Prompt 2

“The phrase ‘social distancing,’ which shows up in the film Contagion (2011), has dominated American reality over the past several months, leading to extraordinary modifications in our individual and collective behavior. But here’s a curious thing: when we look back through the works on our syllabus this term, it turns out that social distancing, in one form or another, has been with us for much longer that we might have realized–at least since Huck and Jim lit out for the raft in Adventures of Huckleberry Finn. Removing ourselves from specific ‘ill’ individuals and social groups, and from society as a whole, is a central American endeavor, in fact.”

Yes, I agree that the phrase ‘social distancing,’ shown in the film Contagion, has dominated American reality over the past several months, leading to extraordinary modifications in our individual and collective behavior. It has changed the way we interact with others. It has changed our overall attitude towards others. Workplaces have become remote, yet it is a fact if we look back through the works on our syllabus this term, it turns out that social distancing, in one form or another, has been with us for much longer than we might have realized yet this time it has become much more magnanimous as compared to older times. Unlike ancient times, this time, the people have reshaped their whole lifestyle, and the idea of social distancing is realized & accepted before the predicament is getting too complicated.

Yes, this is one thing that we were unable to remove ourselves from specific ‘ill’ individuals. That is a predicament that we most certainly are unable to comprehend. These ill individuals are a part of our lives in many different predicaments. The movie contagion is almost dangerously close to the idea of explaining social groups and social distancing. The concept of social distancing in the current predicament as a solution to this is not a Central American endeavor, as per the film as well as it started in China, just like the in global pandemic being faced by us across the world. The movie clearly communicates the epidemic transmitted through socializing.

The movie explains the importance of social distancing in a predicament as such. The film as an example of how it can spread, which the movie tells as well as how it’s covering can be minimized. It was eerie if we see the movie Contagion. One of the peculiar things about the film is that even though it recognizes all our fears, yet the idea that it is not a movie theater but watching it at home gives a different sense. The feeling that it could have happened to us, and we are sitting in a socially distant environment is highly comforting.

In the light of this predicament, they are concerning it as a movie that can make people germ-o-phoebes after the mess is over can occur. Hence the importance & relevance of the film is pertinent. Even the first sound from the movie is of the actress coughing. How relevant is that as corona starts with the same characteristics. It is true that this phobia impacted a great deal upon the American lifestyle & made them modify their lifestyles to a considerable extent in the light of the social distancing rule & regulations. These regulations, despite their relevance, have proven to be highly effective. While referring to the syllabus, there are a lot of relevant notions as well.

From the short story, “Soldiers Home,” there was a scene where Kerb came back to his town and saw girls already made up alliances. People had changed a lot & they were looking at him differently. This social distancing had made people make new friends. (Hemingway) Relating to that, it is integral to realize the impact it is going to leave on society. The Soldier came home after fighting in the First World War & saw that the whole predicament had changed. It is relatable to how I think the relationships will change over the coming few years. The world had turned into very socially active, yet there were communication gaps. Staying at home and keeping this sort of social distance will impact the whole society & people will realize the importance of having real-life relationships.

Kerb, upon his return, turned anti-social himself & the war had changed a lot in him as well, turning him into someone who stays at home a lot. The girls of his time had grown up, yet h decided to stay away from them. His whole idea of the world after the war had changed as he had lost all his interest in politics & court order. He was turning into this sort of a person with no goals & aims. His life had scattered. This is one aspect of the social distancing that I understand is harmful & unhealthy. It does make the person lazy & that is very dangerous considering the pace of modern-day society.

If the collective behavior of the society turns out to be negative, it can adversely impact the whole predicament & soon as the lockdown is over, the entire world would turn upside down. As per this example, Kerb’s story & the impact this social distancing had on him indicates how the fear of the world post the pandemic would turn out. How the people will act & how the overall situation will be is what fears the most. The psychology of the people living in the society might change & this will impact the whole lifestyle of each community. Removal of the ‘ill’ individuals and social groups is an element whose value is undeniable.

With the modern-day idea of social distancing, each one of us had a chance to take a break from the routine & rethink our choices. It helps us plan the coming years & with time as people have turned into strategists, our decisions have also become like these. The people that we want to stay away from can be listed skipped from our social groups and circles post this lockdown. It can e concluded on the notion that, Yes, this social distancing has impacted our lives in many ways. It has changed the fabric of our whole society and the impact that these extraordinary modifications in our individual and collective behavior will be more visible now. The contemporary moment and earlier historical moments evoked in our course texts have certain similarities & differences that can’t be denied. It is still mere speculation regarding how the world would be. Only time will tell regarding that, depict the differences in society from where it was till it comes to normal.

Works Cited


Contagion. Dir. Steven Soderbergh. Perf. Matt Damon. 2011. 8 5 2020.

Hemingway, Ernest. Soldiers Home. 1925.





Popov and Michael described the organizational environment in this article and highlighted that there is a need to focus on the mosaic view of organizational theory. This paper aimed to identify a critical approach that predicts the size of government and its structure that can help in the corporate environment (Michael, B., & Popov, M. 2014). The environment in any organization is linked to complexity and uncertainty. Authors in this paper have reviewed the organizational theory and bring forward some concepts related to the organizational environment. For instance, the role of macroeconomic fundamentals in the economy, these fundamentals are gross domestic products etc.

Critical Reflection

The current research paper is explanatory in terms of presenting a contingency-based view and resource-based implications that provide a rational approach. In the organizational framework, the mosaic view of the theory is related to the mix of concepts that can help to understand the public sector and its size—most of the public sector business help in acquiring visibility and acquisition of better organizational environment. The view of rational choice theory works for the scholars’ perspective that works in the administration of the organization to tackle challenges. For many organizations, different theories work such as classical and rational; they argue about the different school of thoughts, and post-modern thoughts are aligned on organizational structures. In a coherent framework, the scope of cognitive understanding describes cultural practices as well as symbols that are employed for employees.

The author shows ways that help the government to predict the size and structure of the organization because, on its basis, a regulatory environment can be acquired. Contingency theory perspective is explained by the article that when it comes in relative disrepute under the necessary support of the government.

Fundamental framework helpful for any government based resource model is based on competencies that engage government platform to work on budgetary, know-how and staffing. According to resource-based theorists, public organizations are engaged in obtaining political and bureaucratic means. Authors, in their view, described the role of public sector organizational theory that works to prove welfare under the combination of different theories. This concept of the mosaic theory is based on organizational concepts that acquire different theories to implement it on the size and structure of government (Michael, B., & Popov, M. 2014). Different theories from literature present the scope of government when it works for the environmental perspectives according to variability and complexity of work. The article argues that if governments are required to adopt structure according to the macroeconomic perspective, it will be likely that organizational structure will be changed.

The link between macroeconomics and organizational theory is significant to assess the public sector framework. The view of this argument is taken from multiple academic works of literature to know about organizational environment and size across different countries. This article is helpful to spread information about government size and gross domestic products that how a country accelerate its work performance based on generalization. Michael, B., & Popov, M. (2014) viewed the different examples presented in this article like Hungary, Greece and Maldives are appeared as the large government with multiple resources to engage the workforce. The view of trade openness matters more when viewed in an argumentative manner.

The current organizational framework is linked to mosaic theory in terms of a broader understanding of key concepts. The role of this argument is based on literary arguments about the organizational environment. Variability of economic shocks allows the understanding of government participation in the economy. The authors of this article focused on the gross domestic products and the contributory factors that help promoting growth patterns. It is described that most volatile economies are based on multiple resources so acquire high GDP. On the country, less volatile economies are classified in fewer income groups due to the nature of non-volatility of resources, so it also suggests that income level is not an adequate predictor of volatility. Still, it is the measure to gauge the national economic uncertainty.

Mccarthy, J., & Murphy, C. (2016) discussed the complex economies have resources organized in a better way to reallocate and engage broader economic sectors. Because of this argument, the changes in government reforms are linked to the complex basis of the organizational environment. This is related to GDP that contributes to bringing macroeconomic development. Public sector growth rate is measured in terms of asymmetric macroeconomic shocks, which are oriented on organizational performance. The views discussed by authors in this article are significant when viewed in light of other literature; for instance, the authors described that government under its framework could easily adjust its size to bring contingent macroeconomic change. The role and scope of government resources matter when the environment is planned. The planning often considers uncertainty and complexity into account.

Most of the arguments made in this paper about output, volatility and GDP are related to an organizational environment that engages resources to work on many expenditures. Prideaux, S. (2018) focused that low-income economies in the view of author exhibit weak pattern data regarding high-income countries. The important consideration of article is the size of government regarding the environment of the organization. These changes significantly work for structural maintenance regarding specific sectors. The views of organizational change about government hold that source shrinking impacts on the uncertainty magnitude. The size of government in a domestic economy is not necessarily linked to the size of government, but the prevailed resources that can decide for the GDP. The current research study engaged various examples of low income and high-income countries that are linked to less volatile and more volatile economies.

It is truly expressed that rational expectations of government are linked to the speed of adjustment because, in the organizational field, the adaption is seen. In this framework, the government has to focus on the environment of the organization because it gives rise to the rational approach. The role of government size to monitor resources and engage different bodies can describe the implications of the mosaic theory. There are significant measurements associated with government role in public sector organizations, which evaluate resources and size.  Government expenditure is based on low or high-income countries and their circumstances as it can alter the size of the economy. The policymaking framework is inherent to bring government expenditure and outcome-based factors because of government size.

It is argued that some countries foresee the change in economies when government size changes; this change is linked to the complex and uncertain situation. The change in the size of government precedes the size of government that can shrink in response to the uncertainty. The government may change the resources for public sector organizations that can enhance the flexibility of resources. This article holds an opinion about the size of government in terms of macroeconomic stability that is attributable to the policyholders’ decision making. Kurosawa, T., &Wubs, B. (2018) viewed the economist’s approach of response to the external shock allow rational acts, so the scope of understanding this concept is extensive and take to analyze negativity of these shocks. Mosaic view of organizational change is true in the form of prediction that policymakers cannot predict what is linked with the past and how speedily this can alter the future. The data presented about the size of government clearly shows the complex environment of macroeconomic conditions and how uncertainty prevails in such an environment. The article presented data about the sizes of the government using time series analysis.

The examples given in the article are about Australia and Japan; these countries have organizational adaptation. These factors are attributable to the strategic responses taken by organizations.  Idowu, O. E. (2016) given the structural emphasis on the external environment, needs the implementation of a theoretical approach, in terms of better organizational approach. Through current functioning and relevant structural examples of companies, it has been argued that government expenditure decides about outcome and practices. The involvement of mosaic theory here allows discussion of government involvement in the public sector. The adaptive orientation is seen for organizations regarding contemporaneous and strategic factors. Besides, these aspects discuss how organizations implement resource-based models.

Authors provided key insights about adaptations related to the macroeconomic environment because industrial GDP is influenced by many environmental factors. For example, Finland, China and the US are facing changes in public organizations regarding sectoral distribution in output. Gready, P. (2013) presented that this approach is linked to the government size and prevailed practices of organizational factors. The implications of the theory under the organizational approach has acquired the assistance of data from various countries. The government expenditure is clearly seen from fiscal policy and resources in public organizations. This approach is criticized by many literary studies that resource-based approach is not an expanded version for the understanding of long term factor-based output(Idowu, O. E. 2016).

This research article engaged various opinions of scholars about organizational theories and resource-based activities. The debate on contingency theory and organizational theory is related to the political framework and prevailed public policy (Michael, B., & Popov, M. 2014). In some contexts, this public organizational concept meets failure since the structural framework is capable of changing the output level (Prideaux, S. 2018).The strategic significance of organizational model cannot be negated because organizational adaptation is linked to the internal and external resources. Elsmore, P. (2017) discussed that anti-cyclical spending gives rise to external shocks related to the size of the economy and government.

Globally, there is a little relation between organization theory and political science and not a lot of importance either. Certainly, organization theory is usually taught in schools related to business studies and not in the political science departments. The relationships between companies and individuals, also between companies themselves, can be essential to their path. There is an interaction between organizational conditions and individual factors that should be examined; as it is dealing of companies comprises of individual and the individuals that are related to companies. The inner attributes of an individual public company will affect how it recognizes issues and how it resolves them, which results from it accentuates and what assessment models it employees. Simultaneously, a public company’s method of activity will be affected by other conventional companies in the private and public sector, in local culture and abroad Elsmore, P. 2017).

As a consequence, institutional research has been condemned for being engaged with common theories about the companies and for ignoring the significant politically organized companies and the relationship between organizational structure and matter of public policy. The observational focus has, to a broader level, been on the United States and has just often been representative of other Western democratic countries. It has implied that thoughts from financial aspects contribute to the detriment of components from political theory. (Prideaux, S. 2018)

Another theory of organization is influenced by concentrating on output and efficiency that focus on practical significance at the cost of other organizational considerations and phenomena, essential study and common progress of knowledge. Further, we are watching an ascending direction towards the possibilities and problems of each company and institutional strategies, and a transfer of focus away from groups and population of companies and social strategies. There is also a durable emphasize on the technical conditions, with a focus on technological, economic and market-based situations than on the organizational environment with its norms, values, doctrines and ideologies(Gready, P. 2013).


The article provides a coherent view of arguments about organizational framework. By matter of the fact that organizational studies progressively are established in business colleges, the consideration and focal point of the theory of organization has gotten misrepresented, prompting overstated attention on the private sector and decreased focus to the government sector. The public organizations include federal banks, state-owned enterprises, courts, regional and local government organization, military institutions, government health-care companies, public universities, public nursing facilities, museums and public charity organizations Elsmore, P. 2017). These companies are different from each other in many aspects. Still, they share attributes as official companies, they are founded in accordance to work for combined benefits and special ventures, and these companies have comparatively stable outlines of attitudes, rewards and resources related to their activities. A major expectation is that institutional structures will influence the material of public policy. Theory of organization presents a middle way between the legal norms that emphasizes on legal types and the public firm of laws to understand the systems of operations of any organization and the methods of operations that can reflect the external pressure and demand.


Elsmore, P. (2017). Organisational Culture: Organisational Change? doi: 10.4324/9781315186917

Gready, P. (2013). Organisational Theories of Change in the Era of Organisational Cosmopolitanism: lessons from ActionAid’s human rights-based approach. Third World Quarterly34(8), 1339–1360. doi: 10.1080/01436597.2013.831535

Idowu, O. E. (2016). Understanding Organisational Culture and Organisational Performance: Are They Two Sides of the Same Coin? Journal of Management Research8(4), 12. doi: 10.5296/jmr.v9i1.10261

Kurosawa, T., &Wubs, B. (2018). Swiss and (Anglo)-Dutch Multinationals and Organisational Change in the Era of Total War. Multinational Enterprise, Political Risk and Organisational Change, 23–54. doi: 10.4324/9781315170572-2

Mccarthy, J., & Murphy, C. (2016). Understanding organisational culture. OrganisationalBehaviour, 284–308. doi: 10.1057/978-1-137-42945-2_12

Michael, B., & Popov, M. (2014). The Failure of Theory to Predict the Way Public Sector Organisation Responds to its Organisational Environment and the Need for a Mosaic-View of Organisational Theory. Public Organization Review16(1), 55–75. doi: 10.1007/s11115-014-0296-5

Prideaux, S. (2018). From organisational theory to the Third Way. The Third Way and Beyond. doi: 10.7765/9781526137883.00014

Bipath, K. (2014). The Strength of Organisational Culture: Organisational Performance in South African Schools. Mediterranean Journal Of Social Sciences. doi: 10.5901/mjss.2014.v5n23p2405

Ormrod, S. (2003). Organisational culture in health service policy and research: ‘third-way’ political fad or policy development?. Policy & Politics31(2), 227-237. doi: 10.1332/030557303765371717

Pavitt, C. (1999). The Third Way: Scientific Realism and Communication Theory. Communication Theory9(2), 162-188. doi: 10.1111/j.1468-2885.1999.tb00356.x

Pollack, J. (2015). Understanding the divide between the theory and practice of organisational change. Organisational Project Management2(1), 35. doi: 10.5130/opm.v2i1.4401



Executive Summary


This paper is focused on the details of the rentier state. There is ample literature available on the history of the Middle East and why the countries residing in that region came to be known as rentier states. This paper explains the concepts behind the rentier state theory. It will also shed light on the theory’s limitations. Recent studies and geopolitical environments around the globe suggest that the economic and political conditions and development in Middle Eastern countries cannot get explained with the help of the rentier state theory. And as times progress, it has become less and less relevant.



Energy has always been a fundamental part of world politics. It has been responsible for shifting the authority and dominance from the hands of one country to the other throughout history. It has influenced alliances and wars between the world’s most powerful nations. The Middle Eastern countries play a vital part when it comes to the energy resources of the world. The political and economic framework in Middle Eastern countries is not the same as the countries in the West or even China, which is another essential country. It is safe to say that the political relations of the Middle Eastern world with the other powerful nations, especially those in the West or more particularly the United States, haven’t always been very cordial. They are often at an edge with each other. Middle Eastern countries follow the rentier state theory, and it plays a critical part in their political and economic development. However, as we approach modern times, the theory alone may not suffice to explain the countries’ political and economic development. The global energy geopolitics plays a vital role as well. A lot of research has been done on the rentier state theory in light of the Middle Eastern Countries. In this paper, we will be discussing the political and economic development of Middle Eastern Countries and whether or not the rentier state theory is enough to explain it, given the global energy geopolitics.


Rentier state

Let’s begin by explaining what a rentier state is. The rentier state theory aims to explain the politics and economics of the Middle Eastern countries. It was given majorly by Lisa Anderson (Anderson, 1987). Her work is based on the studies that majorly emerged in the 1980s (Altunisik, 2014). The idea of the rentier state was, however, first put forward by an Iranian academic by the name of Hossein Mahdavi (Mahdavy, 1970). It was further worked on by economists who put forward their work in the 1980s. Middle Eastern countries required another politic-economic framework because they are different from other countries in one central aspect. They are all oil-producing countries and, like mainstream countries, do not collect taxes from their population for revenue generation for the government. Instead, they collect rents and depend on them (Altunisik, 2014). Hence, the pace of economic and political development, and the approach towards it, is different in rentier states in comparison to rest of the world. They depend on their energy resources, and up till now, they seem to have been doing well, at least on surface level.

Altunisik (2014) mentions in his paper the three main characteristics of a rentier state. The first characteristic says is that revenues generated from oil get paid to the government as a form of rent. It makes oil a “strategic commodity,” hence, weakening the bond between the production price and the market price. The second characteristic points out that oil is sold and marketed in global economy to maximize revenues. And lastly, whatever profits get accumulated over time from the sale of oil in the global economy all comes under and in the hands of the state, which is solely responsible for deciding what they want to do with the money. Since these characteristics are prominently observed in Middle Eastern countries, they have earned the title of a “rentier state.” Concisely, a rentier state can be simplified as a state that depends on oil rent to sustain a major chunk of its economy and also use it as government revenues. It was later given by Luciani, who said that any country whose economic dependency on oil is up to 40 percent or more would get classified as a rentier state (Luciani, 1990). Based on this number, the following countries are rentier states: “Kuwait (88%); Qatar (87%); UAE (84%); Oman (81%); Saudi Arabia (80%); Bahrain (59%); Libya (58%); Iraq (n/a); Iran (55%); Algeria (53%); Yemen (46%)” (Herb, 2005).


Economic, Political and Social Implications of Rentier States

Rentier states are heavily dependent on oil and they accumulate profits earned from oil. Their economic framework does not include the usual modes of investment, interest, market prices, or various industries as in other countries. Hence, their growth and development, in comparison, gets affected. These arguments have been presented in the literature on rentier states. Mahdavy (1970) has talked about some of the economic effects in his article. Oil is a commodity that almost the entire world needs in one way of the other. So, of course, there is a significant inflow of money that goes into rentier states. It is much faster-paced than the revenue influx in mainstream economies where it is much smaller and slower. Now, this should seem to be a good thing for the oil states, but research and study suggest that this damages the economy and its steady development. Oil revenues have little to do with the local community and economy. They go directly to the state.  The oil industries do not contribute much to the domestic sector. It also builds up a façade of productivity and prosperity which surrounds a rentier state. The more accurate depiction includes development on surface level. Other sectors in the economy, and various other industries often go neglected (Altunisik, 2014).

Similarly, there are different political and social implications in a rentier state as well.Many of the most popular economic frameworks try and promote the idea of keeping the state intervention to a minimum in the economy of the country. Their involvement is to encourage the growth of the economy through policies and investments. Otherwise, it is highly dependent on market functions. The other role the government plays is to ensure welfare and security for the local population. Democratic governments also idealize autonomy and liberty for the citizens. All these values and concepts get contradicted inside a rentier state. The negation starts from the fact that the state is in direct control of the country’s most significant revenue resource, and also the sole bearer of all its fruits. So, the state automatically becomes very centralized and plays a vital role in the economy of the country (Luciani, 1987). However, there isn’t much the oil-state does for the local economy except for distributing the rent amongst them. They are majorly responsible for public goods and services and also are the main employers (Anderson, 1987). Rentier states still, however, do lack the proper frameworks for administration. Since they do not take taxes, most of their institutions, such as, fiscal, legal, or research institutions, are not well developed (Chaudry, 1989). So, rentier states are also “institutionally weak” (Altunisik, 2014).

The political and social structure of rentier states also impacts the general mindset of the people living in them. They have been conditioned over the years to accept these ways of things.They are not very concerned about development,in terms of industries and job markets, rather than what they can access from the state’s rent money. On the other hand, many outsiders are working in rentier states as well who come seeking jobs. The state does not give them the same incentives that are given to the natives, despite of their higher level of productivity and hard work in comparison. There are vast levels of disparities between them. Migrants don’t even get citizenship in Middle Eastern countries regardless of the decades they spend there and the services they do. It also impacts the unity and class system inside rentier states. The community gets divided as per ethnicities, tribes, or religion (Delacroix, 1980). Oil rents get given out in the forms of “employment, social welfare benefits, subsidies, and interest-free loans” or as a form of annual payments as is done in some Gulf monarchies (Altunisik, 2014).

The oil money has resulted in immense power in the hands of the rentier states’ leaders. It has helped them make powerful relationships and alliances with other influential groups, and similarly, it has also allowed them to downplay opposing powerful groups. Examples from Saudi Arab, Libya, and Iran can be given here. Oil revenues enabled the Nejdi al-Saud family to undermine and ignore the strength of the Hijazi group of merchants, which were a power threat to the state (Chaudry,1994). Furthermore, Libya was able to reform its political, economic, and social structure during the era of Qaddafi being a rentier state as well (Altunisik, 1994).

Similarly, the shah of Iran was able to dominate the “landlords and ulemas” due to the increase in oil revenues collected. It automatically shifted Iran’s power base paradigm. Homogenous cases of power are seen in other Middle Eastern countries such as Qatar and Kuwait as well. The bottom line, it has become the common conception around the globe that having oil resources means having power, and it is what the world is after, specifically the United States. Rentier states themselves function through this game of power influence. It further reinstates the fact that the weight of democracy or liberalization in these states is close to negligible. They are significantly bent towards authoritarianism (Luciani, 1987). There is hardly any political participation by locals in a rentier state (Anderson, 1987), which further indicates why the governments do not care for societal concerns or demands (Altunisik, 2014).

Limitations of a Rentier State and the Rentier State Theory

The rentier state theory, as seen above, aims to give a generalized, common framework that could fit in all the states that we know as rentier states. It tries to consolidate their similarities. We can also see from the literature presented above that rentier states have certain benefits and specific cons as well. As time has progressed and more research has surfaced, the rentier state theory has faced more criticism than applause. A prominent weakness in the theory is that it does not take into account, effectively, the differences between individual Middle Eastern countries (Altunisik, 1994).

Another problem with the theory is that it was based on previous studies and collection of histories.  It did not involve any quantitative or qualitative analysis of the earlier times or for the times to come. It also does not account for, of course, the changing climate of the world’s energy geopolitics. The advancements that were made in terms of technology got neglected as well. Scholars have also criticized the link between the theory and the concept of authoritarianism (Ohrulik,1999).  The logic behind taxation and distributive policies also remain ambiguous. They say that the two do not relate with each other unanimously (Altunisik, 2014). It should be noted that taxation has begun in some aspects, and increased in the rentier states.

These criticisms led to the need for the rethinking of the rentier theory model and to make some sound changes in it. First of all, new studies focused on including the effects of the individual state policies on their own political, and economic situation rather than considering them all as one. Via in-depth studies of these states separately, it was also revealed that they differed in terms of their oil-related histories, and social and political structures (Altunisik, 2014). Their historical accounts have greatly influenced the coalitions and social frameworks these states have formed over the years (Crystal, 1995). There also came an oil bust in the 1980s which did not go accounted for in the theory (Chaudry,1994). This downfall in prices of oil leads to the question of the sustainability of the rentier states. In times that the oil will not be sufficient to generate the expected and desired amount of revenue, what fiscal policies would these states need to adopt? It was a question of how the financial crisis would get controlled to maintain stability, which previously depended on the distribution of oil rents.

The economic conditions of rentier states deteriorated with the slump in oil prices. Since the states had not previously worked on other viable sources of revenue to meet the demands, they faced complications. There was a risk for social unrest as people would no longer be able to get the same chunk of oil rent, but the states could not afford this either because this would lead to their opposers and rivals to believe that the states’ power had been compromised. Sure enough, Saudi Arab and Libya weren’t able to successfully control the crisis. On the other hand, Kuwait, having well-organized business institutions as well, was able to handle the crisis effectively. In fact, for businesses in this gulf state, this was an opportunity to grow and develop further and restructure the economic framework of the country. It also brought political stability as the state now depended on these business elites for the power image in front of opposing groups (Karl, 1997). Similar events followed in Qatar as well despite a weaker business system initially.

The banking and financial sector of rentier states or Middle Eastern countries is also quite flawed. Once again, it is highly influenced by the state, and even private banks are discretely working as state-disguised institutions. Secondly, of course, the fluctuations in oil prices and the oil market directly impact the financial sector as well. The function of financial markets is to facilitate consumption and provide investment to businesses. Still, they do not assume this role at all in rentier states, which makes one question their existence in such an environment in the first place. All the handles of the financial sector are in the hands of the regime, and it has suffered from a severe lack of reform in comparison to the rest of the world (Creane et al., 2003). It shows a sustained disparity between the political economy and society, and it is also one of the main characteristics of a rentier state. They discourage reforms and liberalization since the state is adamant about safeguarding its own interests only.

Over the years leading to present times, the rentier theory has become limited mainly to the lack of democracy in the Middle Eastern states and their persistence towards authoritarianism. Even though the world has seen several waves of democratization, but Middle Eastern countries continue to resist it (Brynen, n.d.). It was stated by academics such as Michael Ross that that “the oil-impedes-democracy claim is both valid and statistically robust; oil does hurt democracy” (Ross, 2001). There was also stagnation in social growth, development, and modernization of the state. All these factors become a hindrance in the democratizing of a nation.

Conversely, some studies put forward the argument that the rentier states have wisely used the oil wealth for the betterment of the society and economy, and the criticisms made on their methods are exaggerated for the worse parts (Altunisik, 2014). Furthermore, Benjamin Smith (2004) also emphasized that even though Middle Eastern states faced economic and political shortcomings during oil price slumps, it did not shatter the overall survival of the states in the long term. However, these counter-arguments don’t do much to justify the incompetency of the rentier state theory.

The rentier state theory is also not sufficient to stand alone for all Arab or Middle Eastern countries. Countries such as Syria, Egypt, or Jordan simply do not fit in the same paradigm. While all Middle Eastern countries lack most natural resources, these three lack even oil. It means they do not benefit like other rentier states. Neither do they have that sort of wealth. And yet they maintain the same outlook towards how the state runs, meaning that other institutions, including democracy, are not developed. They want to keep the same kind of political and economic structure as their oil-rich neighbors (Malik, 2017).These countries are known as MENA economies, which stand for the Middle East and North Africa. They have faced war as well, which has led to further downfall in political and economic stability and growth (The World Bank, 2017).

The MENA states still, however, have been able to accumulate some revenue through three primary sources, which are “aid, remittances, and rents from government regulations” (Malik, 2017). They get foreign aid way more than other needy and low-income countries around the globe, which is peculiar. Even countries with sufficient oil resources such as Iran and Bahrain got to share foreign aid. It is suggested that this because of their strategic position. It shows how geopolitics is in play, which is beyond what rentier state theory can explain. These countries also have many expatriates working and earning.  The state receives a massive portion of its GDP via remittances from these expatriates. For example, Jordan and Lebanon’s 20% GDP consists of these remittances (Ahmad, 2012). Remittances help relieve some of the political pressures off of the government of these states, making them less concerned about the public and increasing unemployment (Malik, 2017). All this makes the relevance of the rentier state theory loom larger as a question mark.

Furthermore, remittances also play a part in slowing down long-term economic growth (Rajan and Subramanian, 2011). They act as a protective shield along with the incoming foreign aid, weakening the prospects for economic reforms. Last but not least, the third resource is government rents. All these states are centralized with their governments at the centre of everything, the same as all rentier states. It gives birth to monopolistic type of behaviour where prices are controlled and in hands of the government rather than the market. The states also place and face trade barriers, which further hinders economic growth. Furthermore, there is not much fiscal monitoring in these countries, and elites often abuse their influence to accumulate these rents (Malik, 2017).

From the above analysis, it can be seen that the rentier state theory that revolves around only one main component of the Middle Eastern countries, that is, oil, is not sufficient to explain the rest of the complexities these countries face. Many would disagree, that oil resource is the only lethal element to the political and economic growth of Middle Eastern countries. It is important to note that rich Middle Eastern states do not only have a market for oil but also a market for capital. They provide monetary funds and investments to foreign countries as a geopolitical measure, which helps them to sustain their image as being influential. They also finance the less-richer Middle Eastern states such as Egypt, Jordan, and Yemen as the last straw in these countries’ financial struggles.

Similarly, a lot of money also goes to military-related investments, since terrorist organizations in the Middle East are active, and this investment is on the rise. These terrorist groups present a threat to the rest of the world as well. Hence, the need for Middle Eastern states to have an authoritarian approach in the broader geopolitical framework arises (Malik, 2017). The rent system in the middle east is the main reason behind its lack of political and economic growth and reform, and it is, at the same time, challenging to remove as the people have become dependent and used-to it. The authoritarian regimes continue to last despite occasional pitfalls. A lot is at play here, as discussed earlier as well. Many elite and influential groups and coalitions that benefit fromMiddle Eastern methods, and they also play a role in the global geopolitics, would not want this framework to change.

When we look at the current times, we can also observe how some of the states that are so-called rentier or oil-dependent as part of the rentier state theory are not so much of that anymore. A highly applicable example of this is Dubai, which is the largest Emirate from the United Arab Emirates. This state has become one of the most popular tourist spots and a business hub. It is highly diversified, and much away from oil as a primary source of revenue for the economy. It is also highly developed and technologically well-equipped. The state authorities there promote privatization, and the rentier mindset has drastically decreased over there. Hence, this brings up the question of whether or not UAE qualifies as a pure rentier state and whether the rentier state theory is sufficient to describe its political conditions (Zicchieri, 2016). Herb (2005) presents further shortcomings in the theory as well. First of all, wealth in the rentier states is not only a result of oil-rents, as we see from the Dubai example, so it is wrong to assume that. So, wealth cannot be broadly framed to be responsible for the failure of the formation of democracy in Middle Eastern States.

Another significant observation is that the political structure of Middle Eastern states such as the UAE is highly influenced by their histories. The people have been used-to for hundreds of years to form tribal links and to have communal unities while being ruled by one ruler. It is not just a result of rentier-ism. The social constructs in these states have modernized over the years slowly to adjust, but they can still be linked back to their historical origins. Furthermore, the rentier state theory also does not include the domestic economy of the states and hence, also does not have space for the current non-rent economic changes and developments taking place over there. These developments are perhaps most prominent in the UAE, which is also working towards diversifying its economy and taking it away from oil dependency (Hvidt, 2013), promoting the private sector (Toledo, 2013). The rentier state theory ignores all these advancements. While many other Middle Eastern countries may not have reached the level of UAE and may seem to conform to the theory more, the argument still cannot be forgone because UAE is also a significant part of the Middle East.

The only thing the rentier theory focuses on, and deems responsible for the social, economic, and political conditions of the Middle Eastern countries, is oil-rents or other rents. It does not take into account the increased participation of foreign organizations in the policymaking processes and all the geopolitics that is involved. So, RST fails to provide reasoning’s for civil unrest, or its risks, in different states as it cannot explain geopolitical, foreign relations. RST also ignores merchants and business elites that are becoming increasingly influential in the Middle Eastern countries unlike before, making it no longer relevant and consistent with the recent changes in the political-economic structure.


Conclusively, it can be said that the rentier state theory is indeed not sufficient to explain the development and growth of the politics and economy in the Middle Eastern countries. While it may be relevant in the past because its entire premise is history and the states’ availability of oil as a source of revenue, in the present times, a lot more comes into play. Middle Eastern countries have evolved ever since the theory came into existence by a great deal. And The global paradigm of power is shifting as well, now more than ever and geopolitics plays a vital role in that. But the rentier state theory is not much concerned with geopolitics. While we do not have to discard the theory altogether, it is safe to say that its relevance has decreased significantly today and for the future. Beblawi (1987) noted that “there is no such thing as a pure rentier economy.”



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Belbin’s Theory on management applications





Part one: Introduction

Culture refers to a unique set of characteristics that are developed on the basis of family, education, religion and social systems. Marketing plays significant role to transform values and culture due to the strong influence of advertising. Different countries market products in different regions to capture cultural values and to get recognition about traditions (Welch, 2017). The cultural differences in different regions tend to portray different values and consumption styles. Some marketing companies even fail to focus on consumer perceptions due to difference in culture. The culture is complex and its different features often create an illusion of similarity (D’lima, 2018). The cultural literacy is significant for marketers. For instance, improved technology of iPhone, when marketed in Japan, it acquired best selling list in Japan among smartphones. On the other hand, Nokia faced failures, due to less awareness about consumer market and their culture.

Culture is a significant aspect that impacts behavior of consumers. It can be seen from bias and preferences and differences in decisions of consumers. For instance, Chinese focus more on their traditions and believe on lucky numbers, so a Chinese consumer may dislike number 4, as it is an unlucky figure for them (Uddin and Razu, 2019). Therefore, marketing practices undertake consumer’ culture and their beliefs into account. The consumers’ attention is drawn to consider their key trends and interests. Marketing practices are aligned on integrity and purity of a sacred culture, such as Holi or Christmas (LEE, 2000). In a study, it was found that Chinese react with interest when western cuisines bring improvements in Chinese cuisines, however, they dislike when western philosophies interrupt revision of Confucianism. Therefore, Chinese consumers behave negatively when western philosophy is mixed with Confucianism because, according to their perception, Confucianism is defining identity in Chinese culture and its purity should not be contaminated.

Today, the improvement in infrastructure, processing, technology and development has made it easy to communicate, exchange and transport. Companies have increased opportunities to enter into global markets, operate at international level and influence global consumers. The global environment has presented integration of markets, technologies and nation stats. Due to increased internationalization, the problems across nations and cultures are complicated (Welch, 2017). The increased information, knowledge and production have made things easy yet complex. Marketing and advertising are massively being used to attract customers to increase production level and companies are facing serious challenges. A major challenge is the culture (Xina Yuan, 2011). It is not chaotic but based on different patterns. The elements of culture are language, customers, material culture, technology, social institution, and values.

To acquire competitive edge and sustainable growth in markets, the companies engage in diversity and complexity. This diversity centrally aligns the elements of marketing to face the challenges seriously and cope up with competitive advantage (Czarnecka, Brennan and Keles, 2017). The globalized companies have defined different marketing approaches to overcome the culture based difficulties and focus on key difficult situations in the world. The international operation of different companies confronts difficulties due to changed cultures. This concept can be cleared by following examples. An after shave product’s advertisement portrayed a man and woman with a pet dog, but this product failed in Middle East due to their concept about dog as unclean. A US telephone company tried to sell its products in Saudi Arabia, in its advertisement, the executive was talking by propping up feet on desk, which is a serious insult in Saudi Arabian culture (Uddin and Razu, 2019).  Similarly, Proctor and Gamble, in an advertisement in Japan, showed woman bathing and romantic scenes with husband in bathroom. This concept is seriously disliked in Japan due to inappropriate behavior and invasion of privacy (D’lima, 2018).

These examples show difference in taste and beliefs across the countries. Marketing and advertising has to undertake such key differences, in order to promote their products and services (Xina Yuan, 2011). Due to different values, traditions, and customs, marketers have to focus on their marketing tactics and advertisements. Difference in opinion, values and beliefs allow different consumers’ perceptions. The cultural values are recognized in the marketing literature that shows difference in pinion, product choices, and behavior and consumer motivation (Casidy Mulyanegara and Tsarenko, 2009). The cultural influence on the product purchase often comes in the form of how, what and when. The influence of culture on customers’ preferences can be seen in general so that marketer has to align its marketing strategy.  The scope of marketing is broad and varied in international regions but in some instances foreign culture often fails to conform to beliefs and traditions (Kotulla and Schmid, 2016). The main cultural factors that play strong role are people’s traditions, beliefs and customs that modify their attitudes and needs. The satisfaction of needs and wants is strongly related to their beliefs.

The global communication agencies work close on market research patterns to identify customers’ nature, views and attitudes to buy a product (LEE, 2000). Culture is a main force that shapes the way of a society. In global regions, the marketing companies work with proper research and communication skills. This step is required to offer a healthy insight to consumers about similarities and differences of products. These similarities and differences are mainly influenced by the changed language and socio-cultural images of customers. The Middle Eastern authors have explained their perceptions about marketing and advertising, which is solely defined on the basis of Islamic cultural values.

Purpose of Research

This research bears significance due to its nature of investigation about culture and its impact on marketing activities. Cultural elements are main aspects that define the values that prevail in people’s thoughts and decisions (Czarnecka, Brennan and Keles, 2017). Middle East, China, Turkey and Saudi Arabia are key countries, where western advertising cannot get desired results, particularly if it is not according to their cultural values and traditions. Anything that deviates from these countries’ culture is not acceptable for people. Most of the marketing and advertising activities are aligned with current cultural elements to fulfill the need of customers. Turkey and Netherlands are considered as European countries but their values are quite similar to Middle Eastern Countries (Kotulla and Schmid, 2016).

The difference in Islamic and western culture molds the marketing strategies and advertising. Some countries portray homogenous culture and the apparent societal differences allow them to follow common traditions. Mainly social groups follow different social class, education and wealth patterns (Uddin and Razu, 2019). Across Islamic and western countries, the difference in structural patterns and societal influences tend to modify the marketing activities (Ting Wang, 2009). This impact advertising practices in developed countries. The purpose of this study is to highlight the key differences in marketing and advertising due to cultural elements. The changed cultural element shed light on prevailed marketing strategies that target desired customers (Casidy Mulyanegara and Tsarenko, 2009). This study will fill the gap in previous studies about influence of marketing on consumer perception, in relation to prevailed culture. It will discuss the role of marketing on culture and how cultural elements can define consumes’ perception.

The perception of consumers has power to alter the global advertisement (D’lima, 2018). Moreover, the norms, traditions and attitudes about a product or marketing concept can also make a product successful or failure.  This paper will focus on defining specific attitudes and perceptions regarding specific products and services.

Research Questions:

The main research question of this paper is as follows:

How cultural elements affect local consumers’ perception and acceptance of global advertisements?
The sub questions of the research are:
● how cultural norms affect consumers’ acceptance towards global product advertisement
● How language affects customer acceptance towards global product advertisement
● How religion affects customer acceptance towards global product advertisement

These research questions will discuss specific details about culture, religion and language. This analysis will provide the key dimensions and understanding about a culture and its significance. These questions will also highlight the broader notion of consumption and marketing.

The organization of the paper is as follows:

The first chapter will discuss the introduction of topic, significance and purpose of research as well as research questions. The second chapter is about theoretical framework, it will discuss the global concepts such as consumption, product standardization and adaptation under global marketing perspective. Third chapter is about the literature review. It will undertake scholarly debates and controversies, other countries and the contexts where questions of cross-cultural marketing/advertising have been addressed (e.g. China and other countries). Fourth chapter will critically discuss the relation between consumers’ identities and consumption choices. Fifth chapter will be conclusion.

Part Two: Theoretical Framework

The theoretical framework is a detailed conceptual structure of this paper that will focus on consumption and marketing perspectives. It will discuss the adaptation vs. standardization of products, level of global relations and consumer attitudes and the culture & global marketing.

Consumption and Marketing

Consumer society is oriented on the global patterns. The domains of marketing are related to the global ingredients that work with cultural elements (Czarnecka, Brennan and Keles, 2017). For instance, the consumption is defined as the understanding about specific products required according to needs and satisfaction. Global consumption key is to understand specific insights about consumer dynamics and behavior by revealing marketing forces (Alden and Martin, 1996). Consumption and the culture of consumer are identified to implement significant marketing activities. The general sense of consumption is to satisfy peculiar needs. Consumption is associated with social and economic conditions that depends on needs, desires and wants (Kotulla and Schmid, 2016). It allows for value proposition necessary to fulfill demand of consumers. The role of consumption is to fulfill the self sufficient purpose including cultural, social and psychological needs (D’lima, 2018). The activities of human being regarding such elements ad portraying interest are consumption. The purchasing decisions of people about consuming a particular good are consumption. Organizations have expanded chances to go into worldwide markets, work at universal level and impact worldwide purchasers. The worldwide condition has introduced incorporation of business sectors, advancements and country details. Because of expanded internationalization, the issues crosswise over countries and societies are entangled (Gelbrich, Roschk and Gafeeva, 2016).  It is a way in which combined behaviors are analyzed and it represents economic activities. The consumption is a service to satisfy human needs. The consumption concept is the ideology of world which is already been criticized on the basis of marketing campaigns. Various nations advertise items in various areas to catch social qualities and to get acknowledgment about conventions. The social contrasts in various areas will in general depict various qualities and utilization styles (Casidy Mulyanegara and Tsarenko, 2009). The social education is noteworthy for advertisers. Culture is a huge angle that effects conduct of shoppers. A significant test is the way of life. It isn’t confused yet dependent on various examples.

There are different styles of consumption that signify role of products and services. In the consumption society, the work and production under capitalists system define value of leisure time. The different patterns of consumptions such as some feel necessities are important while others focus on luxuries; define the needs of people (Chegini, Molan and Kashanifar, 2016). Leisure time is followed by a capitalist system in the society as it also represents a notion of luxury and enjoyment. The agitation of a depressed society can be seen from solariums, casinos, shopping malls and sports club. It is also criticized by some scholars that the leisure time industry does not create satisfaction (Alden and Martin, 1996). There are five styles of consumption, i.e. conspicuous consumption, symbolic, addictive, compulsive, and sacred (Czarnecka, Brennan and Keles, 2017).

The conspicuous consumption is all about the satisfaction of basic needs such as food, housing and shelter. The consumption to impress others is also related to this category.  This consumption theory is related to the leisure class. The symbolic consumption is only related to the fulfillment of desires and needs via communication. The symbolic concept is about self completion, and a symbolic aspect that define a social process (Czarnecka and Keles, 2014). The addictive consumption is about addiction to specific products and depends on them psychologically, for instance, internet addiction, which is increasing due to people’s interest in virtual life (Ting Wang, 2009). The compulsive consumption is about the consumers who feel it compulsory to go out for shopping and repeat the process due to over anxiety. For instance, in different studies, it has been discussed that men show their power by using guns and bikes while women show their power by buying cosmetic and jewelry to improve their interpersonal relations (Kim, 2000).

The sacred consumption is a binary opposition such as products consumed with a degree of respect and awe. It very well may be seen from inclination and inclinations and contrasts in choices of buyers. The expanded data, information and creation have made things simple yet perplexing. Showcasing and promoting are hugely being utilized to draw in clients to expand creation level and organizations are confronting genuine difficulties (Pagani, Goldsmith and Perracchio, 2015).

The consumption and marketing perspectives are interrelated and they define the scope of advertisement. The influence of marketing on consumption pattern is positive because the advertisement is carried out to increase the brand awareness (Xina Yuan, 2011). It allows people to interact and get involved into better and desirable practices. Many big companies engage better practices of marketing and advertising to undertake large revenue. Massive production of goods is handled by marketing products by targeting different customers (Gelbrich, Roschk and Gafeeva, 2016). The changed preferences of consumers are tackled by targeting them with the desired products. The societal preferences are aligned on the culture and structural patterns of the consumers. Some advertising organizations even neglect to concentrate on purchaser discernments because of contrast in culture. The way of life is perplexing and its various highlights frequently make a deception of comparability.

Many customer shows positive attitude and expression for the company that works on cultural elements of a country. Targeting a society by keeping in view the cultural element is central to cater more customers (Alden and Martin, 1996). The societal marketing is more specifically carried out viewing the larger interest of consumers. The marketing campaigns are also aligned on the basis of religion, language and customs. The philosophy of marketing aligned on the positive attitude of consumers who value the products and services of company (Chegini, Molan and Kashanifar, 2016). Consumption and marketing are linked with producer and consumers’ point of view and globalization. Marketing is a systematic process which introduces a direct and personal relationship of consumers. The societal demands are increasing due to globalization.
Adaptation vs. standardization of products

The product adaptation is all about changed feature of a product and its modification according to the new markets. The product manufacturing and customization is aligned on the basis of product existence in a specific market. Product adaptation on traditional level is about modification of the in-house products but it also involves the competitors’ products (Czarnecka and Keles, 2014). Through involvement of product adaptation, the foreign rules and regulations are fulfilled, for instance, the American citizens want adaptation in cars and admire differentiated products in UK companies so they will focus on product adaptation (Kim, 2000). The process is vital for the innovation and attraction of different segments of consumers. The concept of adaptation is linked with the standardization. Both the concepts work together and focus on the product sale at international level. The adaptation involves modification of an existing product by incorporating new features that are desirable under cultural expectations.  For instance, in India, the vegetarian burger by McDonalds is introduced, which is an example of product adaptation (Ting Wang, 2009). The product adaptation is related to digital marketing as well as selling strategies. The buying choices of individuals about devouring a specific decent are utilization. It is a manner by which joined practices are broke down and it speaks to financial exercises.

The standardization is not about modification of products but it represents a new and modified approach of marketing. The reasonable and affordable process of marketing is standardization and it provides an effective change to enter into foreign markets (Xina Yuan, 2011). The exercises of person in regards to such components advertisement depicting interest are utilization. It allows for a central degree of adaptation that helps complying with the local regulations.  The product adaptation is related to different concepts, such as, promotional, intangible, tangible and price adaptation (Gelbrich, Roschk and Gafeeva, 2016). This is a process for companies to focus on new horizons and align its product dimensions with that of culture. The cultural representation is linked with the key attributes of marketing.  There are various styles of utilization that mean job of items and administrations. In the utilization society, the work and creation under business people framework characterize estimation of relaxation time. The various examples of utilizations, for example, some vibe necessities are significant while others center on extravagances, characterize the requirements of individuals (Chegini, Molan and Kashanifar, 2016).

Relaxation time is trailed by an entrepreneur framework in the general public as it likewise speaks to an idea of extravagance and pleasure (Kim, 2000). Because of various qualities, conventions, and customs, advertisers need to concentrate on their showcasing strategies and ads. Distinction in supposition, qualities and convictions permit various shoppers’ recognitions (Alden and Martin, 1996). The social qualities are perceived in the showcasing writing that shows contrast in pinion, item decisions, and conduct and buyer inspiration (Czarnecka and Keles, 2014).

The Global Culture Vs. Global Consumer

The changed internationalization is undertaking a global advertisement with an altered pattern of culture. The international advertising deals with different purchase intent and cultural difference (Steenkamp, 2019). The increased focus on internationalization in the past two decades has created diversity and altered patterns of growth (Ostergaard and Bode, 2016). The phenomenon of advertising in India, China, Latin America, and Eastern Europe is significantly changed due to cultural differences. Global culture and culture homogenization has favored different brands to set up a position in the marketing framework. The process of globalization is offering local brands to follow differentiated practices for products. The local consumer culture is acquiring central space on global integration (Ko, Lee, and Whang, 2013). America’s first policy, Tran’s pacific partnership, and Europe’s Refugee Crisis are some significant events that altered the global impact of marketing. The image of increasing trade, sponsorship, and global dominance is linked with global integration. Only five years ago, the concept of nationality and borders was most essential. Still, local consumer culture has aligned the ways of firms, consumers, and international marketing have played a significant role in the international advertisement (Hachtmann, 2004). The global consumer culture and local consumer culture are widely undertaken to analyze consumer behavior at the global level. This aspect plays a significant role in interplay with demand and supply (Mowen and Minor, 1998).

The researchers have focused on global and local consumer patterns to evaluate the main cultural factors that can determine purchase decisions (Khare, 2012). This framework focuses on consumer culture theory. The social arrangements of a society in which relations between lived and common sources are maintained in meaningful ways provide the dimensions of social culture. This networking work through mediation in markets and explains the significance of material resources. The consumer culture theories highlight the interconnectedness of a culture oriented on consumer factors (Zakaria and Abdul‐Talib, 2010). For instance, it highlights the notion of consumption when people believe in culture more than modern trends. It provides a collective sense of environment about consuming tangible and intangible products. The consumption includes lifestyles, images, and services that are close to culture, such as the India market mainly focuses on traditional patterns, i.e., bright colors and worship.

The global culture is inclusive of all the local cultures, thereby allowing marketers to focus on a significant advertisement campaign. The scope of global culture is broad but interlinked with consumer culture. Global culture is intertwined with the consumer due to set up perfectness and interests (Sabri, Manceau and Pras, 2010). Consumer culture explains all the social resources and symbolic aspects of life that play a crucial role in daily functioning. The system of consumer culture is mixed up with the transmission of cultural values, traditions, and practices (Woodside and Taylor, 1978). For instance, Buddhism in China and India is in methods for several decades, and one generation after another follows similar trends, practices, and lifestyles. This consumer culture formulates social actors that deem individual free acts. The consumer culture dispositions are depicted through imitation, social emulation, and matching. These factors are highlighted through the marketplace choices (Theodorakis and Painesis, 2018). These choices are further explained from the differentiation, distinction, and individuality basis. The motives in analyzing consumer culture depend on goods and services’ turnover.

The consumer culture is explanatory from the exchange of the capitalist market and commercial products. The things produced and then exchanged at a global level are valuable in their rights but assembled according to cultural patterns (Mowen and Minor, 1998). The consumption categories are known as commodities that are usually market made, and consumption involves consumer culture by including principles of individual freedom, choice, modernity, and market relations. The consumer culture characteristics are core aspects of marketing (Taylor, 2018). This consumer and global culture has shaped the ways of globalization. Hence marketing has acquired new forms of integration. The near past elaborates on the precise structure of marketing, product distribution, and manufacturing (Ostergaard and Bode, 2016). The two concepts of localism and globalism are central principles of the current age because they are aligned with the consumer cultural patterns. The increased cultural integration and interconnections under the force of localism have defined the consumption features (Manceau and Tissier-Desbordes, 2006).

The definition of consumer culture necessarily undertakes the element of globalism due to the specific social arrangements that are influenced by worldly patterns. The symbolic and material resources are then mediated in a global anchorage of markets (Khare, 2012). On the other hand, the global consumer is linked with cultural globalization theory (Theodorakis and Painesis, 2018). This aspect works on the joint forces of localism and globalism to define the more considerable macro interest of societal groups (Hachtmann, 2004). The global diffused behaviors are aligned on structural dimensions and transmissions, which include traditional and local cultures. The global position of customers is supported by varied local cultures and international practices (Muhamad and Mizerski, 2013).

Culture and Global Marketing

Culture is diverse and includes language, values, religious activities, and business norms. The elements of culture are linked with global practices of marketing in different ways (Welch, 2017). Language offers distinction in cultural activities based on various regional formats. The examples from West Bengal and Bangladesh clearly show various forms of Bangla languages. The people in different regions have different words and unique tones. A marketer must have to know about the particular styles, unique sounds, and words, to do marketing (Ko, Lee and Whang, 2013). The improved and best communication skills are essential to selling a product at a global level. Nonverbal communication skills like Postures, Paralinguistic experiences, Chronemics, and Olfactions. For instance, the showing thumb is used differently in two regions; in the West, it is a positive and encouraging sign, but in Asia, at some places, it is negative, according to culture. The marketing criteria tend to analyze local meaning or gestures, and it is compulsory to know these gestures to promote marketing activities (Muhamad and Mizerski, 2013).

In the high context cultures, the message given to society is based on particular negotiations, expertise, voice, and tone. The impact of religion on marketing practice is active; for instance, a powerful effect on consumer behavior is seen by Islamic values. It represents buying behavior and purchasing choice of products. These practices alter the way of global marketing and impact marketing. For instance, the use of pork and beef yields protein, but consumers based on religious views; do not consume pork in some countries. Muslims cannot select pork in a menu while Indians and Hindus do not like beef in a list. The marketer has to think about these conditions before offering such a product to a particular community.

The overall impact of culture on marketing is seen from these practices. Every religion decides culture, and different cultures have a particular set of values (Ostergaard and Bode, 2016). For instance, protestant religion stress frugality and hard work; Judaism stresses development and education, and Islam focuses on social interaction rule. These aspects provide the willingness and decision making power about a particular product (Welch, 2017). The consumption decisions based on religion undertake global marketing. The global marketing perspectives have to focus on specific choices about consumption, for instance, business holidays; in Muslims, it is on two Eids; in Hindus, it is on Holi, and in Christians, it is on Easter (Muhamad and Mizerski, 2013). The marketing practices have to focus on a mixed pattern of marketing when targeting different communities in Asia and Europe.

The cultural values, national and regional character, also allow for the different marketing techniques at a global level. The cultural values endure specific beliefs about a product code of conduct and selection (Khare, 2012). The products are ordered in the form of set systems and maintained priorities. If a marketer focuses on these criteria, the marketing promotions will be successful. Enculturation is a process in which individuals learn about the behaviors and beliefs endorsed by different cultures. Acculturation and assimilation are also critical attributes of a society by which marketing activities should be aligned.

Cultural norms work significantly for global marketing. The standards and values are specific rules that guide consumers about right and wrong. It also allows them to stay away or go for a particular product. The regional character and social aspects are aligned on time orientation and business hours. It is a part of a culture that decides individuals’ practices and values for their religion, for example, monochromic time and polychromic time (Welch, 2017). The business hours are just according to the native style of the community In the Indian subcontinent, the ten am to five pm is normal working hours while in western countries, eight am to two pm are normal working hours. Gender roles are also specific to discuss in the culture as it is the dominant factor that affects marketing. The gender, either male or female, determines the purchasing decisions and marketing based on religion (Ostergaard and Bode, 2016).  In some families, the mother is the owner, while in other father is the owner.

Part Three: Literature Review

The Unacceptability of Taboo in Consumer Research

Scholarly studies and literature have provided that the impact of culture can be seen in marketing tactics. There are different consumer perceptions about taboos and prevailing traditions. This section will discuss scholarly debates and controversies. It will also analyze different studies on consumption and marketing activities in other countries. The contexts of cross-cultural marketing and advertising in different countries like China and Asia will be addressed.

Manceau and Tissier-Desbordes (2006) discussed the death and sex subjects under the notion of advertisement. The scope of advertisement in the French cultural context elaborates about the prevailing trends. Taboo has been studied under ethnicity and psychoanalysis that make it easy to understand consumers. Authors have focused on its relationship with culture to analyze the use of advertisements. The use of sex in advertising is an ethical issue, while the impact of death is also a taboo in cultural aspects. The study worked with a survey to analyze how French consumers find it acceptable about taboos in advertising. The role of this objective was to find out individual characteristics in people and how these attitudes impact advertising. The authors focused that women and seniors are hostile to death and sex in such advertising, and young people feel different in advertising. It is found out that the general attitude about taboos in advertising is strongly impacting the attitude at the marketplace. The study provided managerial implications.

Taboos have been broken in 19th century and in Victorian era. Taboos about presenting flowers exist under floriography, under the flower dictionaries. The taboos about flowers allowed people to get into bouquet behind to know the real meaning of flowers. The secret language of flowers was used to send messages. Sabri, Manceau, and Pras,( 2010) illustrated the significance of taboos in consumer research. The societal patterns are influential when analyzed with ethnic perspectives. The study discussed that there is little research in marketing regarding taboos and their influence on advertising.  Literature in sociology anthropology and psychology defines the individual behavior towards taboos to influence consumption. The taboos perception is influencing consumer behavior negatively; for instance, surrogacy in commercials to get paid is also a taboo. The study discussed the historical impact of taboos on society and its prevalence in culture. Theoretical concepts are discussed to analyze the behavioral and conversational prohibitions. The historical and societal examples are given by the authors, such as homosexuality in Muslim countries is taboo but accepted in the US and France. The presence of taboos in historical junctures provides destructive impact on the consumer, such as in the 1980s, certain taboos and destruction phenomena about products were considered unmentionable. The study has explained that behavioral and conversational taboos have to highlight the differentiation about particular transgression; sanctions should be applied when people use a euphemism.

Modern marketing had to deal with many strict fancy taboos with advertising tactics, for instance in 1907, J Waltor Thompson company started its advertising campaigns breaking taboos, i.e. Woodbury’s facial soap.

Figure 1 1870s taboo about facial

Helen Resor introduced emotions into advertising in 1911; as a result product sale skyrocketed. Another advertising campaign about women hygiene shows how taboos were broken by Lysol as feminine hygiene product.

Figure 2 Lysol hygiene product

The persuasion tool used to increase sale was a message that women are at risk of ruining their marriages if they will not practice using Lysol (Radio, 2017).

Muhamad and Mizerski (2013) examined the impact of taboos on Muslim society. The scope of understanding this taboo system in an economy is diverse because there are different mechanisms of marketing to sell a product. Modern societies present different consumption modes. The study has tested the intrinsic and extrinsic role of motivation in consumers to make decisions about the prohibited product. For instance, the fatwa is a ban on certain products, and different studies indicated the effect of religion on consumers about the religious ruling. The theory of planned behavior is followed in this study, and a survey-based investigation is carried out to know about Muslim consumers’ views about a brand. With the help of a structural equation, the hypothesis was tested. The analysis found that motivation in respondents regarding Islamic teachings was significant, such as the decision to smoke and listen to music.

Ko, Lee, and Whang, (2013) worked on the authenticity of the consumer approach in relation to perception. The taboo theme is discussed in the paper regarding advertising. In the taboo system, many negative perceptions have been seen in advertising about society. The decisions of consumers are affected by using taboos in commercials and advertisements. In social sciences, personal space and affiliation with decision-making power are analyzed differently, and this study has added literary work of scholars to find out the role of consumer decisions. It is found out that practitioners use taboo themes to get more attention to advertising. This is significantly associated with consumer perception and marketing approach. The study mentioned that the use of sexual taboos in advertising had created a negative brand image for different products. This aspect is negative and triggers normative pressure. It is also found that due to the negative effect consumer’s attention to purchase the products decreased.

Modern marketing has played significant role to break down the strict taboos, for example, a delicate history about tissue paper states that it was produced in 1857; a Scott Paper company presented an idea of perforated paper.

Figure 3 Toilet tissue roll

In 1890s Victorian era, the taboo about toilet paper existed making it hard to understand the use of tissue so a marketing idea was needed. Therefore, Waldorf Hotel of New York started offering toilet paper in washroom s a private label was appeared for it branding. Later Scott tissue lingered taboo backlash and it was offered as a medical product to stop typhoid, dysentery and cholera (Hensoldt-Fyda, 2018).

It is safe to conclude that taboos are based on different cultures, and in different societies, response towards taboos is different regarding product acceptance. Social axioms are the constructs that measure belief and they help distinguishing society. The social axioms are application reward, social flexibility, social cynicism, fate control and spirituality. The application reward allows for the constant efforts that yield positive outcomes. Social flexibility refers to contradictory beliefs, according to the situation, while social cynicism discusses negative attitudes. The fate control allows for the understanding of people’s attitude towards future events. The supernatural aspects are related to spirituality in the society. A cultural gap exists in different countries regarding product acceptance due to cultural perceptions (Manceau, D. and Tissier-Desbordes, E. 2006). The ideas and products which are forbidden in the society are highlighted through taboo advertising, but this advertising may cause offence because it violates cultural norms. The product research about taboo advertising shows that how the taboo violating advertisement is not acceptable in the society. However, marketers are increasingly using taboo violating advertisement, due to a hidden power in them that offers brand recognition.

Culture is a significant issue in defining customer conduct. It clarifies why some goods trade well in some states or among unique or exclusive clusters, but not as fine elsewhere. Besides buying choices, culture also touches how customers use the goods they buy and how they discard them. Product usage supports marketers place their products uniquely in each market segments. Traditions or norms are also very powerful in the ways that culture impacts consumer behavior towards global products and brands. For example, in the American culture, turkey is old-fashioned nourishment for Thanksgiving. Only in the USA, this customarily precise behavior allows firms to raise poultry and turkey adequately near the Thanksgiving holiday. Other areas have traditions that put precise weights on the business firms that cater to those markets. Although, traditional outlines modify over time as a culture matures, but analysts with an eye on these formations have a gain.

Consumer Culture Theory

The consumer culture theory is a common thread that describes culture drivers. It is a responsive culture of global brands that represent the modern world in the consumption sector (Steenkamp, 2019). The consumer culture theory provides the dimensions of symbolism in a market generated goods format to construct collective identities (Ko, Lee and Whang, 2013). National culture has a significant impact on human behavior and it can be explained by theories of culture. Culture plays a complex role in the form of belief, knowledge and art or customs in human habitat. Different scholars have defined the culture as an interactive societal place, where societal members share common characteristics. National culture is not the only dimension to measure changes in attitudes but advanced communication technology and globalization are also key factors affecting original cultures. The scholarly perspectives about national culture explain human behavior and the prevalence of Subcultural aspects in a nation. It can be used as a proxy to represent culture because of country’s commonalities and differences. The national cultural framework defines cross cultural theories on the basis of Hofstedes’ work.

The theory of cultural value dimension is presented by Hofstede defining four national cultural dimensions. The choice of family and decision making power is attributable to the dominant person. It also portrays the general concepts, religious power, and concepts about the purchasing decisions (Woodside and Taylor, 1978). The cultural variability is about power distances, uncertainty avoidance, individuals’ vs. collectivism and masculinity vs. femininity (Sabri, Manceau and Pras, 2010). These aspects prevail differently in society and affected by culture; in turn global marketing is affected. The impact of global culture is linked to societal patterns. The global cultural differences are explained by Hofstede’s theory, where individualism, collectivism, long and short term orientation, masculinity & femininity, power distance, and uncertainty avoidance are discussed.  The cultural differences also offer a standardization strategy to discuss the scope of multinational companies (Ko, Lee and Whang, 2013).

Inglehart identified two value dimensions to discuss the sociology issues about modernization.  Key dimensions evaluated from the analysis are traditional vs. secular rational dimensions and survival vs. self expression dimensions. The former concerns discusses about authority, as when people focuses on the significance of nation, religion and family. The secular societal members do not consider religion important. The survival vs. self expression describes the relationship between groups and self. The survival values reinforce physical and economic security. The survival societies exhibit insecurity and unhappiness, when unfamiliar things happen. These societies take things for granted while accept changes. Inglehart’s framework is not widely applicable just like Hofstede.

Schwartz cultural value orientations describe about seven cultural value orientations. For instance, autonomy vs. embeddedness is about individual and groups’ relationship. The autonomy culture discusses about the unique and independent culture, where people can express their internal attributes, preferences and ideas. The intellectual and affective autonomy maintains status quo that can disrupt unity of group. Mastery vs. harmony describes the ways people manage socially and naturally. The harmonious culture appreciates and understands the world, while mastery culture tries to change the surrounding environment. The Schwartz cultural value dimensions are oriented on the priori theorizing. The cultural dimensions make non-orthogonal system; thereby distinguish Inglehart and Hofstede systems.

Steenkamp’s national cultural dimensions present four cultural dimensions. Autonomy vs. collectivism is consistent with both above cultural dimensions. Power distance dimension relates to this aspect in order to maintain societal order.  Hierarchy vs. Egalitarianism dimension explains interests of people and show cooperation. Nurturance vs. mastery is similar to masculinity and femininity as it deals with societal and natural environment of people by focusing on achievement. The uncertainty avoidance describes capabilities of people to handle any uncertain situation. Steenkamp focused on the correlation of first two dimensions and explains the significance of egalitarianism. These theories explain the significance of culture in different societies.

Culture needs to be scrutinized minutely as it is a very significant factor that affects consumer pattern. It would be a capital mistake for a global marketing firm to study the culture as a whole and standalone basis as there are many sub cultures and social classes within the framework of a culture. Sub-culture is a cluster of persons, within a culture, who share the same standards, civilizations and ethnicities. All the societies possess social classes. Social classes are usually segregated on the basis of income and some other social factors.

Taboo Theories
Development theories Theory Concepts of Taboo Elements of Taboo
Manceau and Tissier-Desbordes (2006) Localism and globalism are aligned with the consumer cultural patterns in French culture. Increased cultural integration and interconnectedness enhances consumption ·         use of sex in advertising is an ethical issue

·         impact of death


·         Death

·         Sex

·         Women

·         Seniors

Sabri, Manceau, and Pras,( 2010) societal patterns are linked with ethnic perspectives, behavioral and conversational prohibitions ·         behavioral and conversational taboos

·         use of euphemism

·         transgression

·         Surrogacy In Commercials

·         Homosexuality

Muhamad and Mizerski (2013) Different mechanisms of marketing to sell a product have made taboo system diverse in an economy. Motivation has intrinsic and extrinsic role for consumers to make decisions about the prohibited product ·         fatwa is a ban on certain products

·         Muslim consumers’ views about a brand

·         decision to smoke

·         listen to music

Ko, Lee, and Whang, (2013) In social sciences, personal space and affiliation with decision-making power are analyzed differently. In the taboo system, many negative perceptions exist. ·         use of sexual taboos in advertising

·         decision-making power


·         Women hygiene

·         Perfumes



(Hensoldt-Fyda, 2018).

Modern marketing is significant to break down the strict taboos ·         Typhoid,

·         Dysentery

·         Cholera

·         Toilet paper

·         Tissue roll

Cultural Theories
Development of Theory Theory Concept of theory Elements Of Culture in theory


cultural dimensions
Uncertainty of avoidance
Power of distance
·         Strength of social hierarchy

·         Task orientation

·         Person orientation



cultural value orientations
Intellectual/affective autonomy
·         Unequal power distribution

·         Collective part of society

·         Pursuing positive experience

·         Self assertion



Social value dimensions
Traditional/secular rational dimensions
survival /self expression
·         significance of nation, religion

·         physical and economic security

Steenkamp, 2019


cultural dimensions
·         maintain societal order

·         show cooperation

·         achievement

·         handle any uncertain situation


Global Branding

The globalization process is oriented into a cultural force. The global consumer culture is defined in the form of media force, travel, and rising income. The true communication membership in the global community channel provides cultural ideas. The potential of global brands to transform cultural meaning and preferences in society is to enable consumption participation (Sabri, Manceau and Pras, 2010). The global brands are significant to offer consumers a wide array of communication and identity about cosmopolitan media culture. This helps to create an imagined global citizenship that is shared with likeminded people (Woodside and Taylor, 1978). Global marketing, as it name suggests, is marketing on global level. It refers to local corporations’ availing commercial benefits of international operational variances, problems and opportunities to make their presence felt globally. Global marketing has recently evolved itself to be a separate branch of study in general business management that aspires to market products and services on international level. Like local marketing, global marketing is also a function of 7 Ps like Product, Price, Place, Promotion, People, Processes and Physical evidence. An international marketing execution system allocates marketing resources, associate plans and supplies, interior communications, bulletins, depositor supplies, occasion advancements and trade shows to deliver a combined, precise and absorbed communiqué, entree and value to the customers.

The prime purpose of every business is to make the sales superfluous by analyzing the reasons that move consumer’s purchase decisions. Consumer perception theories, as developed by marketing gurus, attempts to scrutinize and elucidate consumer behavior in detail. It goes without saying that a similar product or service would be perceived differently by different consumers. Consumer perception theorists evaluate the motives or stimuli in buying or not buying a specific product or service by a consumer or group of consumers. Needless to say, consumer’s observation of a product or service may significantly vary from what the marketer or firm had envisioned offering. This is counter-productive for both the sides in today’s viable environment.

One of the main insinuations of globalization for marketers looking for development to foreign countries is the job of harmonizing rectification with customization. When some of the global brands enlarge outside their home marketplaces, they are attracted to replicate their tried and verified strategies in the foreign market as well. In fact this has been the strategy used by several brands. The postulation in such a scenario is that consumers would be too interested to use the brand due to its originality, legacy and links. Unfortunately, this strategy is slowly fading as international companies understand that local tactics cannot be used internationally in diverse markets along with the challenges of lifestyle, economic and cultural circumstances.

With intense global competition, it is getting very difficult for products to stand out and get noticed from the products offered by other entities in the market. Today’s consumers are very knowledgeable about prices and quality. They constantly look for discounts and bargains for branded and other luxury products. Being adequately well-informed, they are conscious of their rights and responsibilities of others. This mindfulness enhances their potentials from companies.

The only viable remedy open to a business in such scenario is consolidating the pledge between the business and the clients. This is surely to yield better dividends in modest benefit as this connection is not limited to the feature of mere price of quality only. Good experience a consumer feels with the company at different levels of contact such as efficacy and dependability, higher are the probabilities that he or she becomes a repeat customer. The impact of global marketing campaigns on consumer perception with reference to culture cannot be overlooked. Effective marketing strategies may alter a consumer’s perception of a certain product or service. Credit also goes to effective brand management. Consumer perception of brand loyalties has grown significantly as we have entered into the digital era. Since the year 2017, the mode to contact consumers has dramatically altered. Now brands need to develop tactics to penetrate into consumer’s life unconsciously.

Trust and loyalty play an instrumental role in consumer’s brand perception. Effective global marketing invests heavily in creating trust and loyalty a brand should possess in the eyes of the consumer. Building consumer loyalty is no easy task as culturally diverse consumer base constantly challenges new and effective marketing tools. It is no wonder that some of the brands like Apple, Google and Amazon have managed to get inimitable customer loyalty. Each of these bands has marvelously formed an unbreakable emotional bond with the consumer. Culture and cultural differences present a strong challenge to the global marketing initiatives. Culture, by its very definition, is a complex yet delicate belief of behaviors, values and society. It also includes the roles that a society demonstrates the conduct of the society, its ethics, civilizations and traditions.

The adoption of global consumer culture under global citizenship pertains to the global village. The different cultures in different nations offer differentiated ways of lifestyle. In international business forums, a competitive edge provides an understanding of cultural differences (Zakaria and Abdul‐Talib, 2010). This notion can be seen in African and Western cultures, where the scope of standardization is seen through advertising, but marketing is aligned on the cultural patterns. The culture is inherited in human traits as a result; globalization is seen in marketing perspectives (Mowen and Minor, 1998). The cultural globalization is linked with the adoption of global features in different societies. Thus they retain some exceptional features.  In the localized and standardized strategy for products, the cultural elements are incorporated. The standardized differences through cultural factors, in union-based markets of Asia and Europe; high advertising strategies are seen (Manceau and Tissier-Desbordes, 2006).

Cultural Consumption Patterns

Management guru Peter F. Drucker has observed that the ultimate aim of the business is to generate a customer, so the business firms need only two things: marketing and innovation. Marketing includes all the functions performed by enterprises to encourage the buying or selling of their products and services. Marketing refers to the understanding of customers’ needs and satisfying them optimally. It means not only meeting customers’ expectations but also exceeding it. Consumptions are very basic to human beings, not only for human beings but also all living beings. When a life is created on this planet, the first thing it consumes is air. There once was a time when consumption was considered necessary for survival.

Today, it has become the ultimate purpose of human beings. There are many factors, which determine consumer’s consumption patterns. Among these, culture is one such important factor. Culture refers to the intricacies of principles of human civilizations, their characters, their conduct, their ideas, and customs. A consumer’s consumption pattern is hugely affected by the culture he represents. Therefore, marketers all over the world must attempt to understand the delicacies of the cultural and economic challenges of consumers (Brice, Chu & Brice, 2017).

Culture is overly influenced by society’s views, arguments, institutions, materials, and feelings. One of the critical building blocks of culture is beliefs. Peoples are gravely affected and behaved by their ideas. It is reported that in the USA, the number 13 is considered unlucky, while in France, cosmetic products are more used by men than women. Resultantly, understanding of cultural properties, in the study of consumer behavior, is an essential element in marketing. It even gains more momentum in market segmentation, objective market and merchandise positioning.

It is an open knowledge that everyday life in the civilized part of the world has become conquered by the individual’s connection with consumer goods. The relation between consumption patterns and identity has been observed through a detailed analysis of different consumer theories, the study of wealth and cultural investigation, and feedback. Consumer preferences assist in outlining the identities of consumers both at the individual and group levels.

With apparently infinite choices and comparative wealth, consumption has evolved as a significant holiday activity. Someone has aptly said that today we are breathing in a world infused by consumerism. It is to be acknowledged that acts of consumption are determined not only by actual needs but also by consumer’s wish to make a declaration about themselves in response to others. It is known as the processes of symbolic consumption, whereby consumers use products or services as a means to generate, grow, and uphold their identities. This is true and of paramount importance that even the most common consumption choices echo a person’s character, sensitivities, and communal status.

Understandably, there is a growing curiosity amongst marketers and social scientists all over the world in the connection between consumer’s identities and choices. There is a direct relationship between consumers’ characters and choices (Advertising Sevak, 2019). While the consumption pattern defines the consumer’s identity, consumer’s preferences deal with the economic sense of affordability and maximum satisfaction in buying a product or service. In this age of the fast-changing and globalized world, the impact of marketing over a diversified cultural consumers’ group cannot be overemphasized. Global corporations use cut-throat marketing strategies to stay ahead in making sales superfluous (Brice, Chu & Brice, 2017).

Islam, as a religion, does not decry marketing efforts or business as a whole. Even the principal aspect of the spread of Islam in the Muslim era was effective marketing. Our Holy Prophet and other Muslim rulers practice Islamic values to promote Islam. However, consumer pattern in Islam or the Muslim world is a relatively new phenomenon for marketers. It is believed that consumption demonstrates a growing role in uniqueness formation for Muslim consumers: their rising social and sacred self-awareness converts markets, publicity plans, and consumer conduct (Mowen, J. and Minor, M. 1998). Muslim customer philosophy is strictly consistent with globalization and is, therefore, of significance to several parts of economic and sociological scholarship. There is still a dire need for a precise examination of its many features.

It is opined that the popular culture of youth may become a very stimulating and gifted scope for Muslim advocates. It offers an opportunity for the countenance of one’s uniqueness by picking its goods and services such as music, apparel, and other fashion. It is also facilitating to allow people from different cultural backgrounds and social groups to participate. It was observed that by referring to the Islamic Shariah, Islamic young consumer ethos practically strengthens the revival of Islam.

To make a product or service Islamic, it needs to fulfill some criteria like Halal food or some feature like money without interest. Islamic consumer culture follows a two-pronged strategy. It encourages the use of products, which were made as an Islamic version of Western products like videogames and sodas (Zakaria, N. and Abdul‐Talib, A. 2010). Secondly, it also fosters products that allow Muslims to take part in social and recreational life like burkini, i.e., swimming dress for religious Muslims women and books in Islamic financial institutions. However, it is to be kept in mind that the connection between religion and consumption of Islamic products is not always an easy one.

Some orthodox Muslims will outright reject the Islamic form of Western products as un-Islamic. For example, a fashion doll may be deemed fit for discard as it does merely a doll resemble a human face. Even pop music, despite its legitimate message, can be termed as haram as many Muslims do not accept singing or music as a form of recreation (Brice, Chu & Brice, 2017). With time, more and more Islamic versions of Western products are emerging. It may be safely argued that Islam and consumer culture do not clash with each other; rather, they co-exist more coherently. As they say, necessity is the mother of invention. Even Islamic consumer culture is growing side by side with Western consumer culture. The day is not far when these two cultures will co-exist with each other while maintaining their individuality.

It is worth mentioning that Islam does not support extreme avariciousness or luxury. People are gifted with intelligence. Therefore, they are rulers of their lives. They are at liberty to spend their life as they want, but Islam offers some value-laden guidelines to have serenity and pleasure. Islam does not prefer those who hoard affluence and pamper in pretention. The role of culture norms in consumer acceptances is significant (Advertising Sevak, 2019). Cultural diversity is indeed a pivotal reason that has an effect on the acceptance or non-acceptance of a consumer towards global products or services. As the world has become a global village, global brands enter into different cultures; it becomes a challenging task for them to analyze the calibration-customization range carefully wherein they not only afford to retain the intrinsic brand uniqueness which is necessary for their survival, but also use the brand rudiments (descriptions, promotion, networks, and others) to appeal to the local palates and favorite of customers.

The culture of a consumer has an inimitable bearing over his preference and choice of products and services. Culture is an instrumental factor in decisive consumer behavior. It justifies how and why some products get a good response in some regions, but not as good elsewhere. In addition to buying decisions, culture also impacts how consumers practice the products they purchase and how they discard them (Alden, D. and Martin, D. 1996). The use of product aids marketers place their products uniquely in each market. Consumers also can observe the use of the same products by members of other cultures, or achieve the identical needs with dissimilar products, as a means to catch well-organized, cost-effective alternatives in the market.

Traditions or norms are also dominant in the ways that culture affects consumer behavior towards global products and brands. For example, in American culture, turkey is old-fashioned nourishment for Thanksgiving (Ostergaard, P. and Bode, M. 2016). This customarily precise behavior allows firms to raise poultry and turkey near the Thanksgiving holiday, but only in the USA. Other regions have traditions that put specific weights on the business firms that cater to those markets. Although traditional patterns modify over time as a culture matures, analysts with an eye on these configurations have a gain.

It is a well-established fact that culture applies different stages of effect on members. Age, linguistic, society, sex, and learning level all move which customer behaviors an individual of an agreed culture prove. Fledgling people may not assume cultural changes that are common for grownups and may develop practices exclusive to their subgroup. This can engage everything from new purchasing patterns to a new product or service usage trends. As people relocate to other cultures, this issue comes in new ways; the strength of culturally resolute consumer behavior fluctuates even more.

Business analysts engage a great amount of time and energy, observing the aftermaths of philosophy on consumer behavior (Advertising Sevak, 2019). This is essentially necessary for global giants that have a large number of customers from a diverse range of cultural backgrounds. A superb marketing policy in one culture might be unsuccessful, or even counter-productive, to consumers of another culture. It is of paramount importance to cater to the needs of specific traditional behaviors by offering unique variants of a similar product that are made for demanding to the target consumers.

As adequately emphasized that marketers need to deeply understand the culture of their buyers to avoid inter-cultural rift, the core process and understanding of marketing of products and services among those consumers whose culture and cultural values are poles apart from those of marketers or manufacturers is undertaken in global branding (Sabri, O., Manceau, D. and Pras, B. 2010). It takes into consideration the basic cultural attributes like common customs, standards, language, schooling, belief, financial arrangements, commercial protocol, rules, and standard of living. On the whole, cross-cultural marketing gains benefits of the cultural groups’ different cultural standards to connect to and coax that group. The worldwide condition has introduced combination of business sectors, advances and country details (Hensoldt-Fyda, M. 2018). Because of expanded internationalization, the issues crosswise over countries and societies are entangled.

If a firm wishes to avoid cross-cultural marketing or does not want to understand other cultural norms, some funny situations arise. Some organizations may add the word ‘mist’ in a good’s name like ‘Irish Mist’, ‘Mist Stick’ or ‘Silver Mist’. This is acceptable and fine within countries whose native language is English. When these organizations expand their business operations in Germany, they found themselves in trouble due to their poor understanding of cross-cultural marketing as ‘Mist’ is loosely translated into ‘muck’ in German. Similarly the word “’Traficante” is the title for an Italian inorganic water processing firm. However, when the firm penetrated into Spain, they felt the significance of cross-cultural marketing. In Spanish language, the word “’Traficante” translates as ‘drug trader.’ Today, the improvement in foundation, handling, innovation and advancement has made it simple to convey, trade and transport.

In the year 2013, soft drink global giant Coca-Cola released a heart touching commercial. The advertisement featured well-known actors singing a song in a patriotic manner like “America the Beautiful” in seven language around the worlds (Theodorakis, I. and Painesis, G. 2018). It proved very moving as it inspired global consumer base in all the major parts of the world irrespective of their age, color, sex or religion. By delivering a creative and warmly ad spot, Coca Cola was able to win the hearts of its consumers not only for its products, but for its business morals of inclusion as well.  A Case Study of KFC’s Cross-Cultural Marketing in China: In the year 2007, KFC took the China by storms by establishing more than 2,000 outlets, leaving even arch rival MacDonald behind. KFC managed to earn praises from a large Chinese consumer base and conquering over challenges consistently. From the cross-cultural marketing point of view, it is worth assessing the factors responsible for KFC’s meteoric growth in China.

In 1987, KFC entered into Chinese market by opening its first restaurant in its capital city, Beijing. From the beginning, KFC was eager to learn and experiment to familiarize itself with Chinese culture, social norms and its huge market. They even designed an exclusive management model with respect to Chinese cultural characteristics. In order to face the aggressive competition from fast-food Chinese industry, KFC invested heavily in product innovation strategy (Casidy Mulyanegara, R. and Tsarenko, Y. 2009). As China is still considered a somewhat closed society, their populace is very susceptible to Western food products and culture. Chinese are considered very sensitive towards their sagacity of cultural individuality and traditional diets. Organizations have expanded chances to go into worldwide markets, work at universal level and impact worldwide purchasers. The view of shoppers has capacity to modify the worldwide promotion. In addition, the standards, conventions and frames of mind about an item or promoting idea can likewise make an item effective or disappointment.

KFC tirelessly endeavors to make state-of-the-art advancement jointly with the features of Chinese culture in allowing consumers innumerable choices to strengthen its position in Chinese fast food industry. KFC’s pricing strategy was also admirable as it believed in steady prices for a highly populous country like China. Effective distribution policy of KFC also yielded dividends in terms of availability and convenience for the consumers. It can safely be summarized that KFC’s Chinese under cultural marketing strategy can serve as a role model for other local and international fast food brands. The representative utilization is just identified with the satisfaction of wants and needs by means of correspondence. The emblematic idea is about self consummation and a representative perspective that characterizes a social procedure.

Part Five: Conclusion

Culture determines consumer behavior, so it alters the ways of marketing. The role of culture in consumer behavior is determined from individual patterns and values. The relationship between culture and consumer behavior is discussed in this research paper. The shared set of practices or beliefs that people share with society are oriented on cultural values. This aspect is primarily related to the marketer’s and consumers’ information that is reflected in the form of advertisement. The significant scope of culture is extensively discussed in the paper, and it has shed light on the changed cultural elements in specific counties. For instance, in China and India, cultural taboos are present.

The influence of taboos is significant in society, and colossal literature has discussed the taboos’ impact on society’s consumption behavior. The members of different cultures share similar patterns of consumption. Due to the product’s demand, marketers orient their ways to the advertisement. Most of the changed perception of taboo culture is attributable to marketing ideas. Since the Victorian era, taboo breakage has started the introduction of new products, such as women’s hygiene cosmetics, and tissue papers as toilet rolls. Consumers can easily be influenced by new ideas of marketing trough advertisement. This concept has broken many taboos in society and introduced new patterns of consumption. Other cultures also use similar products to fulfill consumers’ needs and expectations. The cost of effective options in advertisement have evolved the role of marketing.

Traditions influence consumer behavior, by and large, for instance, in the mainstream American culture; the concept of traditional thanksgiving is associated with traditional dishes, such as Turkey. This specific culture compels companies to produce poultry, so retailers get gear to fulfill demand near this holiday. The traditional impact on consumption and demand-based attitude is due to advertisements. The changing cultural patterns offer a clear advantage to consume. Moreover, the focus of age, ethnicity, gender, and language is related to the prevalent consumption patterns. The study has discussed current consumption and advertisement behavior that can be fruitful to break the taboo system. The focus of marketing in a specific culture is specifically designed according to values. A great deal of literature has discussed the effects of culture on the buying patterns of consumers. In multinational companies, the customers’ demand is assessed through marketing and advertisement. A marketing strategy is utilized to offer unique products that are aligned with prevalent culture.

The analysis of different studies has provided the significance of taboos and their relationship with convictions, beliefs, rules, and various norms that society accepts widely. The community customs, habits, and cultivated traditions are related to taboos, but the avoidance of taboos is due to magic, fear, religious beliefs, or good upbringing. There are different features that have an influence on human demand. Authors agreed that taboo violation often brings massive social sanctions. The various cultural conditioning appears due to social zones as and when imposed onto society. The analyses of studies have provided that culture and taboos have a variable relationship. Prohibitions due to restrictions are created due to religion, so a community strongly believes in taboos while whatever their reality is. This research study is significant to discuss key taboos and cultural impact on marketing. Taboos create symbolic borders as what is right or wrong, religious or nonreligious. This cultural category describes specific arrangements by integrating it with marketing activities. Without a doubt, the context of marketing is integrated with cultural values in Asia, China, Europe, and America. Whether it is food products, fashion, or lifestyle products, the scope of culture, and its impact on consumption patterns cannot be overlooked. The cultural element is incorporated in the transmission of advertisements. The contemporary advertisement reflects the broad sociological knowledge to reach targeted customers, for instance, as Proctor and Gamble do.

This research study supports various contexts of culture and its implications in the market. For instance, in the US, the market identification and research of the audience is required, so the country is a large masculine. The study has found the role of cultural taboos and their negative impact on society. The negative part of cultural taboos results in product acceptance because cultural segments affect the market, so promote a negative social culture. Any multinational company has to focus on its advertising strategy before introducing it in a domestic foreign market as there is a strong need to consider the prevailed cultural patterns. This study has also provided that how different cultural theories have worked on cultural identity and dimensions, such as Hofstede, Inglehart, and Steenkamp. These cultural descriptions, values, and orientations are truly dwelled in societies and hinder the concept of marketing. This research has offered a significant discussion about consumption and consumer culture by undertaking prevailed practices. The findings of the study provide a clear emphasis on advertising patterns and consumption, which is linked to taboos.

Power relations, masculinity, and femininity, cultural embeddedness, and hierarchy are some vital cultural dimensions. The findings of the study offer understanding about taboos, cultural significance, and the role of marketing to break them. The marketing plans are designed by large companies to accelerate product acceptance value. With the implementation of technology, the new structural focus is developed by multinational companies that can accelerate product demand by eliminating taboos. The cultural emphasis on the latest products under advertisement is attributable to marketing, education, and cultural literacy. It acts like a conducive framework for the effective functioning of consumer consumption. Cultural literacy is required to innovate the concept of marketing. This research study has provided an insight to expand global marketing tactics due to technology and advanced communication skills. Rich cultural patterns but cultural literacy allows a broader scope for marketing and advertisement. The consumer behavior patterns in different regions such as Taiwan, Japan, and Singapore, are modified at large due to advertising campaigns, broadcasting a wide view of products on TV and Radio. The people from Western countries are attracted on the basis of different perspectives, cultural differences, and product acceptance. The current study is useful to provide a comprehensive viewpoint about consumption behavior due to marketing.


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Lorraine Code argues regarding the subjectivity of the knower in the formulation of epistemology known as “S knows that P.” It unarguably means way more as compared to the prevailing empiricist & positivist perspective. I agree with the idea that The “S,” Code says that maximum production of knowledge is invested politically, and the historical as well as social locations of “S” impact the variety of issues that are selected to investigate. Adding to that, taking the subjectivity into account also means examining political and other structures for the ways in which they direct research to focus on specific lines of inquiry rather than others. (Code, 1995)

On the other hand, Collins, with reference to Black feminist epistemology, rejects the perspectives and ideals regarding Black women being passive victims as they haven’t mentioned it. It is found in the western elite, and there is where their sexual politics, motherhood, as well as every other aspect has been exploited. Collins associates the positivist epistemology with the male-dominated and controlled knowledge described in their stories. It is accurate as my understanding that Black women achieve face pressures from multiple sides as compared to other feminist ideal keeping individuals.

While taking subjectivity into account, means examining the political as well as all other structures that can be debated about in order to a feminist approach to epistemology refers to epistemology being at value neutral. While examining these ideals, a more transparent and effective perspective can be driven from these notions. It brings clarity in aspect, and yes, it is accurate and evident that most of the western writings have been dominated by controlled knowledge of the elite that created perspectives. These stereotypical images now are being broken in the modern times.

Collins rightfully identifies the significant groups of women scholars who aim to form a Black feminist narrative in order to assure their credibility, and these notions are depicted in their ideals. They should be advocates for Black women and prepared to involve their findings, be accepted by Black women scholars, and should be ready to confront Eurocentric masculinist political and epistemological requirements. Considering these notions, all keeping subjectivity into account becomes necessary for maintain authenticity while describing any of the opinions. Without being neutral about these notions like Collins, no clear perspective can be presented. Collins maintains beings neutral herself in her attitude while being perspective, and so is the need of every philosopher.


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There are four perspectives of scientific management that have been or are in practice across the globe. The Classical perspective, the humanistic perspective, the Management science perspective & the Contemporary Perspectives. Each aspect has its view, and these perspectives have evolved with reference to the current predicament in terms of needs and employee rights. This paper will identify why each perspective evolved and how this evolution contributed towards the evolving of management thinking regarding the employees.


The Classical Perspective of Scientific Management presented by Frederick Taylor contributed on how to improve the labor force in case of shortage of labor. Focusing on the production personnel is integral as it aids in maximizing efficiency at work. The reason for evolution of the management was to find the best possible solutions towards management science, and the methods changed as a result of the evolving needs of management. The contributions it gave to the management thinking are, it suggests to choose the most skilled workers that are the best fit for a job purely based on merit and capabilities. (Taylor, 1996)

The needs of every passing year lead to the further evolution of the system. Giving the workers a proper reward in return to their hard work was necessary, and that adding to that. This was integral as it affects the level of motivation of an employee to do their job with maximum dedication and precision. It also aided in enhancing their skills towards the career and excel.It contributed towardsemphasizing the need to manage accordingly in accordance with the rights of the laborers. They neither need to be overburdened with loads of work; no, do they need to be underpaid for their efforts for the business. (Taylor, 1996)

Max Weber created “bureaucracy” contributed towards the reasonable division of labor to ensure equal and adequate distribution of workload. Adding to that, the power system of hierarchical control was introduced to the system. The operation mechanism of handling affairs in accordance with regulations set was also necessary to be a part of this evolution as that bounds the firm not to violate the employee rights. Forming a formal decision-making document was made a part of it to ensure that the process is reasonable and legal personnel administration system is implemented that protect the employee rights. From an administration viewpoint, it was integral to focus on how managers coordinate and manage their activities within the organization that was made aids in making the system work in accordance with the rules and regulations set by law.

The Humanistic Perspective evolved with respect to the impact it had on the societies, businesses, and employee rights. This perspective is derived from the individuals as well as groups of organizations. Its contribution to the evolution of management thinking is the identification of the concerns that employee has. They have their issue with the management that they aim to communicate, and continuous measurement, as well as evaluation of the working conditions of the employees, can aid the managers in making long-term strategic decisions. (Murray, 2018)

This contributedtowards the overall thinking of management to be concerned regarding employee issues and play a role in solving them. Adding to that, the performance parameters for the workers was based on productivity. This perspective led the management thinking to emphasize building relationships between supervisors and workers. It aided them in learning their problems and help solve them in whichever capacity they can. In short, behavior analysis was made a part of the process to not only better understand the causes of the employee issues but to help them come out of those predicaments. (Murray, 2018)

It also contributed in categorizing the workers on Theory X and Theory Y basis. Theory X workers were Lazy. They lacked ambition and had no reason for it. The theory Y workers who are Innovative. These were the individuals that liked working and had self-control. Elements like motivation and Job satisfaction were introduced that are integral in keeping an employee’s performance. If an employee is not motivated or job satisfied, he/she won’t be able to perform well. These two words evolved the management thinking.Other elements that contributed were Communicate, Interpersonal relationship & the ability to manage. All these elements are relevant and contribute immensely towards the management to perform well. They evolved with the passage of time to ensure giving the rightful place to each employee as per their performance.

The Management science perspective evolved the thinking of management as both the past two perspectives were focused on using either behavioral understanding or employ betterment while the 3rd method is scientific. The reason why it is adopted is that enterprises need to solve some complex problems. With the utilization of statistics, mathematics, calculus, and other aspects to be applied in management decision-making and solutions, it aided in making management more precise. It contributed immensely towards the understanding and realization of any plan’s feasibility. Taking out feasibility and focusing on the cost of production, services cost and other costs lead to a precise and most accurate estimate regarding and the decision that the management would need to make. Hence it is justified by helping prove in terms of how much feasible that plan would be. (Uddin, 2015)

Lastly, Contemporary Perspectives comes from changes in social, political, and economic forces. It evolved management by highlighting the three forces that are not in control of any organization or management. These are external factors that need to be considered as well, so these elements were also brought in as integral elements in the debate. If the political predicament changes in any country that will definitely impact the whole predicament. There is another element of people and situations that change over time and affect the entire scenario. It can automatically evolve/influence the management thinking and lead them to decisions. (Taylor, 1996)

Economic recessions likewise impact the whole predicament, and these differences are needed to be considered in order to decide regarding any dilemma. The modern perspective of contingency plans evolved the thinking of management as it is yet very difficult to predict the future, and contingency plans are required that are applied if all other plans fail. This led to the making of the contingency theory. Adopting as per the predicament is integral in order to face the issue. Contingency managers remain connected with the plight as well as have their understanding. They keep the system intact with the need of the day and act in accordance with their own realization of the matter. They formulate a mutually understandable and viable predicament for all to agree upon.


It can be concluded on the fact that all perspectives are interconnected and evolved with respect to the predicament that came to the realization as factors that impact a predicament. Soon as the other aspects of management were realized with the emergence of Globalization, all the management thinking evolved and led to the understanding of all these integral elements as being essential to be considered. The whole perspective of management still keeps growing with new advancements coming. For management, all these evolving elements have become a part of the predicament. Feasibility is equally important as compared to motivation and interpersonal relationships. Each perspective has its own value and they keep evolving with the passage of time.


Murray, D. (2018). The Humanistic Perspective on Management. Retrieved from

Taylor, F. W. (1996). SCIENTIFIC MANAGEMENT. Retrieved from

Uddin, N. (2015). Evolution of Modern Management through Taylorism: An Adjustment of Scientific Management Comprising Behavioral Science. Retrieved from





Dante “built” his version of hell utilizing rather equal measures of Roman Catholic doctrine and his own personal perspective regarding the guilt or innocence of the people he put there (his personal perspective seems sometimes rather vindictive). Pick one character who seems to be in hell for reasons the Catholic church of that time would approve, and one or two who seem to be there simply because Dante was “getting even.” Explain how this is so in each case using details from the poem as well as from whatever historical sources you wish to utilize. (MANDATORY)



While exploring the different circles of hell in Dante’s Inferno, the reader finds that different forms of sins are relegated. Throughout the read, one comes across different forms of punishments for sins and in the circle Canto 18, also known as Malebolge, where fraud is punished, one comes across a priest entangled in the eight circle of Hell. The priest is the character with which Dante “gets even”. A priest is normally considered as a man of moral obligation and is someone who could not possibly end up in hell but like Dante, readers also find themselves shocked to find a priest in hell. The priest in hell denotes the defamation of Church and how Dante is getting even with the Church by pointing out the corruption amidst the Catholic Church.

The priest is present in hell for sinning and is guilty for defrauding the congregation and this is what Dante is angry at. Through Dante’s portrayal of the priest in hell, his anger at the Catholic Church is reflected as he condemns it in his work. In fact, the priest was actually the notoriously corrupt Pope Boniface VIII who reigned from the year 1294 to 1303. Pope Boniface made several attempts to enhance the position as well as power of Catholic Church.

Pope Boniface was also known as the enemy of Dante as Dante highly vocalized as well as advocated for the separation of state and church. Although Pope Boniface is not present within the inferno physically, however, he is portrayed as the symbol of sin in the form of the priests and clerics in hell. Pope Boniface is mentioned by the Simonist Pope Nicholas III who is in hell for selling absolution with indulgence. Pope Nicholas III mistakes Dante for Boniface as he says,” “Are you already standing, already standing there, o Boniface?”. Pope Boniface was already alive when Dante wrote The Divine Comedy so he could not place Pope Boniface in hell but he could portray him as being one of the sinners destined for hell by condemning him.

Dante placed the still living Branca d’Oria and Fra Alberigo to get even with the Church as he committed the biggest breach of the Catholic theology in the Divine Comedy. This is because the idea of placing a sinner in hell even before they are dead is something that is contradictory to the orthodox Catholic beliefs. Many of the scenes in Dante’s inferno happen to be something that are condemned by the Catholic Church. Although many of the scenes in Dante’s Inferno rely on illustrations of Christian morals, his representation of Branca d’Oria and Fra Alberigo are completely opposite the beliefs of Christian morals to emphasize on the crimes of the sinners who were condemned to the ninth circle. Vanni Fucci di Pistoia is thecharacter who seems to be in hell for reasons the Catholic church of that time would approve. This is because the character is a thief who stole from the Church. He was sent to the eight circle of hell where the felons and thieves are punished. When asked by Dante, he replied that he is in hell for the sin of stealing from the Church of St. James and for accusing a man for a crime that was innocent\. The innocent man was known as Vanni della Nona who was then executed. Although the thief, Vanni Fucci, was not caught, he was sent to Hell for stealing Church property. The property stealing is a crime that is not forgiven due to holy perspectives.

Count Ugolinodella was an Italian nobleman, politician as well as naval commander who was accused for treason and was condemned to hell. He was seen chewing the neck of Archbishop Ruggieri as Ruggieri locked him as well as his sons when he was alive in a tower which led to their death. The sin of treason for which Ugolinodella Gherardesca was condemned are the ones for which the Catholic Church would approve of. The offences of circle nine and eight falls under fraud which Ugolino della Gherardesca committed. The count admits to Dante of cannibalism as he states that he ate his children for his desire to survive the circumstances he was thrown in. This is why when Dante comes across Ugolino in hell, Ugolino is eating the skull of Ruggieri. Thus Count Ugolino has been portrayed throughout history as being the Cannibal Count. The crime of Ugolino made him famous in history, due to the cannibalism aspects the tribe faced darkness and horrible kind of disasters.

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