Business Ethics: Case of Gucci

Executive summary

Project management in any company needs effective planning and execution. Gucci is managing rapid expansion in the global market under effective managerial techniques and business planning. The company is involved in key managerial processes and implemented a labor model under which employment and recruitment has become easy. Effective workplace requirements involve employees into better working conditions while focusing on mutual cooperation with stakeholders. Company is using responsible workers to accomplish its targets. For example, labor dispatch arrangement service is aligned on managing costs and contractual responsibilities by Gucci in Chinese city Shanghai. This research report focuses on key business considerations by Gucci in China. Company analysis explores its background, history, core values and ethical culture.

This report also includes major stakeholders of Gucci that are involved in project completion process. A stakeholder map is created to know about the action plan and engagement of employees. Gucci has economic, legal, ethical corporate social responsibilities. CSR serves the company in ethical way because it has a specific place to monitor corporate affairs. The report is divided into five main parts, first is about company analysis, its background and history. The second part is about stakeholders’ analysis that has shown stakeholders map. The third part discusses CSR analysis like responsibilities to shareholders. The fourth part is about issues and problems, for instance ethical problems in Gucci, causes and its symptoms, key stakeholders involved and consequences. In the last part, evaluation of company is carried out by specific actions that managers can take.

Part one-Company Analysis

1.1.Company History

Guccio Gucci was a fashion designer and businessman from Italy; he founded The Fashion House of Gucci in 1921. The House of Gucci, also known as Gucci is a luxury fashion and leather products brand in Italy, and as well as around the world, it is a branch of Gucci Group, Kerning, a French investment company, owns it. In 2008 Gucci generated revenue of 4.2 billion Euros worldwide. Also, Gucci was ranked at 41st position in the Top 100 Brands worldwide in 2009. Gucci is still the most significant fashion brand in Italy (Annual Report, M. 2019).

Gucci has presented high quality, leading designer goods to its consumers successfully, unlike several other brands in the market. Throughout these years, the brand has attained overwhelming success levels with each new product released. By 2005, it has started 207 outlets around the globe(Czerniachowicz, 2017). Further to this, Gucci derived 278 company-operated outlets by the end of 2009, with wholesale its merchandizes through large superstores and franchisees. Gucci was valued at 12.1 billion US dollars in 2013. In May 2015, Gucci was ranked 38th in the Most Valuable Brands list of the world by Forbes with a worth of 12.4 billion USD.

Gucci is an international organization with more than 270 company-operated outlets around the world, providing consumers of the best products, and making revenue of billions of dollars every year. It has even noble, luxury, and iconic brand figures in the china region, where its sales are boosted by 35% at the beginning of 2011. Gucci has shown its aim to speed up its process of establishing new outlets in China. Lately, though, the organization came under colossal criticism when five of its ex-employees from its Shenzhen store disclosed online information about the cruel working environment and mistreatment of labor in the organization(Zanda, 2016).

 1.2 Company Core values

The organization aims to turn into the leading brand in the luxury market at the global level. Gucci expresses their company as responsible and cool, and signify them on their fashion and styles. All of these concepts are inter-related; being responsible can also be cool. For Gucci, social responsibly is an integral part of their international strategy. They do business with a comprehensive, yet sensible approach. It is their fundamental responsibility to maintain their position of a luxury brand to promote and pioneer sustainability(Czerniachowicz, 2017).

The Gucci standards are profoundly rooted within moral values, and literally, the organization started to effort on sustainability policy in 2004. Quality should be the supreme priority; also, sustainability for the environment and the society developed as a part of quality policy. Gucci’s stakeholders support the sustainability policy for the betterment of the company.

Gucci introduced 100% eco-friendly packaging in June 2010. And within a short time, Gucci launched a collection of environment-friendly goggles which were made by recycled metal and biodegradable plastic. They also used biodegradable material in their shoe collection with new designs and eco-friendly packaging(Annual Report, M. 2019).

Gucci is focusing on improved performance in the quality on which most demanding consumers put the most significance. The performance compares to the situation where Gucci needs to look for superior quality and needs to continue giving such designs that are worthy to customers with sound knowledge as this brands’ consumers, including film stars and elite families from Europe. It further focuses on the smartest consumers, who are happy to pay for the supreme quality in the most important markets. This relates to the situation where Gucci’s target buyers, including the wealthy European new-born and the developing U. S. rich people(Księżak, 2017).

1.3 Company ethical culture

Good sustainability and behavior are the basis for a business group to work. Trust is an essential element of business sustainability. And the capability to express the everyday commitment to a responsible organization administration is an integral part of such trust (Demir, M. A., &Sepli, A. 2017). Since 1996, when the Gucci developed its first ethics rules and regulations, it made a significant improvement in persistently reinforcing the ethical promise of Gucci management. Landmark including printing Code of Ethics and circulation to every employee of the group in 2005 and then again in 2009, and establishment of Sustainability Department(Księżak, 2017).

Each time the business operates, the Ethics code presents the chance to reaffirm the faith, and the ethical rules and regulations should be precedent. Designed by the categories of stakeholders, the ethics code provides the reference points that can guide every person’s actions. The laws include respect for workers, gender equality in all the professional life aspects, dealing with all kinds of fraud and corruption. Also fighting child labor, compliance of the basic rules and regulations of the International Labour Organization, the safety of the environment, understanding to all stakeholders, and organizing the employees with other societies.

Following the ethical behavior guarantees permanence in business under any circumstances. Sustainable and prosperous progress in the global market depends on the level of trust of the buyers, workers, stakeholders, and social and commercial partners. But, these variations can be designed by some powerful but straightforward shared principles, which should guide our work in the spirit of common sense and responsibility(Yasin, Chan, Reidpath&Allotey, 2012). The ethics code provided to all employees includes performing with trust and integrity, compliance of the applicable regulations and law, respecting the rights and dignity of every person, work with care for the environment, using the organization’s resources and goods with the concern of the business and its stakeholders (Lee, H., Leeminyoung, & Bae, E.-K. 2019).

Part Two- Stakeholders Analysis

2.1 Company stakeholders

Gucci has four main stakeholders. Freeman discussed that stakeholders are the particular group or individuals who can affect by the firm’s achievement of objectives. This provides that it is important to find out the groups that are affected by any abuses etc.key stakeholders of Gucci are individuals who stake its expansion plans in China, employees, no matter if they are resigned or not, and existing employees(Annual Report, M. 2019). Chinese government is also stakeholder of Gucci and it is the responsibility of government to ensure that rights of workers are enforced in its territory. Fourth stakeholder is a foreign government that is likely to be headquartered in the similar territory. Foreign governments have stake and they can also take actions to reduce labor abuse in China because laws are formulated regarding abuse and anti-bribery treaties.

Stakeholders of a company are very significant for its performance and completion of objectives. The stakeholders can either positively or negatively influence the project performance. The stakeholders are involved in project scope statement, plan development and identify constraints that can hinder the development process. They also approve changes or modifications in projects under change control board(O’Kane & Cunningham, 2014). The identification of requirements is carried out by stakeholders and they participate to manage risk. It is also possible that stakeholders can become risk response owners.

  • Stakeholders for company Gucci can manage abusive practices as employees because they can harm the objective of company.
  • China’s capitalism is increasing so human resource management can involve institutional arrangements regarding this abusive act in company.
  • Employees can vice the grievances of victim so get more attention and investigate issues. They can also express the opinions to help enhance bargaining power through employers.
  • Chinese government as the stakeholder can revise its approach to monitor the labor force. In China, workers are under-protected due to organizational work, while trade unions are working to stand up for the rights of employees (Mclaughlin, S. 2018).

2.2. Stakeholders Map

The stakeholders map is created below to describe relationships with the organization. The first step in this regard is the engagement of strategy. This process will set a vision and ambition to engage in future direction(Borodai, 2017). The second step is about stakeholders mapping and it works defining a criteria that can identify and prioritize stakeholders for the better mechanisms of stakeholders. In the third step, a focus on long term goals will be made which is called preparation that will determine the logistics according to rules(Annual Report, M. 2019). The fourth step is engagement that ensures stakeholders and contributors to mitigate any kind of tension and then set the priorities for solution(Yasin, Chan, Reidpath&Allotey, 2012). The last step is action plan. In this figure it can be seen that under action plan the opportunities are identified that can determine goals, actions and strategies that will help in follow up process and enhance engagement for future.

Figure 1 Stakeholders Map

The current process presents a structure of stakeholder mapping. It is a unique approach to settle down the key issues and conflicts. With this process, any central relationships or immediate processing can be considered in the organization. The stakeholder map is a key approach to devise an action plan that will work in the future(O’Kane & Cunningham, 2014). For Gucci, this action plan will determine what Gucci is trying to achieve and how in different stakeholders, it is working to acquire competency (Parker, J. 2017). The stakeholders are also significant to infecund the interest of company but they will work in collaboration because all the objective of company are also linked with these stakeholders. The creation of a map is considerable to learn new dimension of workplace projects.

Part Three- Gucci’s Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) Analysis

            Corporate social responsibility (CSR) is a self-adjusting business in which an organization is responsible for social accountability. All stakeholders are also involved in this accountability. CSR business follows all traditions and moralities of the society and implements such methods that are beneficial for social rules. CSR is also named Corporate Citizenship. This type of company has to follow all social, economic, and environmental solutions. The primary purpose of CSR is to construct such methods that support the ethical, philanthropy, economic, and lawful aspects of society(Yasin, Chan, Reidpath&Allotey, 2012).

  • CSR is a comprehensive thought which can be adapted to different companies and organizations in various ways as the CSR business is beneficial for society as it is essential for social aspects.
  • As the CSR progress increases gradually, and the world-famous brand whose name is Gucci is becoming more accountable because of its unethical behavior which it conducted towards its employees.
  • CSR policy is a bit difficult to meet Gucci because it enjoys a secure social value, and the bulk of tags, in this condition difficult for Gucci to fulfill all requirements of CSR.
  • Gucci sub-brands present CSR practices in front of its domestic and international stakeholders.

Gucci was facing the scandal of unethical practices that prove a setback for its reputation after that Gucci assigned some business driving methods by following the rules and regulations of CSR and laid a foundation of its company on true and fair dealing toward its employees in which it promises to provide a legal working environment, by giving promotion resources, protection of human rights mentioned and strictly implemented into the company running affairs through its managers and stakeholders. Gucci also made a promise to provide the facility of promotion, proving working rights to workers, and make a trade union contract by following the safeguard rules of the workers into the administrative system of Gucci. Gucci denies on the conduction of child labor. All employees will get equal career development opportunities and similar treatment facilities. Gucci strictly develops a health and safety standard by preventing epidemics and some industrial disease. Gucci also takes the initiative to promote the growth of craftsmanship and steps for the development of regional, federal, and other global communities. Philanthropic acts are also being introduced in these efforts. Non-profitable initiatives conducted by adopting this policy(Yasin, Chan, Reidpath&Allotey, 2012).

This company also committed to reducing environmental pollution and protecting the ecosystem and made the promise on the prevention of waste materials of the company. The organization introduces a communicative method between workers and managers and other stakeholders. True and transportation dealings with the stakeholders in which any decision conducted on the collaboration of all partners and stakeholders, all dealing with public and other organization’s being enforced by the agreement of the stakeholders(Wymeersch, 2003). Gucci also put steps to monitor economic growth by creating an economically viable supply chain. Gucci legalizes all promotion elements, which are helpful in the growth of the workers and assure the workers every possible cooperative deal for their betterment and development. These above steps prove helpful for economic growth and company progress. Gucci has its contribution to the growth of China’s economy. The basic purpose of CSR is not to create luxury consumers, whereas its priority to increase consumers in the future. CSR policies impact the company’s reputation to obtain the capital. The world’s reputed MNC also follows the CSR policy. To contribute its part to economic growth.

After the ethical scandal, Gucci’s has a fluctuating reputation. It is unethical to behave under discussion in the business world. The company has lost its trust; at this time, the stakeholders and managers were making different variations in the company policy. The company decided to follow the CSR policy to stand its repute against the ethical standard. The CSR protects the workers and provides them rights.

Management is responsible for the enforcement of Corporate Sustainability Responsibilities and has a right to apply on all sub-branches of the parent company. Gucci directly running different stores were also inhuman activities are taking practices after that company enforced different policies under CSR strategy to protect the workers from the salivary behavior of the owner and manager. The managers should enforce these methods in such a manner that they are involved in the internal and external managerial functions and other corporation committees. The managers should integrate this policy into the strategic ambitions of the company. The CSR strategy will be implemented in all sectors of Gucci, whether they belong to leather or jewelry or concern with different other products of the company. Special training conducted to the managers, stakeholders to follow the rules of CSR. In 2007 the implementation responsibility pushed to the HR department, at the start one person is performing all CSR functions and reporting to the HR department, after that when management realize about the comprehensive involvement of CSR into the managerial functions then the company establishes a bench who will perform CSR activities and make decisions according to it. Gucci hired CSR managers; this condition proves a cause of the unwillingness of the stakeholders because they are used to unethical behavior, and that is totally against their habits; after that, they accept it only on this condition that the company establishes its worth around the global environment. Gucci establishes a training program for middle management. This remarkable change causes change to internal managerial functions, employee’s behavior, and external suppliers(Wymeersch, 2003). The CSR policy proved helpful to maintain the Gucci standard; the reputation of the Gucci had become worse due to the unethical Sandal and inhuman behavior to the workers when the company followed the rules of CSR the organization became successful in regaining its level. Now the workers are starting to show their interest, and in purchasing their products, workers are the real asset of any company without workers it is not possible to manufacture the goods and appreciatively run of the company. Initially, the managers and stakeholders go against the CSR strategy, but afterward, when the company meets its priority goals, the trust of stakeholders satisfies the managers.


Part Four- Problems/issues Analysis

4.1 Gucci ethical issues toward its employees

Gucci Shenzhen in China is a multicultural organization around the world. This organization serves its customers by contributing to elite products. This company operates 270 stores to whom the company is running directly. This company forms billions of dollars in revenue in a year. Its superior brand created its unbeatable image, which caused a 35.6% increment in its revenue; thus, it takes intent to increase the process of stores opening into the land of China(Rakhmanov, 2019). Currently, this company suffers a loss due to fire mishaps which occurred in its most familiar store. The company has to face too much damage. This incident occurred due to the miss of treating the employees. This company was practicing unethical behave to its workers by implementing some strict instructions(Borodai, 2017). All instructions are performed for the workforce; pregnant women cannot be applied for management. If any product is missing or stolen by anyone who has to pay the employees, even these products are protected by insurance.

Gucci constituted a bill on 8 October 2011 from the top management team(Yasin, Chan, Reidpath&Allotey, 2012). According to this letter, if any employee conducted any epidemic disease, it will not be tolerated during working hours. The lunch timing and in the situation of thirst and toilet timing entirely restricted, working hours, which was usually mentioned incorrectly, and forcefully conducted overtime which is unpaid after that. Gucci introduced a system of working that full day of working and the next day off officially. By the rules, workers can perform the duty of 10 hours in a day, after complaining to the workers, the company manufactured a false electronic record that counts the working hours in a less quantity. These rules are against humanity and called ethical problems.

Gucci specified such persons who mostly spend their time on the internet during working hours and consider all of them a sweatshop for the company besides this, and some MCN, s owners who failed to meet the organizational tasks they all fired. Later, Gucci’s headquarter, situated in China, and stated that Gucci would not tolerate such persons on conducting any negligence and carelessness(Wymeersch, 2003). The company will be carried on inquiry and replacement of store managers and assistant store managers.

Gucci also introduced a labor dispatch system for the newly appointed employees. Different rules and regulations have been represented. In this method, the leasing company made a contract with the workforce, and these leasing organizations send the workers to different other companies to work. According to this system, this contract exits the leasing company and dispatched workers. However, the agreement is conducted between the workers and the companies where they have to perform the work(Setiyaningrum, A. 2015).

Whatever company is hiring this workforce will pay their wages, whereas the social protection allowances and dismissals compensation bill will handle by the leasing company.

  • On account of this policy, the workers will get payments that are mentioned in the agreement, and this employment method is included in China’s cultural system.
  • The Gucci stores assume this method and around three leasing companies established in Shanghai are involved in an unethical issue.
  • According to law, the dispatch method creates a temporary situation for the workers.
  • Gucci arranges this system for longer than two years.
  • Pregnant females will enjoy the labor protections, and the exhaustive physical work not allowed to such ladies under the Labor Contract Law and rest sessions also will be provided(Borodai, 2017).

This ethical issue was entirely based on the destruction of the worker’s rights and constrained work without payment, inhuman confinements, and other unbearable policies that were part of this strategy. Gucci is not the first MNC who occupied workforce rights; Nike is also involved in such practices in Indonesia.

Local employee most involves factors in ethical issues in respect of factory workers.

Unethical problems are mentioned in the Gucci labor abuses policies like excessive work without payment, unlawful organizational methods around the local companies. This trend of working flourishing day by day in China, when other multinational companies and different foreign brands precede to China, this cultural environment emphasizes them to establish a business in such a condition(Christensen, Kent & Stewart, 2010). But these international firms provide some means to cut down this unethical behavior towards the workers and excuse for this abusive behavior. The fundamental reason behind this unethical practice is the abundance of multinational companies is working in China and does not pay attention to the worker’s rights. In an unfair situation, the company only focuses on earning the economic interest; the rights of workers are killed by management to get the organizational goals. Most miscarriages occur in this abusive environment where the pregnant female mistreated along this has to follow long duty hours into the entirely restricted atmosphere. There were unbearable restrictions exist only to make money under the human’s honor. In western economies, human virtues are included at the priority. Marable laws enforced to save the rights of workers. NGO’s are organized for the wellbeing of the workforce.

This unethical behavior affected the Gucci reputation badly. At this time, all stakeholders trying to control this abusive behavior, stakeholders not only managed these practices, but different variations required in often groups of the company because of the inhuman act also proves a hurdle to develop the expansion of Gucci in China. The management included stakeholders who adopted a justifying and apologize for behavior in front of current and resigned workers. The administration agreed to compensate by providing a systematic administrative system that will improve the working environment, and proves the government of China is also responsible for the rights of the workforce.

Mostly abusive behavior is used in MNCs manufacturing sites and almost not reported in developed countries. Gucci labor dispatch system which is against the Chinese characteristics. MCN can manage ethical problems conveniently. Comprehensive explanations are critically viewed as labor rights. China’s culture also prefers labor rights. The Chinese government, and foreign governments, all MNCs and its stakeholders are responsible for securing the rights of its workforce. Soon, different implementations and steps are making progress in the sense of labor abusive practices(Christensen, Kent & Stewart, 2010).

Part Five-Evaluation of company

Gucci is a multinational company and making progress gradually. The essential priority to maximize profit and minimize the cost of labor. In the maximizing process, it establishes a bill which grasps all the basic rules of the workers. According to this bill, the organization introduces a new working trend for the workers. The workers who caught some epidemic disease will not be spared from work, pregnant women will also not spare they have to perform duty like other followers the rest session also not provided to females at the time of delivery along with this the pregnant females cannot apply for managerial positions, no allowances provided to the workforce, and they are enforced to work without payment. In the form of loss conducting the workers have to compensate for this loss. The law allows the workers for 10 hours working in a day, and Gucci introduced a full working day, and the follower day remains off in which no work and time limitations are mentioned. The admin and managers found themselves involved in these unethical issues because they are crushing the employees by underlying those stricken and inhuman rules. In other words, Gucci and its managers introduced a slavery system for the workers.

Workers dispatch system also introduced by Gucci management in which the workers are forcefully pushed to another company to work. A leasing company is performing the role of a middle man. The contract is created between the leasing company and workers. But the hiring company is responsible for paying this workforce. This system provides a low-cost working environment.

Moreover, the managers of this organization and its Human Resources department kill the worker’s rights by using different means and constituting different policies for the followers and in the promotion of profit of the company. When foreign companies and other familiar brands come to China and object to these unethical issues and introduce some human rights laws which are not pushing back human dignity and provide protection to the workers on its rights, in this situation, Gucci feels the standard of reputation is decreasing day by day on account of its unethical practices which it is conducting to its managers. Then the managers and some store holders adopted apologies for behavior to maintain its progress because, without the workforce, they are helpless to manufacture the products.

At this time, all current workers and newly hired make assurance from the managers to save the rights by providing reasonable wages, fixed working hours, medical and different allowances, facilitate the pregnant females by providing them a sustainable working environment and rest period after their delivery. Gucci and its management try hard to get the release from this scandal. They got a bit of success in this matter, but this organization makes its popularity on slavery behave to its workforce. The worldwide workers’ rights and different NGOs are trying to lawsuits different laws to protect the rights of the workforce and taking steps ahead MNC and other brands find in consuming the fundamental rights of workers through its strict and abusive instructions(Christensen, Kent & Stewart, 2010).

When the Gucci reputation decreased due to the ethical scandal, then Gucci and its management established some policies which are enforced in the whole world to save the rights of workers and fulfill the entire requirement of worker’s laws. The administration decides to implement these sets of laws into all branches and stores may it in developed or developing countries. These ethical rules strongly performed in the Gucci industries. Numerous efforts were made to provide the improving standard to the workers(Czerniachowicz, 2017). These rules will be enforced to all branches and stores, and all laws strictly installed into the management systems. If the workforce belongs to any local area or has a concern for foreign labor will enjoy these rules equally. A written employment contract conducted for the workforce and workers dispatches the system prohibited. Unpaid work also discouraged by the managers, working hours mentioned, wages also term not be minimized, which will work against the law. The managers assure the workers to provide a safe and respective working environment that will be free from harassment, discrimination, and abusive practices.

The addition of some codes is not adequate to get freedom from these slavery scandals. Thus Gucci headquarters in Italy also constitutes some necessary methods to protect labor rights. Entire Gucci’s host countries, especially China, emphasize meeting the world’s ethical standards. The Chinese nation has a reliable power of tolerance. That’s why the Chinese workers were bearing this inhuman treated behavior even near to get harm in different ways. The workforce has less awareness of their rights. At this time, the economic power of China is becoming stronger gradually, although the workers’ dispatch system is becoming complicated to run. It is an important task to provide awareness to the Chinese workers on account of their rights.

  • Gucci made some analytical and administrative assumptions; the first is to control all ethical issues which are practicing in China.
  • Second, to implement this ethical culture into China needs to provide institutional strength, legalization, and a network to enforce who has the authority to protect the worker’s rights.
  • Companies that can communicate as a self-governing trade union put some steps in this matter.
  • Gucci and its managers made different practical steps regarding these abusive practices, the managers should provide lawful working hours, and overtime work must be payable, not enforced work conducted from the workers, medical care must be provided to them (Czerniachowicz, 2017).

The national and provincial governments in People Republic China (PRC) should contribute to the implementation of these rules. Foreign brands and companies should support these ethical issues to give more protection to the slavery environment of China.Competition environment should be created from the managers and granted them equal opportunities to be successful, promotions facilities should be provided to the workers, and the effective, cooperative and communicative system should be provided to the workers. Gucci and its managers should implement rules and codes that contain a safeguard environment for the followers. It must be strictly enforced as Gucci applied the salivary trend into China’s nation to make its reputation around the world.

Part Six- Conclusion

Gucci as a luxury brand holds all the necessary managerial practices as well as corporate social responsibility framework that help it acquire obligatory business performance. The association plans of Gucci are to transform into the main brand in the extravagance showcase at the worldwide level. Gucci communicates their organization as dependable and proactive, and imply them on their design and styles. These ideas are inter-related; being capable can likewise be sophisticated to acquire long term growth. For Gucci, social mindfully is a fundamental piece of their global technique. They work with a far reaching, yet reasonable methodology. It is their crucial obligation to keep up their situation of an extravagance brand to advance and pioneer supportability. The report presents a comprehensive structure of leadership and values, yet a need to focus on ethical grounds is clear.


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Should Parents Assist their Children in Selecting Major Choosing a particular subject as a major is one of the vital decisions that decide a child’s future. Some parents want to make their children pick a carrier that they best see fit for them and look for the majors in studies that are relevant in that particular field. Imbalance in any of these predicaments could lead either the parent to impose something the child doesn’t want that would lead the child to become wholly misguided and stressed out. On the other hand, if the child chooses a major of their own without parents’ consent, that can lead to regret later. This essay will address whether parents should play an active role in making their children choose majors for higher education? 

When parents directly get involved in their children’s education and homework routine, they get to know their child’s actual interests and his likes and dislikes. As every child of the same parent has a different caliber, capabilities, and his or her own born talents. Some children are interested in Art subjects; some like to work on scientific projects, some like outdoor activities and games. When parents get involved in their kids day to day school activities, it gives them a clear understanding of their child’s weaknesses. Where the kids require improvement and need more guidance and help. Some scientific researches have proven that people are not born with any particular talent. As per Prof.Gill Crozier, Director of the Centre for Educational Research in Equalities of University of Roehampton, London, UK, “The notion of parental involvement tends to be regarded as a unified concept and accepted unproblematic as desirable by all concerned”(Crozier, 222)

Having a comparatively genius brain is one thing, but some capabilities need to be discovered. It’s just not enough to find any hidden talent or interest, but to polish, it further would make a difference.Darcy lyness in her study discusses kids with self-esteem as,feel liked and accepted, feel confident, feel proud of what they can do, think good things about themselves, believe in themselvesShe further says“Kids who feel good about themselves have the confidence to try new things. They are more likely to try their best. They feel proud of what they can do”(Lyness, 1)Hence, p0arents who try to make a healthy and friendly bond with their child can make their child more confident and of strong character. Parents supporting their children in their interests would help them become more passionate in their fields.

Parents who works in various professions understands all the implications of their work. “Parents influence the level of education or training that their children achieve; the knowledge they have about work and different occupations; the beliefs and attitudes they have to working; and the motivation they have to succeed. Most of this is learned unconsciously – children and teenagers absorb their parent’s attitudes and expectations of them as they grow up.(qualifax, 1) They  can do it so by gradually making them aware of their future responsibilities as an adult. They should teach them the benefits of choosing the right careers but, at the same time, pursue their passions side by side throughout their life.Mutual discussion is one of the most integral parts of choosing a significant subject for a child. The critical question that what you want to be is a half-hearted question asked by the parents as they have a carrier in their mind that they want the kid to have. It is wrong for either of them to cut the connection of thorough discussion while selecting a subject as a major as both of them have their concerns regarding the choices that the other one would have.

Career selection is the most crucial decision in any person’s whole life. Because wrong career selection would ultimately affect a child’s whole future in a very adverse way.Fizer in his study quotes “The people who most affect a student’s choice of major are friends,parents, teachers, and alumni. The people affecting a student’s career choice tend to provide more insight about the career field including factors such as how big of a salary it offers, how fast a student can advance, or the benefits that come with that job field”(Fizer, 12)

Experience is also another edge that parents have over their children as they have spent their lives and gone through good and bad choices. They know the consequences of wrong academic choices leading to life-long struggles and regrets. As research by Waterford “It helps to think of parent involvement as the first step to parent engagement. While teachers can advise parents on some things, parents also have important information about their child that teachers might not know. Both can bring perspectives to the table that enrich a student’s learning experience.  (Waterford,1)They can help the child choose wisely in terms of Academics majors and help the child avoid these hurdles. Yet the same experience can help them understand not to force their own choices on the child and help him/ her choose astutely.

If the parents aim their children to fulfill their unfinished/ incomplete desires, that certainly is a setback that can lead the children to have difficulties later. If a parent wanted to be an engineer, and couldn’t and want their child to be one, without asking his/ her interests, it is unfair and quite unjust. As per the study conducted by Eddie Brummelman,“From the early days of psychology, theorists have observed that parents sometimes transfer their own unfulfilled ambitions onto their child. We propose that parents are especially inclined to do so when they see their child as part of themselves, more so than as a separate individual.” (Brummelman, 1)  The parent should not force any decision on the child just based on their shortcoming on unfulfilled dreams. If the child had no interest in the carrier that they esteemed of choosing, it would be extremely unfair to force the child. If there is no freedom of choice, the child will suffer the consequences of the unjust decisions of the parents. The child must be given the liberty to choose freely from their perspective. They must be at least be discussed to have an understanding of their mind and choices.

Children are often under an immense amount of pressure regarding academics, and if the child is left alone in that regard, it becomes difficult for them to choose both. Hence, parents should take out some time to help the children with Academic choices. J.T. O’Donnell in an article writes “College graduates feel so much pressure these days to build an amazing career straight out of school.If they aren’t setting the world on fire with their greatness, then they are convinced something is wrong with them.” (O’Donnell, 2) In terms of choosing a major subject and opting in terms of both their interest, capabilities. It will build trust in them, as well. Parents who actively participate in the child’s education tend to realize their potential and understanding towards a particular subject.

Parents tend to have an understanding of strengths of their children. Prof. Lea Waters from Melbourne Graduate School of Education, refers to the importance of strength bases parenting. “Strength-based parenting is an approach where parents deliberately identify and cultivate positive states, processes and qualities in their children. It’s about connecting your kids with their inborn strengths such as strengths of character (eg. humor, kindness) as well as their talents such as writing or sporting ability.(Waters, 1) These strengths are the inner resources contained within our kids that help boost their life satisfaction. ” While children don’t know anything about the corporate world, parents understand the importance of children working on the studies that they have strengths in. They can guide them regarding the emerging roles and professions? What are the newly highest paying jobs? In some cases, children might go for such careers that are not worth paying.

So Parents can act the best guide to let him opt for his career after checking their child’s potential as well as the current job market scenarios. As per the findings of Prof. Lea Waters, research shows that children and teenagers who have strength-based parents: Have higher levels of life satisfaction, Have a better understanding of their own strengths, Cope with conflict in more pro-active ways, Use their strengths to help them meet homework deadlines, Have lower levels of stress.. (Waters, 3)Hence, parents should respond proactively to educate children for the best available options. They can do it so by gradually making them aware of their future responsibilities as an adult. They should teach them the benefits of choosing the right careers but, at the same time, pursue their passions side by side throughout their life. If the child aims to pursue a passion, as it can become difficult to follow a passion while pursuing a different carrier, both being the same aids in helping the child excel. Career selection is the most crucial decision in any person’s whole life.

Their involvement lets them excel and prepare them for the beginning of their life to seek all the opportunities so that they can easily choose careers and make it their passion in the long run.Kathleen Cotton in her article writes about the effect of parent involvement in schools. “Is parent involvement a valuable, if largely untapped, resource for schools struggling to provide state-of-the -art instruction with diminishing funds–a way to instill pride and interest in schooling, increase student achievement, and enhance a sense of community and commitment? Or is it one more responsibility to add to overburdened teachers and administrators–or even a threat to the autonomy and professionalism of the schools?” (Cotton, 1) Students, with this participation grow in confidence and become successful. Parents that carefully observe their child’s capabilities and their deep curiosities in the things they like the most. Being an adult and experienced parents are capable of analyzing a child’s passion and the best suitable job roles in accordance. Parents being passive at this predicament can negatively impact the child and also make them think as if the parent is not much interested in my choices.

Parents that ignore their children end up ruining their academic carriers. While others let them make their decisions on their own and not help them to choose the best ones. So that they can learn from their own experiences. Kendra cherry in an article describes about the effects of uninvolved parenting. “The children of uninvolved parents generally perform poorly in nearly every area of life. These children tend to display deficits in cognition, attachment, emotional skills, and social skills. Due to the lack of emotional responsiveness and love from their caretakers, children raised by uninvolved parents may have difficulty forming attachments later in life. (Cherry, 3)

It gives them a sense of protection that whatever they want, their parents will not punish them for making the wrong decision. It will make them more confident in making the right decisions in the future and will learn from there past mistakes. Just because the elder brother or parent chose a line of study isn’t reason enough for the child to make that decision as well. Studies have proved that people who tend to choose professions they love and are passionate about are more confident, Successful, and dedicated in their fields. As per the study conducted byABIGAIL BEALL from daily mail, Nurses’ daughters are more likely to follow in their parents’ footsteps, Scientist fathers have scientist daughters at 3.9 above the overall rate, Mothers who work in law are more likely to have sons with legal careers Twins had the biggest tendency to choose the same occupation, at 24.7% (BEALL, 2) Not letting a child excel as per their own passion is cruel. Choosing a career, according to passion, makes the individual feel free of stress and burden. It gives a sense of empowerment and personal freedom. Due to which that person does not bound to do the duties that he doesn’t really like at all.

Children that are gifted, their parents can guide them side by side, they won’t have to face the pressures of making tough choices alone in such predicaments. Some children are sensitive and are less confident in making the more significant decisions of their lives. As per a study Parents of gifted children are typically the single most important influence in their child’s development, outlook, and fulfillment of talent. In addition to being their child’s primary caregivers, parents of gifted children alternately function as “mentor,” “praiser,” “disciplinarian,” “playmate,” “teacher,” and sometimes “best friend”—to name just a few. Parents are truly the guardians and nurturers of their children’s talents. (Alvino, 1)Parents that tend to see that gift in their children and be their biggest support can help the child excel immensely.

It can be concluded that parents can be the best model in preparing their children more confident and build their personalities strong enough to face the demanding situations of their life bravely. Parents should always be supportive, encouraging, and backing their children in each phase of their life. It will make them self-sufficient. Choosing the right career is still a very confusing and risk-taking decision for some people with different career interests. It still confuses people that they are going for the right choice. Just because it’s their passion without knowing that it might not be the best career option in the long run. So Parents can act the best guide to let him opt for his career after checking their child’s potential as well as the current job market scenarios.

Similarly, there are a lot of more significant decisions that every individual has to make for himself during the different phases of their life Parents can aid children in improving their decision-making skills by guiding them to choose the most suitable major leading to a carrier. Career decisions can either make a person’s life or entirely ruin it forever. Hence parents can help and support children in making the right decisions at the beginning. This will gradually build their confidence in making the more significant decisions of their life on their own when there is no one to guide them.

Works Cited


Alvino, James. Considerations and Strategies for Parenting the Gifted Child . 1995. 10 4 2020.

BEALL, ABIGAIL. Taking over the family business: Children tend to make career choices based on what jobs their parents and siblings have. 3 2016. 10 4 2020.

Brummelman, Eddie. My Child Redeems My Broken Dreams: On Parents Transferring Their Unfulfilled Ambitions onto Their Child. 2013. 10 4 2020.

Cherry, Kendra. Uninvolved Parenting. 17 7 2019. 17 4 2020.

Cotton, Kathleen. “Parent Involvement in Education.” (1989).

Crozier, Gill. Parental involvement: Who wants it? 2011 17 4 2020.

Fizer, Darren. Factors Affecting Career Choices of College Students Enrolled in Agriculture. 2013. 10 4 2020.

HU, WINNIE. Forced to Pick a Major in High School. 2007. 6 4 2020.

Kohn, Alfie. Choices for Children. 1993. 9 4 2020.

Lyness, D’Arcy. Your Child’s Self-Esteem. 2020. 10 4 2020.

O’Donnell, J.T. 3 Ways Parents Can Help Their Kids Avoid a Post-Graduation Career Meltdown. 26 3 2019. 17 4 2020.

Page, Beverly A. “A parents’ guide to understanding the behavior of gifted children.” (2010): 39-42.

qualifax. The Parent’s Role in Career Selection. 2020. 9 4 2020.

Sandler, Howard M. “Why Do Parents Become Involved in Their Children’s Education?” (1997). How Parent Involvement Leads to Student Success. 1q 2018. 10 4 2020.

Waters, Lea. THE VALUE OF STRENGTH-BASED PARENTING. 2016. My research shows that children and teenagers who have strength-based parents:916. 10 4 2020.


No bold necessary.  Also, Major isn’t plural and does not contain a possessive ‘s [ME1]


You can simply call it an essay or paper, not a study. [ME2]



Need to directly quote your source and provide analysis.  [ME3]


This isn’t cited correctly and needs a direct quote. [ME4]


Who is this?  Also, do not begin with a quote but with your own idea.   [ME5]


Who is this?  Also, do not begin with a quote but with your own idea.   [ME6]


Topic sentences are needed before you bring in a source.  Also, are you paraphrasing the entire paragraph?  Why the author name and parenthesis at the end?   [ME7]


Who is this and what is their expertise?  What article did you get the quote from?  This all needs to be clear for the reader. [ME8]



Why is this an element in your essay and not typed by you?  Did you cut and paste this from somewhere else?  Confusing. [ME9]


Problems of Children Being Abused

Differentiation in Teaching a critical appraisal of the literature



Literature review

Police brutality has a history of being recurrent in many parts of the world but it is sad and ironic that United States may be one of its severe examples. Its causes, consequences and policy implications have been elaborated in this section. Various scholars have done the same.

Police brutality

Police brutality is the abuse of authority and infliction of uncalled for force upon civilians, practiced by the police. It is intentional and meant to hurt the civilians. In the United States, police brutality is becoming increasingly common. It is often confused with police discretion, which is the ability of police to exercise control in light of the law over citizens who are not abiding it. Police brutality is a severe issue whose many experts of law and criminology have studied implications and causes.

Police brutality in the United States

There is a long history of police brutality in the United States. There have been many protests and demonstrations from the civilians. Complaints have been filed to the authorities to look in to police departments but to not much avail. The book by Jill Nelson called Police Brutality: An Anthology records different events in America from the 1980s and 1990s. Jill mentions how 2,234 complaints were filed against police brutality at the hands of New York Police Department NYPD in 1999 alone. A federal investigation was in order (Nelson, 2001). This is one example out of many others that have been recorded and many that haven’t been.

Communities being affected

Police brutality is especially prominent for the black community in America. Jill Nelson talks about how the image “Black male predator” is so commonly accepted that police brutality and violence against black men is seen as a normal thing in the American society (Nelson, 2001). Katie Nodjimbadem in her article mentions how just in 2016 233 African-Americans were shot and killed by the police (Nodjimbadem, 2017). She has also recorded how they are the 24 percent of American population that are fatally shot dead by the police. Scholars Alang, McAlpine, McCreedy and Hardeman talk about the predominant white supremacy that plays a significant role in racial discrimination when it comes to treatment from the police. While whites often receive protection from the police even at times when they are in the wrong, blacks face a lot severer police brutality. This racial discrimination is present throughout the US law enforcement system (Alang, McAlpine, McCreedy, Hardeman, 2017).These scholars also discuss the negative impact on public health which is brought on by police brutality. Mortality rate increases for the black community, psychological and mental health issues increase in the younger generation especially, stress and anxiety increase with financial, legal and medical issues (Alang, McAlpine, McCreedy, Hardeman, 2017).

Causes of Police Brutality

There are many factors that encourage police brutality in the United States. These factors have been studied by many experts and scholars. Misconduct is very common in police discretion in America. Hagan, John, and Ruth D. Peterson in their book called “Criminal Justice Theory: Explaining the Nature and Behaviour of Criminal Justice” have tried to categorize the behaviour of police in different scientific concepts that are social, political and psychological, organisational and others (Hagan, John, Ruth D. Peterson, 1995). All of these play an important role in the existence of police brutality. Newman and Obasogie in their research paper also talk about police brutality, its causes and how it’s a deterrent of public health. According to the authors, force polices practiced by the police make them the choose the wrong course of action when dealing with possible offenders of law. these policies favour violence over safety of life which is why the polices need to be revised (Newman, Obasogie, 2017). Other reasons may include: Superior police officers expect the inferior ones to follow them and also to maintain a sort of unity amongst each other so that no scandals go out there. The concept of power is also quite blinding for many police officers who feel invincible in front of innocent civilians and exercise force that was completely unnecessary. In the America of today, police officers don’t have cameras or audio recorders in the cars. So the police department can’t keep an eye on them, and they proceed with unjust police brutality.

Policy Implications

It is imperial that measures are taken to stop police brutality in America. However, this is a very difficult task to achieve especially in a short time. There needs to be investigation in police departments to observe how the people are being treated. Federal policies regarding police should be revised and more strictly implemented. However, it is also very important that the societal mindset also change regarding the black community. According to Victor, Richard and Geoffrey in their paper mention that police brutality is never going to end if the racial mindset isn’t abolished (Victor, Richard, Geoffrey, 1998). They also believe that the police should be given proper training on how to behave with civilians. They should know where to draw the line (Victor, Richard, Geoffrey, 1998).

One could say that there needs to be policing of the police in the United States in order to reduce instances of brutality and to follow proper course of action regarding police discretion.


Obasogie, O. K., & Newman, Z. (2017). Police violence, use of force policies, and public health. American journal of law & medicine43(2-3), 279-295.

Alang, S., McAlpine, D., McCreedy, E., &Hardeman, R. (2017). Police brutality and black health: setting the agenda for public health scholars. American journal of public health107(5), 662-665.

Hutto, J. W., & Green, R. D. (2016). Social movements against racist police brutality and Department of Justice Intervention in Prince George’s County, Maryland. Journal of Urban Health93(1), 89-121.

Geller, W. A., &Toch, H. (Eds.). (1959). Police violence: Understanding and controlling police abuse of force. Yale University Press.

Skolnick, J. H., & Fyfe, J. J. (1993). Above the Law: Police and the excessive use of force (pp. 198-205). New York: Free Press.

Kappeler, V. E., Sluder, R. D., & Alpert, G. P. (1998). Forces of deviance: Understanding the dark side of policing (Vol. 2). Prospect Heights, IL: Waveland Press.

Maguire, E. R., &Duffee, D. E. (Eds.). (2015). Criminal justice theory: Explaining the nature and behavior of criminal justice. Routledge.

Nelson, J. (Ed.). (2001). Police brutality: An anthology. WW Norton & Company.

Nodjimbadem, K. (2017). The Long, Painful History of Police Brutality in the US. Smithsonian. July27

Crime Theories




  • Problem: The sharp increase in prices for food at global level is causing issues in national market. It has increased malnutrition thus given rise to malnourished people. World needs more food, production and yield must increase to feed increase in population. Climate changes causing drought, flooding, pests/disease to spread outside local habitat etc. 80% of the world’s crops depend on rain so farmers watch over unpredictable weather conditions to produce the crops (Adejuwon, 2006). Due to global climate change, extreme weather situation, such as high precipitation is damaging crops, so yield decreased. Tropical storms and flooding destroy crops largely. Flood water brings more toxic element on land, pollutants sewage and pathogens enter into food easily. Hot weather conditions help water evaporation, so water shortage/drought occurs that offers less water for irrigation (Hunter, 2014). 10% of world crops are major food crops and irrigated by nonrenewable ground water, so aquifers are drained rapidly than they are filling.  
  • Importance: There is an increased need to improve food production to feed 10 billion people of the world till 2050 (Manning, 2015). If food supply does not increase food/nutrition security will not be met globally. Addressing food shortage challenge is critical for policy makers and producers to increase access to adequate food for future generations. By 2050, the global population will reach 9.8 billion so food supply is going to take massive stress because at that time, food demand will be 60% higher than today (Jones, 2013). The persistent issue will be climate change and soil degradation will reduce the arable portion of land. The risk of collapse is increasing, so food scientists are studying food security elements as mycological and botanical collections. Some examples are wild rice varieties that need less water, and enset, a banana like plant that staved off famine in Ethiopia (Scott, Petsakos & Juarez, 2019). These food crops are being considered as insurance of food against the danger of plant extinction in future.  
  • Goals: The goal of this paper is to address the world food shortage problem. It will undertake to highlight the issue to match production and yield to the demand required by 2050 (FAO, 2009). Additionally, it will discuss solutions to minimize the environmental impact, water demand and energy supply-demand to conserve resources for future. Studying food extinction in near future, doubling food production for world till 2050 and potential factors that can affect this process are key subjects of this paper. The role of food production methods is to feed growing population of world and to avoid the danger of famine due to extreme weather conditions in the near future (Adejuwon, 2006). The potential goal of this paper includes some solutions that can tackle the issue of global food shortage in 2050. For instance, these solutions constitute reduction in food wastage, implementation of genetically modified organisms technique (GMO) and closing the yield gap (Scott, Petsakos & Juarez, 2019).
  • Approach: The approach used for this paper will address the aforementioned issues by looking at biotechnologies in agriculture to increase yield, drought resistant crops; reduce food wastage and moderate meat intake to reduce feed demand for livestock. The approach will also cater risk factors for world agriculture that are reducing agriculture food supply (Searchinger & Waite, 2019). Reducing food waste is helpful to preserve some food for deserving. The discussion implies key steps in food security to save humanity from a universal decline. Feeding a growing population needs effective planning well before time because multitude of obstacles is in the way of food production. The approach to discuss the issues is backed by facts and figures from global organizations, such as Food and Agriculture organization, World Bank and United Nations. All the food sources are facing threats from climate change and human practices (Hunter, 2014). The threat to biodiversity is massive because it can decline important vegetation and animals, so the ultimate target of these issues will be global humanity (Thornton & Lipper, 2014).   
  1. If successful: The need to conserve food resources discuss the significance of natural ecosystem and their restoration. If this solution will be successful, there will be a favorable outcome of food security being maintained. The solutions will ensure effective food supply, better lands under plough, increase in fish supply and protection of earth from greenhouse emissions of gases. Bioscience has suggested that if proper attention is provided on global increase in food production, it is likely to increase from 25-70% by 2050. The successful policy interventions for global food security need sustainable and efficient production methods in developing countries and in huge bio-energy market. A global food production step can be successful, only if proper crop production practices in agriculture are undertaken. This approach is aligned with the climate change policies and reducing damage to natural environment. Threat to global climate is due to famine, shortage of rainfall, desertification, aforestation, drought and flooding. These global conditions are getting intense and extreme over time (Thornton & Lipper, 2014). Climatologists suggest that in near future, global warming will be increased due to increased trace gases and carbon dioxide level in atmosphere (Imbert, 2019). Transitioning in hydrological regimes can affect ability to produce global food.


Over thousands years, agriculture is valued for specific yield of food crops. The selected plants with peculiar characteristics are used for human beings and they are responsible to feed entire population. High yield is a significant concept in crop production that also means homogeneity of crops (Adejuwon, 2006). 75% of all human calories are attributable to only 12 crops. A particular pathogen or pest can create potential vulnerability due to changed climate. If there is a lack of genetic variability, entire crops will become vulnerable. In 1950s, global banana supply was carried out by Gros Michel, it was a singly variety. Panama Virus destroyed the crop due to lack of variability (Hunter, 2014). To feed billions of human beings, there is a need to focus on effective genetic variability. Today, there are about 5,500 varieties of edible plants but stills scientists are focusing on a narrow selection of food to bring a balance of meat based diets and vegetable based diets (Hunter, 2014).    

Agriculture in 21 century is facing enormous challenge, difficulty in getting desirable production due to growing demand. Better and improved practices are required to increase food production, as world population is expected to grow at exponential rate. The socioeconomic factors are driving an increase in food demand such as rising incomes, population growth and urbanization. UN population prospects have highlighted the growth of world will be projected by 34% i.e., 9.1 billion in 2050. The improvement in food production is required to compete with persistent situations and natural calamities. Climate changes resulting in drought, flooding, shortage of rainfall and pests/disease are some key aspects contributing food shortage in near future. Global agriculture output can only be increased when a systematic control on crop reduction atmosphere will be undertaken (Searchinger & Waite, 2019). The incidence of weather change is also harmful for crop production. To double food production, resources should be maintained at faster pace than the urbanization.

A main cause of loss of biodiversity is the grazing of cattle so extinction of forest is at rise. One kilogram of beef is more demanding (30 times) on environment than a kilogram of protein of plant. This provides that there is a need of quite radical changes in human diet (Imbert, 2019). Most of the developing societies have aligned their directions to meat based diet. If India and China will adopt similar meat rich diet patterns like America, it would be very much demanding on the global resources (Thornton & Lipper, 2014). In human societies, a resistant to new technologies has been observed. The interesting fact is the marketing of plant based burgers is carried out to those, who enjoy beef burgers but not for vegans. In addition, genetic technology is not given due significance but it is a large assistance to reduce the intense pressure on the global environment. Genetically modified crops can require less pesticide or herbicide and water, so there is a need to think about the benefits it is providing to mankind.    

There are many reasons for policy failure implemented to enhance food production.  A main reason is lack of government action on allowing GMO technology e.g. India and Europe (anti-GMO groups). If you think of more mention them. Second important cause is lack of crop rotation and inability to provide favorable policies to improve agriculture. Improving agriculture is related to increase the assistance to farmers, in order to prevent crop production, high yield crop patterns and implementation of pest resistance. Government needs to adopt applied agriculture research methods that focus on developing efficient systems of production to meet global demand (State, 2019). Helping farmers to adapt practices about emerging environmental challenges such as changed climate, pesticide resistance and yield plateaus is essential (FAO, 2009). The lack of government assistance in favoring crop production methods, provision of revenue and crop insurance is a hurdle in developing better and improved methods of food production.  

In 2015, UN provided that global population will increase, with a concentration in poorer countries than developed. Poor countries are characterized by low economic standard, low living style and increased demand for dairy and met production. These kinds of trends are raising feat that in coming decades, world cupboards will be run bare (Jones, 2013). This scenario offers a ubiquitous concern that double food production of world by 2050 should coupled with reduced climate change and improved food production. It defines sustainable intensification about the productivity of agriculture. It needs to focus on increased use of better fertilizers and reduced harmful effects of tilling. Doubling food production is linked with sustainability that is needed to double than historical rates. Food production is needed to keep growing to 25-70% to meet the global demand for food and this should be annually. Doubling output and productivity needs increased soil irrigation, use of pesticides and fertilizer and more water.   

If the problem continues, potential, consequences such as starvation, malnutrition, and lack of food security will result. Decline in required quantity of food production will create social unrest. Developing countries are already facing food shortage dilemma in the form of malnutrition children, they will face famine. Decreased food production will increase the prices of food products and its effect on poor countries will be adverse (van der Mensbrugghe, Osorio-Rodarte, Burns & Baffes, 2009). Drought and famine will destroy natural resources and biodiversity. Increased dependence on natural resources will hurt forests so plants and animal species will face serious threats. It needs working with environmental goals. The specificity of agriculture goals are linked with ecosystem functioning (Jones, 2013). Greenhouse gas emission at global level is enhancing gas presence in atmosphere so contributing in global temperature rise.  


  • Close the yield gap, as it will enhance food self sufficiency practices in near future. Improving food production patterns by closing the yield gap in raid fed cultivation and irrigation mechanism can enhance 24-80% calories. The high and better production level will increase overall food patterns and trade in developed countries.
  • Genetically Modified Organisms and technology related to it can bring significant increase in food production. However, in India and Europe, GMO is not initiated. GMO corps will ensure reduce in food wastage and will use less expensive techniques to grow food crops. Insect and pest resistant Bt crops will need less phytosanitary products than conventional crops. The genetically modified crops will be herbicide tolerant so a better control will be maintained on unnecessary weeds. This environmental friendly act can save humanity by producing better food (van der Mensbrugghe, Osorio-Rodarte, Burns & Baffes, 2009).
  • Reducing food wastage is an effective solution. Approximately one quarter of food goes uneaten which is produced for humans. Loss of waste from food supply chain occurs from field to dining table. If 25% food waste is reduced by 2050, it will reduce the food gap to 12% (FAO, 2009). The food waste management needs affective policy implementation to monitor food tackling activities at public and private levels.

These three solutions will act significantly to reduce food waste and improve water management.


  • If these solutions will be successful implemented, the betterment of humankind will see a rise in global food production methods. The environment will face sustainability in this way.
  • The success over time is maintained by systematic set control of polices, and the process can be strengthened by check and balance system and monitoring food rules and regulations.



FAO. (2009). FAO’s Director-General on How to Feed the World in 2050. Population And Development Review35(4), 837-839. doi: 10.1111/j.1728-4457.2009.00312.x

Manning, D. (2015). How will minerals feed the world in 2050?. Proceedings Of The Geologists’ Association126(1), 14-17. doi: 10.1016/j.pgeola.2014.12.005

Searchinger, T., & Waite, R. (2019). How to Sustainably Feed 10 Billion People by 2050, in 21 Charts. Retrieved 7 December 2019, from

State, J. (2019). Double food production by 2050? Not so fast – Futurity. Retrieved 7 December 2019, from

van der Mensbrugghe, D., Osorio-Rodarte, I., Burns, A., & Baffes, J. (2009). How to Feed the World in 2050: Macroeconomic Environment, Commodity Markets — A Longer Term Outlook. SSRN Electronic Journal. doi: 10.2139/ssrn.2277017

Adejuwon, J. (2006). Food crop production in Nigeria. II. Potential effects of climate change. Climate Research32, 229-245. doi: 10.3354/cr032229

Hunter, M. (2014). We don’t need to double world food production by 2050 – here’s why. Retrieved 9 December 2019, from

Imbert, F. (2019). Stocks fall for the first time in four days. Retrieved 9 December 2019, from

Jones, M. (2013). Cultural Characters and Climate Change: How Heroes Shape Our Perception of Climate Science. Social Science Quarterly95(1), 1-39. doi: 10.1111/ssqu.12043

Scott, G., Petsakos, A., & Juarez, H. (2019). Climate change, food security, and future scenarios for potato production in India to 2030. Food Security11(1), 43-56. doi: 10.1007/s12571-019-00897-z

Thornton, P., & Lipper, L. (2014). How Does Climate Change Alter Agricultural Strategies to Support Food Security?. SSRN Electronic Journal. doi: 10.2139/ssrn.2423763




TITLE: How To Double Food Production Yield By 2050

  1. Introduction: There is a big shortfall between the amount of food we produce today and the amount needed to feed everyone in 2050. There will be nearly 10 billion people on Earth by 2050—about 3 billion more mouths to feed than there were in 2010. As incomes rise, people will increasingly consume more resource-intensive, animal-based foods. 
  2. Food sustainability: It is needed to cut greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from agricultural production and stop the conversion of remaining forests to agricultural land
  3. Problem Statement: Food production and environmental protection must be treated as equal parts of agriculture’s grand challenge
  4. Objective of study: the objective is to propose solutions to a current major problem, i.e., the food production in 2050.
  5. Theoretical Framework: Feeding 10 billion people sustainably by 2050, then, requires closing three gaps:
  • A 56 percent food gap between crop calories produced in 2010 and those needed in 2050 under “business as usual” growth;
  • A 593 million-hectare land gap (an area nearly twice the size of India) between global agricultural land area in 2010 and expected agricultural expansion by 2050; and
  • An 11-gigaton GHG mitigation gap between expected agricultural emissions in 2050 and the target level needed to hold global warming below 2oC (3.6°F), the level necessary for preventing the worst climate impacts.
  1. Literature Review: The scholars have focused on the International trade, and natural resources aspects to discuss the food shortage. It is important to discuss, Are the projected increases in land, water use and yields feasible?
  2. Problems/ Challenges: Agriculture in the 21st century faces multiple challenges: it has to produce more food and fibre to feed a growing population with a smaller rural labour force, more feedstocks for a potentially huge bioenergy market, contribute to overall development in the many agriculture-dependent developing countries, adopt more efficient and sustainable production methods and adapt to climate change
  3. Recommendations: Specifying quantitative targets, the researchers contend, will clarify the scope of the challenges that agriculture must face in the coming decades, focusing research and policy on achieving specific outcomes.
  • Reduce food loss and waste
  • Shift to healthier, more sustainable diets
  • Avoid competition from bioenergy for food crops and land
  • Achieve replacement-level fertility rates
  • Increase livestock and pasture productivity
  1. Conclusion: Despite increased discussion of sustainability in agriculture, the common narrative that we need to drastically increase food production is seldom challenged in agricultural circles, according to the researchers. Aiming to double food production makes it much harder to move the needle on our environmental challenges. To double food production, it is important to increase global agricultural output faster than we ever have before, and we are at a point in the developed world where we already are pushing our farming systems to the max. We don’t know how to double yields in these systems, especially without multiplying our environmental impacts.
  2. References

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