual criminality. Seemingly, this looks like a very simple task; however, in reality it is quiet complicated. There are several complexities in the legal systems of countries. The problem comes when there are difference in how two countries define a crime. A similar crime may have different implications, punishment and prosecution procedures in two different countries. What may be theft in one country, might be larceny in other. Murdering someone has very different punishments in USA and Saudi Arabia.  (George J. Andreopoulos, n.d.)

Issues in Extradition, Mutual Assistance and Proving Dual Criminality:

Once the prosecutors are sure that they can extradite someone accused of a crime in their land, the next big challenge is to gather and provide enough and required proofs to the requesting country. Any country, even who has signed extradition treaty, won’t extradite any person without having significant amount of required proofs. This might seems quite simple, but historically many culprits have escaped extradition because of this as collecting proofs as per the requirement of requested country sometimes get very difficult. And this problem is not just because of the difference in legal systems but difference in proof requirements. However, on the positive side, this issue is getting better with time as now more countries are easing their list of proofs before allowing the extradition. (Philipp Girardet, 2010)

Another main issue which prosecutors find is that some countries have policies that stop them from extraditing local nationals to other countries. These countries instead of extraditing their nationals to other country, prosecute and investigate their alleged crimes locally in their own courts and as per local legal systems. Thus, many extradition treaties where it is mentioned that if extradition is not possible because of involvement of local citizens, the case would be prosecuted in local courts. These clauses are aimed to promote the cause that criminals won’t go free and will be trialed no matter what. However, there are several issues in it. As per the United Nations report on extradition, (Adán Nieto Martín, 2018)

“It was noted that the use of the principle autdedereautjudicare would in theory be an alternative to the extradition of nationals and had on some occasions proved effective. There were, however, several significant practical problems in its application, including the low priority assigned to such prosecutions by overburdened requested States. The difficulty and costs of obtaining evidence from the requesting State, and the serious burdens imposed by such trials on the victims, witnesses and other persons, were cited as examples. These problems significantly impeded the effectiveness of this alternative to extradition.”


With changing time, the nature of crimes is evolving. The frequency of transnational crimes has been increasing as it is getting easier to travel and the borders are less hard to cross. But in order to cater this issue, the governments and organization have developed tools like extradition and mutual assistance which have been proved so fruitful in combating such crimes.





Adán Nieto Martín, 2018. The Foundations of Mutual Recognition and the Meaning of Dual Criminality in:.

Caroline Morgan, 2010. The Potential Of Mutual Recognition As A Leading Policy Principle. The Future of Police and Judicial Cooperation in the EU.

David Chaikin, 2006. The Impact of Swiss Principles of Mutual Assistance on Financial and Fiscal Crimes. Revenue law journal.

Emile van der Does de Willebois, n.d. The Puppet Masters, s.l.: World Bank.

George J. Andreopoulos, n.d. Extradition law. Encyclopedia Britannica .

Greece-OECD Project: Technical Support on Anti-Corruption , n.d. Mutual Legal Assistance:Assessment and revision of the current legal and regulatory framework , s.l.: s.n.

Jean-Pierre Brun, n.d. Public Wrongs, Private Actions. Civil Lawsuits to Recover Stolen Assets, s.l.: World Bank.

KIMBERLY PROST, n.d. International cooperation in combating transnational crimes.. Mutual assistance in criminal matters and extradition .

Manley O. Hudson, n.d. The Factor Case and Double Criminality in Extradition. The American Journal of International Law, Volume 28.

Philipp Girardet, 2010. ‘What if Uncle Sam wants you?’: Principles and Recent Practice Concerning US Extradition Requests in Cartel Cases. Journal of European Competition Law & Practice,.

Sharon A. Williams, 1992. The Double Criminality Rule and Extradition: A Comparative Analysis. Osgoode Hall Law School of York University.

Crime Theories






Biophilic architecture happens to be a holistic approach to utilizing the best nature-based systems, and the current applications of biophilia include landscape urbanism, green city movement, and ecological infrastructure which happens to be one of the best applications. Throughout history, biophilicdeisgn was used to designate an image of opulence, grandeur and power. The Alhambra is the most prominent example of howbiophilic design was used as a representation of power by the rulers of the Alhambra. Alhambra palatine is the most admired as well as famous examples of Islamic heritage and architecture in Europe. However, in the 21st century, Biophilic design is more than just a technical format for aesthetics. The biophilic framework is now considerd as an advanced methodology for sustainability for the built environment. Sustainability is bound to be an elusive target until states can shift the entire focus on building a fulfilling relationship between humans and their natural environment



Alhambra Palace is located at a strategic point within the city, offering views over the entire meadow and the city, which have aided the rulers inhabiting the castle to gain a vantage point (EggletonL. , 2012). The fortress is surrounded by irregular ramparts, with its eastern side facing the Cuesta del Rey Chico and its southern side facing the valley of al-Sabika (Rabbat, 1985). The palatine fortress, the Alhambra, is a palace perched upon Sabika hill located in the city of Granada.

There are three main areas of the Alhambra, Medina, the Generalife, and the Citadel. The citadel area is for protecting the site and the medina is an area which provides accommodation for the administrative staff as well as the artisans. The Generalife is the summer palace which consists of pavilions, colonnades, and gardens. Analysis of the Palace indicates that there is a spatial order underlying the design patterns. This is a quality closely associated with Medieval Islamic Art.


Alhambra palace was initiated by Muhammad 1 in 1232 who was the very first sultan in the Nasrid dynasty. The majority of the construction of the palace took place from thirteenth to the fourteenth century and was completed at the end of the reign of Muhammed V, Sultan of Granada from 1353 to 1391 and reflects the architectural style at the end of the Nasrid dynasty (Willmert, 2018). The well-preserved fortress complex became archetypal to the “Moorish” architecture of the Western scholars at the end of the Nasrid rule (Irwin, 2004). The architectural style, common at that time, was a mixture of exuberant Moorish and Christian influences which has been known as the Nasrid style (Eggleton E. , 2011). Despite many subsequent alterations, specifically under the many Catholic monarchs, the castle remains symbolic both as a war trophy of the “Reconquista” and as a symbol of the long-lost golden era of the al-Andalus(Eggleton L. , 2012).

The fortress owes as much to its modern-day location in Spain as it does to the European travelers of the eighteenth century who had a huge part to play in its “rediscovery”. After the conquest of Spain by the Catholic Monarchs in 1492 the Alhambra underwent changes in its design. The Palace of Charles V, a Renaissance building commenced by the Emperor in 1526 is located on the hill of Assabica inside the Alhambra fortress. The projected Palace is a specimen of Spanish architecture, designed by Pedro Machuca, and has been characterized by Washington Irving as “an arrogant intrusion” (Calvert, 1904). Charles V installed his royal emblem on every surface and the square plan encloses a two-story circular courtyard. Doric order pilasters and rustication is articulated on the façade on the first story of the Palace (Eggleton, 2012).

There are distinct parallels between the Moorish design and that of the Renaissance, broadly speaking, the formal design of the Palace expresses a Roman and Renaissance style architecture which does not have the incorporation of landscapes or natural elements. Charles V has often been criticized for introducing the incompatible architectural element of the renaissance art within the existing Moorish design of the Alhambra (Abdelaal, 2018). Historians point out towards the tenacity of the rulers who, during a time when political negotiations were intense and warfare an ex veto, managed to produce some of the most phenomenal architectural buildings and sophisticated poetry within the region. The surge of culture within the Nasrid rule managed to leave its impact on the walls of the palace (Barker, 2016).

Style of the Alhmabra Palace

The Alhambra is a medieval Islamic monument in Granada Spain (figure4) that has been in existence for an extended period. The style of the palace was meant for religious rulers and persons belonging to the affluent class. The situation is evident through multiple structural designs and artefacts that were common with rich people such as rulers. In 1894, UNESCO declared the monument as a world heritage site, which is open for the public. People visit the site to observe and learn about its history and design.

The city hosts a rich architectural and cultural history that has continuously changed to modern times. Eggleton (2011, 9) claims that the city qualifies to be a monument as it houses different histories and practices of people who occupied it during the early Christian and Islamic rules. The monument’s structural and architectural designs (figure 5) have a natural feeling that has been re-envisioned multiple times by its occupants to modern-day. Built on a hill, the feature observes a biophilic style, which is evident in its architectural designs. For example, it has gardens, water pools, fountains, and mimics of natural light in most of its palaces.

The Alhambra complex has two describable entities remaining today, the Court of the Lions and the Court of the Myrtles. Court of the Lions was built in the reign of Muhammad V during the time of 1354 to 1359 and has been paralleled with the Villa Rustica. The architectural style common at that time was a mixture of exuberant Moorish and Christian influences which has been known as the Nasrid style (Eggleton E. , 2011). A pavilion project into the courtyard and the light domed roof has filigree walls. The oblong court is thirty-five meters in length and twenty meters in width with white marble colonnade and colored tiles.

The Court is situated at the heart of the Palace, and the main living units surround the court and turn outside while receiving the sun, view, and light from the garden of the courtyard. When one moves through the space, physical involvement with water is induced due to the integration of small water channels and fountains which engage the human body with an element of water. The main technique for the decoration of the walls of the courtyards in the Palace is created through the dado tiling used to cover the bottom and upper part of the wall in the Court of the Golden Room. The stucco art which is covering the muqarnas in the Court of the Lions has different colours such as gold, green, blue, white and red. There is a consistency of the natural elements and themes in historic architecture which points towards the fact that biophilic design is a phenomenon contributing towards codification of history, neural sciences, and human intuition. This shows that contact with natural elements and nature itself is essential for a vibrant existence specifically for those living in urban areas (Jorge, 2018). The natural colour tones create a material connection with nature and reflect the local geology to create a sense of the place (al-Rhodesly, 2018).

The surface of the pool in the Court of the Myrtles serves the function of a mirror, reflecting the biophilic design in the architecture itself. This creates an admirable visual effect. There isarabesqueornamentationofthedifferentvarietyfoundwithinAlhambra.Theseincludegeometric starsandroseswhichrun intoeachotheranddevelopthedesign.Thebestexampleofbiomorphic designpatternsistheornamentalepigraphswhichareinterwoveninthesurfacedecorationsinthe porticos of the Court of the Myrtles because the ornamentalepigraph patterns are reminiscent of nature thus projecting the design element of naturally occurring shapes in nature  (al-Rhodesly, 2018).

Biophilic Design

The term ‘Biophilia’ was first coined by a professor at Yale University who defined the biophilic design as being affiliated with the inherent need of human beings to associate with natural designs within the built environment. Thus the goal of the biophilic design is that an environment is created which consists of elements that promote well-being and contact between human beings and nature. Over the years, architects, have published different works which include a unique form of approaches for realizing the transition of biophilic design from theory to application in building design. Biophilic design happens to be a holistic approach which utilizes the engineering principles, design cues, and nature-based systems to support well-being improved health and performance which can be measured through self-rated biometrics, personal mood as well as work quality.

Since the beginning, the hunting and gathering societies shared what humans today have, the need to connect with nature for obtaining necessities and for gaining mental peace. While analysing the existing literature one stumbles upon the idea that biophilia developed and has its origins within the understanding of the evolution of human beings (Söderlund, 2015). Human species developed biologically in adaptive response to the natural surroundings and not the artificially created forces. Thus, the human mind and body evolved with the bio-centric approach and not through technological advancement (Gullikson, 2010). The main hurdle which humans today have to experience between themselves and nature is the paradigm of development and design of the structures and artificially built environment (Söderlund, 2015). The biophilic design thus addresses not only the problems and deficiencies in modern landscape practice and building but also provides a new method for creating a positive experience for humans with nature (Kellert, 2018).

The term Biophilia has its roots in Greek literature means “love of life”. The Biophilia Hypothesis proposed by Wilson indicated that there is a need within people to connect with the complex geometrical forms in their surroundings just like they require air and nutrients (Price, 2018). Thus, sprang the Biophilic architecture, giving innovation to way architectural spaces are used and paved the way for the dialogue between the need for humans to connect with nature and the patterns as well as natural forms. There are geometrical features such as the scale-invariance and fractals which provide a notion of self-similarity as well as symmetry for people to indirectly connect with natural elements (Ramzy, 2015).

Principles of biophilic design can be seen in the architecture of the Islamic era, in cities such as Damascus, Aleppo, Bagdad, and Cairo. Pointed out that in contrast to the building being viewed as a sculptural element, the traditional madrasa has characteristics of well-arranged interior spaces and exterior patterns that are integrated harmoniously in an interplay with natural elements (Abdelaal, 2018). Moreover, themes connected with natural elements can be found in historical architecture such as that of the Egyptian sphinx with stylized animals, and that of the acanthus leaves on the Greek temples. Thus, this representation of elements and plants as ornamentation represents the tendency and need of human beings to connect with nature (Kellert S. R., 2012).

There is a consistency of the natural elements and themes in historic architecture which points towards the fact that biophilic design is a phenomenon which has contributed towards codification of history, neural sciences, and human intuition. This shows that contact with natural elements and nature itself is essential for a vibrant existence specifically for those living in urban areas (Ancona, 2017 ).


The Alhambra and the Biophilic Design

There is a consistency of the natural elements and themes in historic architecture which points towards the fact that biophilic design is a phenomenon which has contributed towards codification of history, neural sciences, and human intuition. This shows that contact with natural elements and nature itself is essential for a vibrant existence specifically for those living in urban areas. The Alhambra Palace is the perfect example of the historic structure with the biophilic design because the architecture has beauty and functionality which connects people with natural elements. The Alhambra palatine is the most admired as well as famous examples of Islamic heritage and architecture in Europe.  The biophilic design was achieved in the Alhambra palace through the architectural magnificence of the Generalife Palace, which is framed with a panoramic view of different landscapes that extend to different horizons.

Biophilic Design Patterns present in the architecture of Alhambra

Browning allocates the biophilic design into three main categories, the Natural Analogues, The Nature of the Space, and the Nature in the Space (Downton, 2017). There is a visual connection with nature in the design of the Alhambra palace, specifically in the Generalife Palace in which the panoramic views of the landscape is extended out to cover the horizon. The terraces, garden pavilion, and flowers, shrubs as well as plants cover the spaces (Browning, 2014).

Nature in the Space: Visual Connection with Nature

The visual connection creates a stimulating as well as calming experience for the viewers. This pattern is rooted in the idea of biodiversity as researchers claim that having visual access to various ecosystems and biodiversity is beneficial for the health of individuals. Kahn is of the view that viewing environmental elements in an office surrounding reduces the stress level (Ryan, 2014). The Alhambra observed visual connections with nature evident in the Generalife Palace. According to Amoeda et al. (2018, 376), the palace has panoramic views of the natural environment spanning to the horizon. The palace’s gardens are filled with flowers and shrubs, while plants cover its pathways as evident in (figure 6). The oblong pools are fitted with fountains and surrounded by shrubs, as evident in (figure 7) below.

Moreover, the Patio de la Acequia (The Court of the Water Channel (figure 8) and the Patio de la Sultan have are “magnificent” courtyards that enhance the palace’s biophilic design. Amoeda et al. (2018, 376) claim that visual connections with nature enhance positive emotions, reduce stress, and improve recovery rates and concentration. The presence of plants, shrubs, and flowers in the Generalife Palace made it possible for its architects to incorporate direct experience with nature into the Alhambra. The scenery may have served to reduce stress and increase mental engagement among dwellers of the palace.

Direct experience of nature

Direct experience of nature includes the actual contact with natural phenomena such as water, animals, plants, light, natural landscape, and weather. Indirect engagement comprises of natural colour, evoking nature, simulations of natural air and light, and images of nature (Kellert & Calabrese 2015, 11). Notably, people use colour to locate water, food, and other primary resources, making it an essential natural element. The use of natural colours in built environment consists of the utilization of pigments that consider earth tones such as rocks, soil, rainbow, sunset, animals, sunrise, and plants (Downtown, 2017). An evocation of nature includes the use of representations that do not occur literally in the environment but imply specific natural principles. A building can have shapes that evoke specific animal qualities. For instance, the Sydney Opera House has wings that imply the qualities of a bird.


Non-Visual Connection with Nature

This pattern involves auditory as well as olfactory sense simulation through sound patterns and the main objective is to provide environmental elements using scent, touch, and taste to some extent. The main design considerations include prioritizing natural sounds over the artificial urban sounds. The best example of Non-Visual Connection with Nature is that of Calat Alhambra in which these fourteen patterns can be seen.

The architecture of the Alhambra supports the nonvisual experience through the connection of indoor as well as outdoor spaces between natural landscape and buildings. There are solar heat penetrates, sounds of nature and myrtles along with fragrant plants within the palace which create the exquisite stimulation for senses. The non-rhythmic sensory stimuli is present in order to circulate the natural sensory stimuli and to attract the attention of the viewers by relieving their psychological stress.

Thermal & Airflow Variability

There is thermal as well as airflow variability within the palace which makes the spaces in the fortress invigorating, refreshing and alive. The Hall of Comares is the best example of the “Venturi effect” in which air is circulated rapidly throughout the space creating cross ventilation. The Alhambra observed direct contact with nature through the creation of thermal and airflow variability. According to Amoeda et al. (2018, 376), thermal and airflow variabilities are changes in airflow, relative humidity, and air and surface temperatures that imitate the natural surroundings. The aura created by design generates a refreshing, alive, active, comfortable, and invigorating feeling. In the monument, the wall height provided a natural cooling against the intense sun rays. The situation created an indirect illumination at the higher parts, which spread to the lower parts of the interior. The design prevented the influx of heat in the rooms by manipulating direct sunlight while still achieving the required level of ventilation and illumination (Amoeda et al 2018, 377).

Additionally, ventilation in the rooms was achieved by structural placement of the windows that created a stack effect and venture effect. Structural placement of the windows refers to the accurate position of windows. For example, the variation in air pressure and density between the lighter warm air and heavier cold air created a stack effect in the Tower of the Captive and the Tower of the Princess. The Hall of Comaress (Figure 9,10) achieved natural ventilation by rapid air circulation in spaces where cross-ventilation creating a venturi effect. The air ventilation was necessary to enhance human comfort and productivity. According to Kellert & Calabrese (2015, 12), natural ventilation can be achieved by operable windows and or complex engineering strategies. Therefore, by engineering the windows to allow cross ventilation in the Alhambra (figure 11), its architects achieved a biophilic design that allowed the circulation of natural air into the interiors of the buildings.

Presence of Water

The presence of water created compelling as well as captivating presence. The best example is that of Alhambra pools as there is the presence of water in the Court of the Lions design and the Water Stairway which is one of the most breathtaking designs of the Generalife. The presence of water (figure 12) encouraged the connection of nature with the Alhambra’s design. Amoeda et al. (2018, 379) claim that water promotes the experience of a place through touching, hearing, and seeing. People develop a captivating and compelling feeling. The Alhambra has multiple watercourses comprising of canals, water stairs, bannisters, basins, and fountains created in different geometric forms. For example the Court of Myrtles has a reflective pool with pools that gurgle water, creating a calm relaxing, and quiet sound that generates a wonderful sense (Amoeda 2018, 379).


Dynamic & Diffuse Light

Dynamic light effect creates the experience of intrigue and drama within the viewers and buffers a sense of calm.

Connection with Natural Systems

These are the interactive designs such as the integrative educational curriculum, community gardens, horticulture designs in which the use of materials is that which engages the viewer. This form of connection with nature can be seen in the Alhambra palace as well in the ceilings of the Throne Room and in the roof of the Balcony of Dar Aisha.

Natural Analogues

Natural Analogues in the Alhambra

The natural analogs of the Biophilic design are the non-living, organic vocations of nature that are indirect. These include the colors, shapes, patterns as well as materials which manifest natural elements in the form of artwork. These biomorphic forms and patterns can be seen throughout Islamic ornaments which were used for decorative purposes and are present in the architectural decorations in the palace as well. There is arabesque ornamentation of the different variety found within Alhambra. These include geometric stars and roses which run into each other and develop the design. The best example of biomorphic design patterns in Alhambra is the Balcony of Dar Aisha which is considered as one of the most enchanting corners of the palace. Moreover, ornamental epigraphs are also present on the perforated screens and panels (al-Rhodesly, 2018).

Indirect Experiences with Nature

The Alhambra also achieved a biophilic design by incorporating natural analogues into its structural designs. The above elements are incorporated into structures designs creating a mimicry of the natural environment.

Biomorphic Forms & Patterns

The Alhambra has multiple biomorphic forms and patterns that enhance individuals’ connection with the cosmic world through imagination (Gonzalez 2003, 262). In relation to the Islamic decorative ornaments (figure16,17), the cosmic world is made up of three dimensions that include nature, the universe, and human beings. (Amoeda et al. 2018, 381). The Alhambra represents the cosmic beauty through epigraphic and geometric decorations throughout the palace. According to Amoeda et al. (2018, 382), natural geometries are evident through geometric flower decorations and patterns that fill the walls of the monument. For instance, the Balcony of Dar Aisha (figure 18) presents one of the most spectacular epigraphic compositions and spectacular decorations. In this case, walls are filled with geometric representations of flowers, star wheels, and puzzles.

On the other hand, the epigraphs are interwoven with other surfaces(figure19), making the Alhambra rich in information. According to Kellert and Calabrese (2015, 12), people develop a positive feeling towards diverse and information-rich environments. For example, tourists are fascinated by reading ancient writings on monument walls provided they are legible and comprehensible (Garcia, 2017). The epigraphs in most of the Alhambra’s walls are placed above the tile decorations on the lower part of the walls, which make them more visible for visitors. Today, most of the structures have been renovated after abandonment for a considerable period since the 1700s. The palace has been termed as a world heritage monument by the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO).

Biophilic Design Throughout History

The sense of attachment of human beings with their built landscapes happens to be the promise of biophilic design and the distortion of an individual’s values with that of nature in the digital age has only occurred because of conventional design. Furthermore, the distortion in the values also occurred because of the growing alienation and environmental degradation within the world. Thus sustainability is bound to remain a goal rather elusive until there is a shift in the ethical values with the natural world. Sustainability is bound to be an elusive target until we can shift the entire focus on building a fulfilling relationship between humans and their natural environment. This relationship is depicted in biophilic design, which can be seen in the Alhambra. Thus the successful application of the biophilic design relies solely on recognizing how one can remain productive, healthy, and maintain a meaningful connection with nature.

Angkor Wat present within Cambodia happens to be one of the largest religious monument which happens to be 162.6 hectares. The temple was built in the 12th century by Khmer King, and it was not dedicated to Vishnu which was the previous tradition but was rather the mausoleum for Khmer Empire. Angkor Wat uses the Khmer architecture and uses sandstone as the main building stone and has redented towers which have been shaped to look like lotus buds. The complexity and order pattern, which is a sensory element of the biophilic design that adheres to the special hierarchy matching that of natural surroundings (Hartley, 2014). The main design associated with complexity and order pattern, the fractal pattern can be identified in the vernacular as well as classical architecture from the column capitals of the art of Ancient Mayans, ancient Egypt, and Greece, the Hindu Temples, etc. The fractal pattern can also be seen in the Angkor Wat as there is high dimensional fractal artwork such as that of narrative scenes, extensive garlands, bas reliefs, decorative elements like pediments and devatas.

The madrasa and bimaristan design during the 11th century valued biophilic elements which can be seen in the Qubbat&-Bimaristan al-Sultan Qalawun of the 1283 A.D. In contradiction to the western conception of sculptural element of the biophilic design, the madrasa feature uses patterns that are well-arranged within the interior as well as exterior spaces that interplay as well as integrate the natural elements. The biophilic elements included within madrasa architecture includes water elements, daylight, clever manipulation, patterns, wood, and stone (Abdelaal, 2018). These features happen to be essential elements present within the biophilic architecture. The pattern, also known as the complex order happens to use a different form of strategies such as the scaling factor with the fractal geometries, hierarchical symmetry, bio-geometry, universal scaling, and connective symmetries. These patterns can be seen in the Muqarnas dome, which happens to be an Iranian architecture that can be seen in Erzurum Yakutia Madrasa that was built in 1310.

Biophelia in Modern Day

Biophilia started as a display of power and opulence as it was designed as not just a castle but like a mini city with the royal family being the center of attraction. The impressively large castle was constructed with a powerful exterior containing fortified structures that were meant to fend off attackers. The castle was built as a symbol of power and strengthened at a time when the Christian expansionism was at its peak in the 13th century as it threatened to overrun the Muslim rule in the state of al-Andalus.

Alhambra was not only considered as the priced jewel of the Granda but it was also the center of political power within the kingdom and Nasrid Palace was located at its core. The Alhambra Palace, during the Nasrid rule was meant to designate opulence as well as power. The palace was constructed to impress and it worked its charisma on most of the visitors from all over the world, particularly the Catholic Monarchs, Isabella and Ferdinand. Palace of Charles V within the Alhambra exudes majesty and power because of its impression of size, weight, symmetry and ornamentation which suggest authority and dignity. The opulent Moorish styled reception halls, royal quarters and reception halls part of the Nasrid Palace in the heart of Alhambra are a perfect blend of splendor and power. This is because the dazzling ornamentation of the columns and walls dazzles the eyes of the visitors. However, opulence alone is not sufficient to suffice for being the source of power (Eggleton E. , 2011). The other means through which the palace displays power include the disproportion and uncertainty of the layout of the Nasrid Palace communicates a sense of mystery regarding the ruler of the palace. Thus the visitors or the potential assassins will be disoriented by the narrow passages, blind alleys and rooms at odd angles.

Eggleton states that multiple generations of Christian monarchs chose to occupy the Alhambra palace demonstrates that it was considered as a site of immense power and opulence. This shows that the biophilic design implemented at Alhambra represents the ruler just like beauty, architecture, ornament, and the surrounding landscape represents power (Eggleton E. , 2011). However today, architects utilize technology to enhance people’s contact with nature. According to Lin, Egerer, &Ossola (2018), urban gardens provide urban dwellers with diverse animals, plants, and soils. The situation influences an in-depth comprehension of natural processes, such as pollination, climate processes, and pest control, which affect food production. The gardens also allow individuals to interact and engage in physical activity, reducing the risk of some lifestyle disorders such as obesity. Modern designs also infuse biophilic elements by creating plant walls, which enhance positive health among employees in urban places (Lin et al. 2018). For instance, the Pasona Group’s Office in Tokyo utilizes hydroponic technology to grow plants along the interiors and exteriors of its walls (figure 24,25).

Integration of shapes and patterns, such as water ripples, which mimic natural forms, have also gained popularity in giving building a wavy appearance. Glass walls and windows are used to incorporating space and light in most buildings. The materials allow buildings to utilize natural light as they reflect sun rays around spaces. For instance, Genzyme building in Cambridge incorporates natural light and space in its design. The above cases reveal that technology can be utilized to enhance biophilia as opposed to hindering its integration in the built environment.

Among the best practices architecture these days, there happens to be immense demand to reduce the number of carbon emissions which is a concern for developed countries where complex regulations, energy demand, and thermal studies have provided solutions for architectural designs. Thus developing countries these days are also opting towards architectural designs that lower the energy consumptions in buildings (Garcia, 2017).  For example, the thermal condition of the desert in UAE is reduced using high technology design walls that happen to be built by Norman Foster in the Masdar Institute in Abu Dhabi UAE. Biophilic design can also be observed in the ceramic coating overlaying the structure made up of concrete of the Sydney Opera House which has been created by JornUtzon.

Furthermore, the handmade bricks building system at Turpan, China happens to allow moisture release as well as natural cross ventilation because of the clay, dry vegetation and earth mixed together in the bricks (Garcia, 2017). Furthermore, a building in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil known as the GuilhermeWeinschenck happens to compensate for heat through local vegetation which is used for lowering the temperature as well as release the built-up of moisture through balancing the levels of humidity inside the building.  The Dockside Green community in Canada happens to be an example of biophilic design as it represents the non-rhythmic stimuli. The goal of the non-rhythmic sensory stimuli is to enforce the use of natural stimulus which can attract the attention and enhance the ability of the individual to connect with nature which can often be replenished from psychological and mental fatigue. The Dockside Green community design is responsible for rainwater management as well as habitat restoration which can lead to noises and buzz of insects, grass noise through swaying and noise of falling water as well as that of nearby animals that can be visible through windows, porches, and walkways.


The main objective of the biophilic design is to build an environment based on the positive natural aspect. The restorative environment design focuses on the relationship between humanity and nature within a world that is increasingly marred because of the psychological, social as well as environmental alienation. The sustainable designs tend to combine the efficiencies of biophilic design, which makes enhanced connections to complement nature with restorative environmental design. Implementation of Biophilic design at the Alhmabra represented grandeur, opulence, aesthetics and natural connection with nature. However,due to urbanization and development in modern times, this relationship has translated from a personal to a collective level (from houses / dwellings / palaces) to public parks through a transition of power and an increased densification of urban areas which would not allow for “wasted personal space”. Today, the construction industry utilizes technology to promote the design by the use of nature, space and light. Notably, further studies can be conducted to investigate how natural aspects can be integrated into building design from an early stage, where space and resources are limited to enhance human contact with nature. It is incumbent on architects to incorporate nature into the built environment to optimize its benefits in the future.

The aspects of biophilic design such as energy-saving concept, human health, enhancement of microclimates, and green building elements are in favor of making the biophilic design as sustainable. These aspects are now being implemented by states who wish to create sustainable environment and living.The energy-efficient concept in biophilic architecture asserts that passive biophilic design tends to have an elaborate system of insulations, which means that there is a low loss of energy and increased thermal comfort. The biophilic design embraces the green building elements that lower the damage on the ecosystem, whether it is the biophilic design within a city or a building.










The idea of a Universal Basic Income has garnered attention in the past and continues to be a topic of discussion in many countries. In simple terms, the Universal Basic Income (UBI) is defined as “a regular fixed cash transfer payment provided by the government – or another institution in the public sphere – to every citizen or resident, regardless of whether he or she is rich or poor and/or wishing to be engaged in paid employment” (Raventós, 8). According to De Wispelaere&Stirton (267), there are three essential characteristics of the UBI. These are universality: basic income should be given to all population; individuality: basic income should not be given to households but individuals and; unconditionality: basic income should be unconditional, so it does not exclude anyone. This paper aims to argue that countries should adopt the concept of UBI as it reduces inequality, values unpaid workers such as women and caregivers, and would lead to positive job growth. 

The advantages of applying the UBI are many. First of all, it would be a significant step in eradicating poverty and eliminating income inequality. The societies were more egalitarian when they were agriculturist. The land was not private property, and so, there was less inequality. All the profits were equally divided, and the whole community prospered—and suffered in times of difficulties—together. However, the slaves struggled in the American Southern plantation economy. Circumstances became even more difficult for some workers when the industrial revolution took place. Skilled craftsmen had to take up unskilled, monotonous jobs.

Moreover, as Levin-Waldman states that the industrial revolution transformed skilled craftsmen, artisans, and farmers into unskilled labor, and “economies throughout the world saw the emergence of great pockets of poverty as more and more unskilled workers found work in the factories” (Levin-Waldman, 135). These workers were paid wages and had no health-benefits or job-security. So, “such an economy was still operating on the concept of slavery, although it was not at all the chattel slavery of the American Southern plantation economy” (Ibid). Even though labor unions made progress and workers got many rights, the world continues to witness a considerable amount of income inequality. The “world’s richest 1 percent, those with more than $1 million, owns 44 percent of the world’s wealth . . . [while] 56.6 percent of the world’s population hold less than 2 percent of global wealth” (Credit Suisse Global Wealth Report, 2019). The gap between wealth accumulation is massive, and the UBI can help in reducing this discrepancy. The poorest of the population includes many people who are unemployed or have to resort to taking extremely exploitative wages. UBI would give them financial independence and the opportunity not to accept wages that are not even enough for subsistence. Similarly, it would provide a sense to employers not to offer rates that the workers would agree to work on. 

Other than eliminating exploitation of workforce and reducing income inequality and poverty, UBI would also play a significant role in improving the conditions of women, many of whom are involved in unpaid child and elderly care or have to do “double-shift” by working in and outside of homes. Doing household chores while caring for children and the elderly is tough but often under-valued and unpaid task. Therefore, the UBI would help in compensating women for their efforts. Moreover, financial independence would result in other benefits, such as breaking free from domestic abuse. The rate of domestic violence around the globe is frightening. According to the United Nations Office report, “87,000 women were killed worldwide in 2017, 58 percent of the victims of domestic or family violence . . . more than 30,000 of those deaths were the result of domestic abuse” (Office on Drugs and Crime: World Drug Report 2018, 86). 

It could be said that thinking that UBI could reduce the number of crimes committed against women and make women more informed and vocal of their rights, is being too optimistic. To clear this misconception, it is imperative to note that this deduction is based on evidence gathered from many pilot studies done in many countries. For instance, one of the results of the pilot project of UBI done in Namibia was that it “reduced the dependency of women on men for their survival” (Jauch, 9)Moreover, the UBI trial in India resulted in “women’s empowerment” and noted, “that women receiving a UBI participated more in household decision making, and benefited from improved access to food, healthcare, and education” (Bharat, S.E.W.A., & UNICEF, 2014). Furthermore, even the Manitoba Basic Annual Income Experiment (MINCOME) conducted in Manitoba, Canada, in the 1970s “found that emergency room visits as a result of domestic violence reduced during the period of the trial” (Jarosiewicz, 90). These facts suggest that many women remain in subjugation only because they do not have the financial stability to break free from the shackles that constrain them. 

Added to the advantage the UBI would provide to blue- and white-collar workers who have lost their jobs to the technological revolution, it would help the youth to contribute positively to the economy. Contrary to what many people fear, the UBI does not reduce people’s desire to work and remain unemployed. Instead, it reinvigorates their willingness to learn more and to perform better as they are motivated intrinsically and not to be compensated monetarily. It also allows people to take risks, experiment, and learn more as they are not bound by low wages and no or lack of job security. According to the Roosevelt Institute’s researchers, all the three models they created for the implementation of UBI in the United States found that “under all scenarios, UBI would grow the economy, increasing output, employment, prices, and wages” (Nikiforos, Steinbaum, &Zezza, 3).

 Other than providing people the freedom to take risks and pursue what their heart desires, the UBI also results in increasing the rate of education and lowering the rate of school dropouts. The MINCOME found that “the participants of the trial were more likely to complete high school than counterparts not involved in the trial” (Forget, 291). Similarly, the Basic Income Grant trial in Namibia found that the parents could now afford their children’s education and school-related expenses which increased attendance and “as a result, school dropout rates fell from almost 40% in Nov. 2007 to 5% in June 2008 to almost 0% in Nov. 2008” (Haarmann&Haarmann, 38). Higher education means a more educated workforce in the future. This would be beneficial as an informed workforce would increase output, and the economy would prosper. Moreover, while it is believed that a job is required to earn money, the sad truth is that at least some amount of money is also needed to get a job. Having a safety net in the face of UBI would also provide the cultural capital to people to secure a good job. This, in turn, would also help the economy as people’s power of consumption would exceed. A decrease in poverty and unemployment would allow people to spare more on necessities as well as luxuries. For instance, the Alaska Permanent Fund increased the purchasing power of UBI recipients so much that “it has resulted in 10,000 additional jobs for the state” (Kingma, 2018).

One of the major objections that are made against the adoption of the UBI is that it is too costly. The Chief Economist of the Central Organization of Finnish Trade Unions (SAK), IkkaKaukoranta, stated that the implementation of UBI model in Finland is “impossibly expensive” (Tiessalo, 2017) and the United Kingdom Minister for Employment, Damian Hinds in a speech in the parliament in 2016 said that the implementation of UBI model in the UK would be “clearly unaffordable.” Moreover, the questions that would it be right to give extra money to the already wealthy people and would the UBI not mean giving the money that the poor deserve to the non-deserving rich people can be raised. While these are fair points to ask and must be given attention, what is more important is to focus on the greater good that would come out of the implementation of the UBI. One of the outcomes of implementing UBI would be the wealthiest 1% having and added income. Still, the significant outcome of the implementation of the UBI would be to give 56.6% of the total population, which holds less than 2% of the global wealth money that they deserve and desperately need.

Moreover, the developed welfare countries can implement the UBI model with greater convenience. In case they are unable to afford these, they can cut back on other expenses—such as unemployment insurance, subsidized housing, education, sustenance, health services, benefits given to the disabled and elderly and other—which would be unnecessary to spend on as the public would have the financial means to pay for these. Also, once everybody is relieved from financial tensions, they would be more motivated to work, as seen in the UBI trial run in Iran in 2010. When the citizens were given 29 percent of the median income every month, “poverty and inequality were reduced, and . . . people used it to invest in their businesses, encouraging the growth of small businesses” (Lowrey, 188). Along with economic prosperity, the UBI would result in the well-being of people, as seen as one of the outcomes of MINCOME the trial in Manitoba, Canada. The trial resulted in “fewer hospitalisations and mental health diagnoses” (Lowrey, 199). The developed countries can take the initiative and show the developing countries that the outcomes of implementing the UBI are far greater than the financial risk it may pose. 

Conclusively, the benefits of implementing the UBI are numerous and varied. The UBI would help reduce poverty, income inequality, exploitation of workers, and increase the middle-class. It would be hugely beneficial for women as well, as they will have the financial independence to break free from violent relationships, and also gives value to their unpaid child and elderly care. Not just for women, the UBI would be helpful for parents to be there for their children instead of working odd hours under unfair pay just to meet ends. The parents would be able to afford their children’s education, overall increasing the rate of literacy and lowering the rate of school dropouts. Some fears related to the implementation of the UBI are valid, but it must be remembered that the good that comes out of UBI is abundant and worth taking the risk. 


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