It is important to understand the role of value underperformance differentials and inter-firm competition. Value creation in relation to technology and product functionality gives an understanding of technological capabilities. Research has contributed to increasing knowledge about value creation under performance improvement. This mechanism highlights the cultural significance of the strategy to differentiate products (Tohidi, 2012). Research demonstrates wide principles regarding multiple disciplines such as cultural sociology, anthropology, technical performance, and cultural terms (Thai & Anh, 2016).

The strategy scholars highlight the meaning of the product and its relation to the differentiation source. Strategy research also identifies religious values under wide-reaching social institutes. The scope of culture and society is expanded with the expansion of sociology research (Ives & Kidwell, 2019). The social influence of religion is clear from society because it aligns and modifies social values. The current study is about investigating the role of culture/religion in influencing value. It will elaborate on literary studies with the relation of societal values and religious influence.

Literature Review

One of the possible determinants is a culture that is widely acknowledged to show decision making power. This activity demonstrates the cultural background of companies under specific motivation, attributes, and entrepreneurial orientation (Mã­guez). It is discussed in studies that people from different cultures capture different opportunities under particular tactics. Cultural differences work to shape ventures as a value creation process. The disruptive markets show a process of complete markets where some resources established businesses (Gupta, 2019). Digital disruptors in specific industries allow for improvements in products and services. Literature about entrepreneurship discusses the influence of culture on business motivation. Studies have revealed that cultural factors are important to highlight key differences in the organizational framework (Ives & Kidwell, 2019).

Culture is an influential factor because it works significantly for organizations and modifies the structure. Multiple approaches work inherently for the creation of a business environment because it is the role of culture that describes structural implementation (Tohidi, 2012). Some business models at the conceptual level illustrate the organizational background and corporate culture as they are influenced by societal values. A significant influence of religion is also seen in wide social institutes that appear through different societies and cultural spheres. The scope of culture and its relation to societal settings escribe clear evidence of the influential perspectives. The ubiquity of social influence is clear from the regional diversification.

Religion is primarily based on diverse values, beliefs, and practices that are helpful to modify the transnational movement. The research studies describe religion as a set of values that show peculiar decision making and establish a belief in culture (Gupta, 2019).

With the diverse array of structure and cultural significance, it is seen that institutionalized teaching has played a powerful role in the elaborate significance of religious systems. For some cultural practices, an embedded approach is discussed to express values and their meaningful approaches. Through various literary aspects, it is clear that religion plays a crucial role in shaping societal values so to create value. The concept of social values is related to the sustainability of society. It is all linked to the cultural understanding of future based aspects that work inherently to shift the traditional practices (BENTONVILLE, 2017). Research studies have focused on many perspectives of social and religious values that show transition when applied to society. This transition elaborates on the fundamental shift in growth centered society, where it appears important to discuss for human-based society.

If the cultural significance is focused on products, it is important to focus on the central insights of cultural anthropology—the collective understanding of the functionality of the product and its recognition of different descriptive kinds of consumer cultural beliefs. The cultural perspective is different when viewed in terms of sociologists’ perception because these scholars have related multiple theories to culture. The discussion of social value and the concept of value creation is linked to multiple business opportunities (Thai & Anh, 2016). In this way, it is crucial to highlight the required resources, expertise, and enterprise role. The enterprise’s creation is also valued significantly when it comes to discussing organizations.

The scope of entrepreneur creation is to assemble interdependent activities and create a logical sequence that develops some outcomes (Gupta, 2019). With the help of the value creation process, case-specific identity is made that works in multiple stages, for instance, when it comes to evaluating multiple business ideas that are feasible (Kang, 2019). In this regard, opportunity recognition plays a crucial role since it is linked to start a new project. The prospective entrepreneurs define the structural significance of the product and its linkage with value. The business opportunities are identified when there is a sophisticated need to work on values, either religious or societal (Ghazali et al., 2016). In successful organizations, the role of culture is rational, and value cannot be attained without culture. Value creation is attributable to employees, customers, and investors because these groups are linked inextricably.

Problem Statement

Culture works most significantly in terms of organizational structural alignment and creating value. In some instances, where it is difficult to know about value creation about social values and religious values, it is important to identify the structure of the workplace and prevailing factors that are contributing to value or outcomes (Ghazali et al., 2016). This paper discusses some significant roles of culture and religious values in creating value. Corporate culture creates value for the organization’s development. It works to produce better goals of management and improves the financial performance of the firm. The scope of religious and cultural values is extensive because it prevails in many perspectives.

Research Question and Objectives

The research question of this study is how culture/ religions play a major role in creating value?

The study is important to identify how influential culture is:

  • To prove a successful work environment, and
  • To identify the process of value creation.

Case Study and Methods

The study involves a qualitative analysis of Walmart as a retail Distribution Company to understand the components of value creation. When a company engages with fast and rapid production methods, it tends to generate value. The process of value creation is not simple because it involves key integral cultural factors that play a crucial role in determining the success ratio. In this way, the scope of the workplace, employee participation, and, most importantly, the culture of the company plays an inherent role (Thai & Anh, 2016). The value of culture and religion is significant, yet needs examples to understand. The case study selected for this paper is Walmart Retail Company. Walmart is the corporate leader in managing culture and creating value.

The role of retailor in encompassing social and environmental system is based on transparency and trust. Through the positive mechanism of the workplace, enhanced productivity, and improved collaboration of employees have shown a key contribution in value creation (BENTONVILLE, 2017). The value-maximizing strategy employed by Walmart has shared its value with society, business, and its customers. The scope of work under aspirational goals is defined through the vision and approach of the company, and this aspect is evolving continuously. The sustainability, the opportunity is inherent in the community because they have shown a clear direction for the shared value, so involved true integration (Ghazali et al., 2016).

Retail supply chains are working on intense competition lines while Walmart has used increasing economic opportunity framework to support the community. It has addressed challenges that were impeding the career advancement of its employees (Asaael, 2019). The scope of Walmart’s profit in 2017 is based on investment because of huge investment in education; training has generated higher wages, so contributed to the value creation. This structural significance of Walmart Retail strategy is key to consider the role of social values and its influence on the value creation (BENTONVILLE, 2017).

Social values also played a major role in accelerating frontline mobility of jobs beyond the company. Due to sector-wide efforts, the company has made it easy to strengthen the skills transferability in the US (Thai & Anh, 2016). Research has indicated that Walmart has invested greater than $59 million to train its employees, educate them, and build educational institutions (Gupta, 2019). Walmart has invested in American jobs and supported many small, local, and diverse businesses thus highlighted the role of value creation.

Research Findings

Walmart Retail Company has multiple ventures, and its scope of operations is large. This extensive framework is not limited to the prevailing culture but also societal values as well as innovation. Many research studies have indicated that how value creation is carried out within regional diversity. The framework of value creation under Walmart has enhanced operations sustainability as well as the significance of the value chain. The concept of corporate culture is important to understand in large organizations because they work internally and transform the structure of organizations.

Walmart’s case study has highlighted that employee commitment is a strong component that contributes to value creation. Through the concept of value creation, it is recognized that better performance can be attained by improving the culture and structure of the organization. It not only contributes to the financial gain but also engages employees in the longer term. Culture is not a single entity that works to change the existing pattern, but it depends on the continuity and existence of core values. The success of the company is attributable to the right culture and the prevalence of strong values. It is a form of glue that keeps the organizational part together and guides all the decisions. The culture contributes to value, and in a society, it declares positive power for decision-making aspects.

There is a significant contribution of employees in Walmart because improving corporate culture brings innovation. This innovation is likely to enhance productivity and fulfills the mission of the organization (Gupta, 2019). This core way starts with trust and integrity. Corporate culture in Walmart has been proved a powerful factor for the long term success of a company. The significant part of strategy making is also positively related to the culture (Asaael, 2019). Value creation is a process that undertakes a set of values to modify the overall behavior of the organization. Walmart has contributed to the sustainable value chains, so it has set goals for the sustainability index. The case study highlights that retail brand is working under leadership to get a defined direction for long term profitability. In other words, this is a positive sign to contribute to value creation. Social qualities additionally assumed a significant job in quickening cutting edge versatility of occupations past the organization. Because of area wide endeavors, the organization has made it simple to reinforce the abilities transferability and to acknowledge the key framework that attributes value creation.

Conclusion and Future Research

The research study has explored the complex impact of values, i.e., social on value creation. The study has indicated the role of social values in the context of value creation and discussed the role of contributory studies. It is safe to say that consistent trends change the dimensions of value creation. It is also important to discuss that social and political aspects work differently to understand value creation. There are different ways to discuss the concept of value creation, yet for the case study of Walmart, it is inferred that corporate culture plays an inherent role in creating values. In societal matters, value is created when relevant factors are considered. The literary studies have answered the research question of this study because values are recognized in societal norms, and social practices play a considerable role in understanding shared value. The creation of value is linked to marketing and customer satisfaction in some perspectives.

Limitations of the study exist because of its limited scope to discuss social/religious influence to create values. The business philosophy is extensive, but there is the future scope for this research because it only explains limited variables, and their context is limited.


Thai, M.T.T. & Anh, N.H., 2016. The impact of culture on the creation of enterprises. J. for International Business and Entrepreneurship Development, 9(1), p.1.

Ghazali, N., Bakar, N. & Din, N., 2016. The relationship between servicescape towards consumers’ perceptions on food truck concept. Heritage, Culture and Society, pp.203–206.

Kang, S., Leadership, organizational culture, knowledge productivity and value creation in four scuccessful Korean companies.

Asaael, M., 2019. Without Team Identification, Diversity Fails.

Gupta, N., 2019. Influence of demographic variables on synchronisation between customer satisfaction and retail banking channels for customers’ of public sector banks of India. International Journal of Electronic Banking, 1(3), p.206.

Tohidi, H., 2012. Assessing the impact of organizational learning capability on firm innovation. African Journal of Business Management, 6(12).

Ives, C.D. & Kidwell, J., 2019. Religion and social values for sustainability. Sustainability Science, 14(5), pp.1355–1362.

Mã­guez, N.S.O., The Theological Value of Social Class Analysis and Other Social Distinctions. Religion, Theology, and Class.

BENTONVILLE, W., 2017. Walmart Highlights Progress in Creating Shared Value. Available at:





In this paper, we will be exploring the evolution of language as it happens over social media specially Instagram, with a particular focus on how it develops among the youth. Language is a very valuable resource in the evolution of culture itself. Youth identity, while being performed in various ways including fashion, music, dance, etc. is very much performed through the medium of language as well. Social media is a platform through which this language is employed and developed by the people most invested in their online livesthe youth. The activities of social media are not static but mobile since users can document their movements with the help of phones and their cameras, thus bringing in the language of mobility and description of space, which gives insight into the perception of space as well. In a space where image crafting is essential, people are careful about the language they use and do not use to make sure they express their identities just right. This is also aided by the accessibility that mobile phones provide. Content Analysis is being used to draw finding regarding the youth language on Instagram platform in the UAE. hundredsInstagram comments will be analyzed in order to view the use of language by Youth while using simple random sampling technique.

1.0  Literature review:

1.1 Trait model for linguistic behavior:

In a paper,Kulkarni, & Kern(2018), developed a trait model for linguistic behavior on social media. Given the expanse of data present within social media, they decided to forgo questionnaires and directly collect this data to avoid systematic response biases. In line with trait theory, they developed what they called behavior based linguistic traits that they infer by analyzing the plethora of words and phrases used by social media users. They developed five factors that capture real personality traits and this study aimed to see if these factors are stable across time and subpopulations and generalizable with good predictive power (Kim &Phua, 2020 p.12). Their dataset was also skewed towards the youth with the average age being 25.49 years. They concluded that the factors that they established were indeed generalizable and stable. This proved to be a significant step towards research into inferring personality characteristics online (Kulkarni. 2018)Schwartz Park in an article discusses the use of social media language for automatic personality assessment. In the study they assess personality using open vocabulary analysis of language from 66,732 accounts of Facebook. As per the findings, assessment based on language can aid immensely in constituting the personality measures. It can also aid in assessing the mental/ psychological traits of associated with rich portraits.(Park, 2015)

1.2 Language identification technology:

In a study by(Shekhar, Sharma &Sufyan Beg, 2019) the researchers have tried developing a system using Artificial Intelligence to identify language used on social media. The authors focus on English and Hindi, acknowledging that the language used lately on social media is a mix of both languages, that they call Code-mixed text. Online Hindi is written using the English alphabet and often English and Hindi are mixed together in the same sentence. Since there are no established spelling rules for Hindi when it is written in English script, given that people write them as they are pronounced and some pronounce them differently than others, this process is tricky because words become difficult to identify(Shashi, 2019 p.2).

Souvick Ghosh in an article discusses Sentiment analysis is the (NLP) task managing discovery and order of in text sentiments. While a few assignments manage distinguishing the element of in text sentiments, others target to decide the extremity of the text classifying it as neutral positive, and negative. Sentiment analysis tasks intends to decide the subjects, the objectives and the extremity or valence of the conclusion. In their work, they attempt to naturally extricate feelings (positive or negative) from Facebook posts utilizing a machine learning approach (Ghosh, 2017).  In another study, Instagram influence about brands and campaigns was targeted and influence of advertisement was estimated (Kim &Phua, 2020, p. 12).

1.3 Emojis and their role in relaying emotions:

In “Psyco-emotional Impact of Social Media Emoji’s (Zareen, N., Kareem, N., Khan, U., 2016)the researchers carried out a questionnaire regarding the psychological importance of emoji’s. Ninety-seven people from different workplaces and educational institutions in Rawalpindi and Islamabad in Pakistan filled out the questionnaire. An almost equal number of males and an equal number of females took part in the survey. The results showed that ninety percent of the participants considered messages containing emoji’s more meaningful than ones that did not contain emojis. 42% considered emoji’s a strong indicator of emotional expression. They concluded that, given their importance, the use of emojis can cause stress and psychological trauma (p.7).  They also noted that there was a difference in response rate across age groups and gender regarding the emotional impact of emojis and their effectiveness in emotional expression(Zareen, 2016).

Socialmedia needs a marketingrhetoric that grasps rising language use and the growing communicationnorms(Bookman & Hall, 2019 p.4). The Emoji’shave become major components of communication on socialmedia; yet, their job in supporting attempts of persuasion have not been analyzed efficiently. Based on general rhetoric, this study dismembers, depicts and names influencers on socialmediato initiateengagementthrough emoji’s whereposts from 600 Weibomade by 200 influencers were gathered to build up a scientific classification of emoticons.(Ge, 2018).

1.4 Linguistic diversity and determining authenticity:

Sender Dovchin explores the linguistic diversity in the linguistic practices online of Mongolian students in university.  He takes into account the socio-cultural, historical and ideological meanings behind the use of language in interactions online as well. The paper explores two main questions. One looks into the extent of these Mongolian students integrating varied lingua-cultural resources in their social media interactions (p.24). The second question explores the meaning of linguistic authenticity as perceived by these young people. He drew on sets of data taken from Facebook. His findings provide understanding into the co-existence of numerous authenticities within the increasingly globalized social sphere(Dovchin, 2015).Bookman & Hall (2019) in a study explained the impact of Instagram that has highlighted significance of brand under youth and involvement in gaining knowledge.  Ingrid Piller, in an article discusses the element of social inclusion in neoliberal markets. The agenda of social inclusion has been widely adopted and the policies of social inclusion are blinded bythe ways in whichmediation of social inclusion is made via language ideologies in societies that are linguistically diverse. As per the findings, it has a major impact on the policies of the social medium being chosen. (Piller, 2011)

1.5 Identifying regional dialects:

Jacob Eisenstein, in Identifying regional dialects in online social media (2014), looks at how social media language is influenced by region. The study explores how geography might impact social media language and how it is related to the spoken language of the geographical location and the long-term implications of this variation. His dataset consisted of Tweets containing GPS metadata from the United States of America, taking into account demographic variance. His research showed how language trends in social media change over time and how they vary regionally. He looked at various abbreviations that are used online and how their usage varies across different areas. His study also shed light on how certain dialects have begun to spread beyond their original region of use because of how people from different people, used to different modes of communication start coming into contact with them online. These trends are explored over the years (Eisenstein, 2014 p.8).

YuanHuang in an article discusses the US regional linguistic variation in twitter alongside the analysis of data. It understands the US regional linguistic variation by data analysis. The tagged tweets were analyzed to understand, what are the variations in the language used across the US and as per the regionalization results linguistic variations were found in in the U.S. The discovered regions not only confirm past research findings in the literature but also provide new insights and a more detailed understanding of very recent linguistic patterns in the U.S.(Huang, 2016).

1.6 Social Media and Drama:

Kathleen P. Allen conducted a case study about Tweeting, Texting (2014) into the drama that can take place on social media.  Her case study focused on a mother and herteenage upper middle-class daughter who was at the center of the drama. Her study attempts to confirm if the kind of drama that takes place on social media conforms to the already existing definition of drama. This is confirmed in the case study. Furthermore, her work develops emerging themes and fill gaps within the current understanding of drama and its literature(Allen, 2014, p.2).

(O’Meara) 2019,highlighted the inclusion of dramatic conversation in order to make the conversation effective. The population was secondary school students of Australia. The technique used was regarding the development of digital pretext for the project. The approach generate the examination of the student’s in order to discover the understanding of mistaken identities. The twelfth night from Shakespeare was performed in the classes.

1.7 Language practices based on platforms:

Every social platform has a different way of communication, and that leads to having a different style of language(Soukup, 2000, p.410). For example, Tweeter has allowed users to create status and tweets that include a maximum of 140 characters, so the public does not have a massive space to express or to convey what they want to say clearly. Otherwise, Facebook, which permits people to uses approximately 60,000 characters that mean Facebook’s statuses exceed twitter over 430 times the amount of content.  However, Twitter’s audience more likely to use the shortened style of language to fit their social platform requirement. Compared to Facebook, which does not border its characters as it is difficult to reach up to number 60,000. Most often, users on Facebook do not shorten their expression and words as much as Twitter’s users do(Aeid, 2015).

Alexandra Georgakopoulou, in an article discusses YouTube being a major source of using internet and leading as the top video sharing website, where people from around the world share their video content and over the years, it has evolved as a major source and medium of information sharing. The title and description of the videos alongside thee hashtags are relevant in helping spread the website and content. Using the right words leads to be in the top searches. (Georgakopoulou, 2015)

1.8 Generational gap in communication:

A study conducted by the BBC regarding social media contribution in reducing the level of Arabic language between youth. They say that most of young create a circle linguistic consider as a boundary which does not allow other generations to understand what they mean. Probably, this case is spread between university students that creates thousands of words which only being understandable with them. Furthermore, this study illustrated main reason of why youth abandon their mother language. Some writers and thinkers use a contemporary language, but it is full of ambiguity or vocabulary that is difficult to understand its context at times. At the same time, it brings a book to the difficulty of the task for young people through the use of old and challenging vocabulary and structures that may contribute to alienating youth from classical, and choosing to refrain from reading(Khateeb, 2019).

In the United Arab Emirates, many youth groups see that this contemporary youthful language call “Arabizi”, which mean the mixture between Arabic and English, became a necessity imposed by the dimensions of technology. Moreover, its effects multiplied with the identity crisis in our Arabic societies, making us between a crossroads(Mousa, 2012).

2.0 Theoretical Framework

New Media theory refers to the conceptualization and understanding of digital culture and mediums that are computational in nature. From search engines to video & picture sharing websites, the new media theory helps understand the content and what each image, sign, symbol etc. mean. (Kim &Phua, 2020, p. 15).

The Emoji’s. Comments, tone of the comments, hence each and every element in the study is linked with this theory.

Through the lens of new media theory a content analysis of the posts made by a set of people who use Instagram in the UAE will be analyzed in this study.The new media has introduced the participatory culture where users become a part of the story and directly comment.  Each Post creates its own mythology and shapes the mind of the viewer(O’Meara, 2019, p. 21). Like said, social media Emoji’s have psychological impact on the viewer. One major question that this research plans to address is how much of a role do theseusers deliberately let language play in the crafting of their online personas and theaesthetics of their Instagram profiles.

New media theory will aid in analyzing that how they use certain phrases, abbreviations,etc. to come off a certain way and maintain consistency with a certain aesthetic? This theory describes about digital technologies and sophisticated configuration regarding digital culture. New media is about digital platform that contains information and the theory is organized on socio-political principles (Jeknic, 2014, p.180). Further, how do they feel the language is a significant contributor to maintaining and enhancing their chosen aesthetic? New media theory will also aid in that this research aims to look at the relation between the Instagramusers’ online personas and their real lives and, most importantly, the relationship betweenthe language they use online and the language they use offline. It will aim to establishwhether the online images and impressions are crafted to provide users with an alter egoof themselves – to escape their real lives in a way – or whether it serves to enhance andfacilitate their present selves (Soukup, 2000, p 410).

3.0 Research Questions and Research Methodology:

This research aims to look at what young people in the age (18-25) who use Instagram think of the kind of language they use online for their posts. Instagram accounts usually are deliberately crafted around certain themes or aesthetics. Following are the research questions this study aims to address:

  1. What are the common languages used by youth on Instagram in UAE?
  2. How Instagram raises linguistic trend among youth language in UAE?
  3. How emojis contribute to the meaning message by youth language on Instagram?

The methodology of this research will involve content analysis of the posts made by a set of people who use Instagram in the UAE. The content on their Instagram profiles will be analyzed and they will be categorized into Personas. The frequency of certain words and phrases will be recorded. New Media Theory will be applied as well to see how many different mediums are being used by the participants and how their outreach is affected by new mediums and where the things influencing them come from and how.

The participants will be grouped into Personas and then into the broader communities. Their interactions with different communities and people with different personas will be analyzed to answers.

4.0 Content Analysis:

4.1 Case Background

The case is featuring the comments of the students of University of Sharjah and Higher College technology official Instagram account. There are hundreds of comments regarding distance learning because of coronavirus issue was evaluated on the basis of which the results were drawn. Simple random sampling technique was used in order to conduct the study and on the basis of its findings with regard to the research questions a conclusion will be addressed.

The profiles of the youth will be chosen what are the common language is used by youth on Instagram in UAE. How are they using languages like Arabic, English, Arabize.  In order to figure it out hundredInstagram accounts will be evaluated with the text written and we’ll conclude our result based on these accounts and the comments sample. We studied the different comments, almost every student was worried about the distant learning strategy. Students who are not friendly with the technology were confused of online classes and exams because they prefer to attend classes in person. We experienced different emotions in comments by the students, they seemed to be furious against the decision of this distant learning and online exams. In this pandemic, where people are already psychological disturbed, students are more concerned about their studying techniques and they didn’t find themselves ready to accept this distant learning idea.  We will evaluate the comments posted on these specific posts & the responses gathered in terms of their post likes.

 4.2 sampling

We chose the qualitative content analysis in our study to analyze the youth language on social media. Besides, official Instagram accounts of Higher Colleges of Technology and the University of Sharjah in terms of the new decisions and regulations regarding distance learning and the new grading system. The number of student’s comments on these posts in both universities has increased. However, it was easy to collect a diversity of student’s impressions and assess their uses language on social media.

According to the official Instagram account of Higher Colleges of Technology. Occasionally, they are uploading posts concerning new politics and regulations, which consider as controversial news between college students. In light of the Coronavirus crisis, HCT established new decisions that led to attracting a considerable number of student’s participation. Besides the comments, we will observe the diversity of feedbacks and opinions between agreeing and disagree, and each student has an individual style of linguistic replying to that post. Nevertheless, we have chosen the post that uploaded on the 7th of April 2020 via the HCT account as it gains approximately 717 comments.

On the other hand, UOS has announced the continuous of using its distance learning technology on its official Instagram account on the 30th of March 2020 because of spreading Coronavirus. However, more than 100 students put comments and opinions regards this new decision whether to accept or reject. Usually, university students have using many linguistic styles to express their views.

4.3 Coding

Four main linguistic styles show similar in both accounts, which means the linguistic style of HCT students is identical to UOS students. Usually, the students whether in HCT or UOS, are using professional Arabic, UAE local linguistic, English, and Emojis linguistic. Besides the new decisions issued in both universities regarding continuous distance learning technology and the new grading system. There are a lot of complaints that came from students of these universities, so it was easy to observe their linguistic culture.

4.3.1 Emojis and symbols:

In this case of the university, students have shown their interaction and involvement by using emojis. We observed the repetitive of using similar emojis when they want to express their emotions. Using a happy face, clapping hands, Dancing, and hearts Emojis, all of them consider as an indication of approval. On the other hand, the crying, and angry emojis reflects that students disagree and did not accept the new regulations and decisions. Comparing between HCT and UOS Instagram accounts, we noted that there is a similarity of using Emojis types.

For example, every post, especially that regards to new decisions and regulations; we observe that students depend on similar Emojis. Sometimes they do a combination between comments and symbols, as they consider the Emojis as support to their opinions and expressions. However, the study selected two subjects, one from UOS and the other from HCT, both of them are talking about social learning distance and new grading system policies. We found that students used repetitive Emojis in both universities, such as hearts, happy faces, and clumping for accepting the new regulations and policies. Otherwise, some students in the same posts show the rejection and unaccepted that decisions, so they left the most common Emojis like breaking hearts, angry face, and crying emoji.

Figure 1 and 2 will clarify how the students using the Emojis to express their acceptance between two universities. Also, it shows the similarity of Emojis that have used by students:



Figure2: represents UOS
Figure1: HCT



The current research study shows the involvement of students with the decisions of university authority. According to the objective of this study, comments and emojis are important to understand the nature of decision and response. Comments discuss the common language used by students on Instagram and prevailing trends.Some students show liking and some disliking, based on the fact that coronavirus needs to adopt distance learning approach, it was not appreciated by many. Each social platform specially Instagram uses its own kind of language and emojis as sufficient communication. The study has identified regional dialects that are popular on Instagram because every region is common to use prevalent language with minimal variations.In comments, students’ best explain the expression they can.For example, students commented, ‘how classes can be stopped’, or ‘online learning is no easier’ etc. besides, this part will introduce the comments that have used via students in the posts that shared by UOS and HCT regards the news politics and decisions

  • Complaints and Criticisms

Many students see Instagram as a way of sending complaints, suggestions, and public discussions.  For instance, both universities have students do not communicate with management directly; they are sharing their problems on Instagram and publicly. Although the management of both universities replies to their complaints, still they insisting on creating controversially. For example, some comments were about the new policies of the final exam it shows the students are afraid. The common comment was, ” how will we deal with the online final exam?”. However, both of these universities students show the same expressions about the new policies.











  • Mockery and Irony

The purpose of irony in literature is to stop the audience and let them think about what they are doing. In this way, a criticism mockery is developed to achieve the objective. The objective of study is to find out the impact of youth language through Instagram while social media is a common way to estimate the way by which students behave. It is common among youth and students have shown their decisions in this way. For example, the comments included spoof words regards social distance learning and about their student’s life, and they are missing the parking traffic and university’s crowded.It is a common part of new media that aims at opinion meaning or shows sentiments.On the other hand, there are some students lifting comedian and irony comments on both universities’ decisions. Also, some students thanks to Corona Virus, because it let the universities to cancel the classes and attendance.

Figure5: represents comedian comments


  • Students discussions:

Also, Instagram allows the interaction of individuals through sharing, sending, posting, and uploading statuses. Students of these universities like and enjoy social media because of its trend in UAE. The common posts used for this paper are two posts from official Instagram accounts of Higher Colleges of Technology (HCT) and the University of Sharjah (UOS). Students commented on these posts and reflected their expressions.

For example, students in both universities, reply to each other under the posts regarding the new decisions. Although the universities were clarifying in-depth the details about the new regulations, some students still depend on their colleagues for discussions and questions. Another example, some students put predictable news and analysis the new decisions as they like, such as “they say that everybody will pass this course” or “the final exam will be difficult.” Sometimes the replies on one student’s comments reach to approximately 30.


Figure6: represents discussion comments on student’s reply

4.3.3 languages:

Also, there are a group of students left comments that clarify the reasons for acceptance or rejection of the new decisions. Besides the feedback, we noticed that UOS and HCT students using English, original Arabic, and UAE local linguistic to reply to the posts.for example, it is found out that language practice differs in Arab, Emirati, and international students, specifically at the University of Sharjah. The inference is drawn from the experiment to discuss an element of diversity due to multiple nationalities in this sample. The findings suggest that specialization has a significant role in determining language, such as Arab specializations that have shown students who were inclined to the Arabic writers.

The English language is found as a primary mode of communication because international students with majors preferred the English language. In Higher College of Technology, Emirati language is preferred by Emirati nationality holders, while the English language is also preferred because it is a primary language by college teachers.  There are three main linguistics elements that used by both university students which consists of:


  • UAE local Dialect:

We observed that local students preferred using the local language to express their opinions and feelings according to the new decisions and regulations that changed based on the Covid-19 crisis. There are a lot of comments that lifted by Emirates students, whether complaints or suggestions. Comparing UOS and HCT, we saw that HCT has students using the local language as all of them are citizens. on the other hand, UOS has a mixture of nationalities which shows some different local languages Egyptian.

Figure8: represents HCT language
Figure7: represents HCT language



  • Original Arabic Dialect:

Both universities have students who are depending on original Arabic for many reasons. When they communicate or sending questions to the university, they are using the Arabic language because it will become official participation. Another example, UOS consider as an umbrella of civilizations, so they using Arabic as an understandable way of communicating. Besides new decisions, many students lift a significant Arabic sentence to express if they accept or reject it. most probably they are writing and show more when they disagree as it considers the best method to suggest or sending opinions.

Figure9: represents original Arabic language




  • English Language

The English Language considers as the second primary language in UAE and, it is an essential language in most of the universities. According to UOS and HCT, when they posted about new rules and policies. Some students participated in English, especially foreigners. Both universities are teaching English, so usually, their students will depend on the English language, whether in classes or on social media. Moreover, there are many UAE citizens, and from the Arab region who is witting an English. Also, they are using this language to communicate with their universities or friends.

Figure10 & 11: represents English language by HCT students




5.0 Discussion and Conclusion

The issue of distance learning due to Covid-19 is discussed in this paper, under hundreds of comments by students of official Instagram accounts of the University of Sharjah and Higher College Technology. A random sampling technique is used to know results. After studying different comments, the use of emojis, and texts were written by students, and perception is examined. The content analysis provided a grading system, diversity of feedback, and their opinion about agree and disagree. This structure is analyzed under the linguistic style because it was most familiar with students to show their expression.

Research findings are drawn on theoretical framework under significant terms. Trait model for linguistic behavior analyzes the plethora of words and phrases used by social media. The Language identification technology like Artificial Intelligence Code-mixed text are important to understand the comments. In addition, emojis put psyco-emotional impact on behavior and expression. Emoji is also used frequently because it takes less time and effort to show the likeness. Linguistic diversity represents ideological meanings. It is clear from the study that diversity of language is common among students. The regionalization results linguistic variations such as different dialects.

The current research study discussed the impact of youth language on Instagram with specific reference to the UAE. Common words, phrases, emojis and symbols are popular with youth on social media. Through emojis, a higher proportion of the student’s reflected that they agree and disagree. Research has used different languages common with youth that they frequently used on Instagram.New media theory has added in this research by looking at the relation between the Instagram users’ online personas and their real lives and, most importantly, the relationship between the language they use online and the language they use offline.In UAE, different youth groups are engaged in youthful language, English, Arabic, and Arabize, a mixture of both English and Arabic. Research study has answered the research questions that English, Arabic and using emojis are the common languages used by youth in UAE for Instagram.Arabize is a combination of two languages, and none of such language was acquired that represent dual characters, so it is preferable to say it is an ancient language.

Also, the paper answered how emojis contribute to the delivery of the messageand youth using it. The situation presents that young people need a quick solution, so they preferred quick response through a short emoji expression. Current study has added value to existing literature by focusing on the linguistic behaviors and structural significance through prevailing social media methods.Instagram also raises the linguistic trend on them by using special comments, discussing the case and posts between each other, and taking answers by comments and replying.Content analysis has illustrated the scope of language and students’ perception due to social media and how effectively they describe.

6.0 Bibliography


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Sociolinguisticconsiderations discuss the different attitude of language between nations. Different countries thrive with different languages for example, Spanish and Hispanics differ on the basis of positive attitude to own languages. Hispanics prefer Spanish than Englishwhile Spanish feel that for advertising, English language is the bestone. Language matters most in communication and helps buyer to make decisions(Chung Han & Soo Ahn, 2013). The language of communication in advertisement is important to know consumer decision. Global brands use English language without any hesitation because English can better provoke customers to purchase and it is the most used language over globe. This research paper will discuss the role and impact of language on advertisement.

Impact of Language

As humankind makes development and progression, the conversational competency flourishes, and its roots are going more extensive. When we have a command of the language we can convey our thoughts to others, and push our ideas to outsiders, or can change its content, and can convey a message through communications, these skills impact marketing to attract the customers, influence the faith to purchase the products of related brands.

Placing and positioning of the product is the only purpose behind the numerous campaigns of the world. It can create tremendous forces on the retailer series, which is establishing around the globe. For advertisement and marketing, the graphics, content, verbal and descriptive conversation are necessary to build a report and provide guidance to consume the product, and resources proposed by the brand who invests his money to persuade the consumers(Dobson &Poels, 2020).

Language is an essential conversational means that help humans in the way of interaction. Language helps to create certainty and afterward systemizes it. The language supports invisible things and displays the presence. It also portrays the knowledge of someone. The language emphasizes experience, and experience relies on incidents, manners, targets, thoughts, character, nature, status, and cultural relationship(Chung Han & Soo Ahn, 2013). Language is not a symbolic system that creates a human culture that might be in written or oral communication. It also discusses social aspects based on cultural values, for example, garments, foods, customs, and traditions to form a society.

The discussion that is made on electronic media also represents language appearance. This discussion follows the powerful and intense conversational methods to protect the human culture and their defensive existence(hooft, Meurs&Schellekens, 2020). It also practiced giving information to others, providing truth, analyzing the behavior and opinion of others. The language also draws a craft on assets, advantages, and explains the flavor of an object. It also presents a view of experiences. Thus, the language follows its circumstances(Bishop &Lambie, 2007). The language affected social, educational, cultural values. Although social values and linguistic values are the same in society. An established society occupies developed linguistic values. Language is a powerful tool to express his ideas and emotions to others, and also a self-reflecting agent. It has a variety of uses, like writing, talking. The language also assists in developing cultural values. It plays a vital role in current cultural values in other communities. It also provides an identity to its speaker(Rinard, 2008).

In terms of broadcasting, language plays a vital role. It considers an essential tool for advertisement. The language also used in an advertisement for the transaction language that encourages the communication level. It also discusses the interaction of thoughts, that preferred the addressed and addressee relationship. The writer wants to describe the impact of language on electronic media, and measure the effect of scholar, audience, and listeners. It plays a dominant role and is sharper than a knife. When a person uses any ethical language through action, it is difficult to determine(Woloshin, 2009). Communication is also a graphical sound character. This act pushes a person to collapse and then towards the suicides. Language is a mysterious strength that is known as conversation. The language leads the world to supreme power, and we can measure its power by advertisement, who is competent to influence the people.

Concept of meaning 

The language signifies the confusing term. It is also applicable to evaluations, diagnosis, exposure, and presentation methods. Human behavior and action also affected language subjects and intersubjective. To recognize the human activities, we should know basic motives, by placing himself at the position of the speaker(Bishop &Lambie, 2007). When the pronunciation purpose required, the essays and reviews need to pay consideration to follow the covered meaning of discourse. When a person listens to something, the audience listens and understands it and answers according to it. The conversational sense describes the discourse context should be shorter and easy to understand and must be creating a relationship between the body and object, and referent to understand.

The word ‘house’ provides a sense of appearance; House is a combination of door, roof, window, and some other objects that all form residence for a person. There is a deep relationship between expression and referent, which also produces its further meaning and recommendations. This meaning and evidence of house, focus on the effect that creates a relation on its formation and nonlinguistic experience that are serving as nature. There are different meanings, and opinions are available to find out the correct definition, it follows three concepts of applications: 1) referential purpose, it shows the symbolic and referential relationship. 2) Meaning: It shows the meaning of a symbol, and the term will provide a sense if they are associated with another, time which is called ‘legally.’ 3) Intention: It wholly depends on the speaker’s wording or meaning of conversation that is being performed on symbols(Alonso García, Chelminski& González Hernández, 2013).


Media holds an essential position in the world. Media has become a platform for many different ideological representations. Media can develop into a tool to create traditional and prevailing ideology for the interest of the leading class, at the same time it can develop into the instrument of struggle for the oppressed group of the society to create ideology and cultural competition, as media is described as the battlefield for the competing ideologies(Alonso García, Chelminski& González Hernández, 2013). As a source of communication in presenting news, analysis, or common view about anything, media has a significant part as an institution that develops public opinion as media can also shape into the imagery or pressure group that is placed into the life perspective more analytically. Media can present positive or negative influences. Certainly, this standardizing character is very relative, relies upon the provided interest dimension. People can learn to be familiarized with their atmosphere with the help of the media. Media has to turn out to be an instrument to deliver a message to the general public.

When mass media has used a language, then, in fact, their responsibility has increased toward the influence propagation, certain stereotype, and prejudice. Thus, the selection of words that are used by the journalists or creators of advertisements has to be significant because it can influence the choice of people in enhancing their knowledge.

In human culture, language is a global symbol system. Language meaning is not only limited to oral language, written language, but it also includes all social trends of extensive culture in society, for example, clothes, rituals, food menu, and others. In such a case, advertisement communication in all media forms is also taken as one of the phenomena of language. In the start, the system of language is an instrument of communication, to create combined social understanding in the general public. Language is not limited to its meaning of representing cultural realities, but having the power to develop or to build cultural realities(Bishop &Lambie, 2007). According to a study that there are fewer people who think that language has a major impact on their point of view or observation about something. In language development, it is not the only source of communication or code system against the norms that reflect the monolithic meaning of reality. Generally, language is continuously developed in a certain social system.

As the demonstration of different social connections, language always develops strategies, subjects, and different communication themes. Language is the visual mode in the shape of a symbol, or visual picture has the influence to develop a different ideology that will also change and outline our awareness and subjectivity. Sign language can also be as effective as oral language or written language. Language has a part to reflect the true nature of the use of significance of the advertisements to service or product goods that are advertised. Language is also used as a medium to advertise capitalistic commercialism beliefs to the community. The language power that has carried the colonization of human civilizing symbolic in the advertisement, in fact, is one evidence that the hostility of language show one influence that can poison the civilization’s existence today and in the future. As a study told that though the utilization of words can be mistreated and the struggle for respect may sometimes be observed helpless, we should never back-down the right to use them only in the truth service. One should aim to mean what they talk and talk about what they mean. The truth is that advertisements are used to persuade to purchase. But it is important to understand that in advising people to purchase a product, it needs to select the delivery well.

There are two important terms, high customer involvement, and low customer involvement. The first reflects the products that normally are higher in price and are bought comparatively barely; the second reflects the products that are lower in price and are purchased more often. Scholars gave a further detailed classification, that is, convenience products, shopping products, and specialty products. The former is the same as low customer involvement, whereas higher customer involvement goods are further divided into shopping products and specialty products. Specialty products are enormously more costly than shopping products such as marriage dresses(hooft, Meurs&Schellekens, 2020). The analysis of data in this study consists of all three kinds of products. Third, concerning techniques, there is a difference between tickle advertising and reason advertising. Reason advertising is simple and direct, whereas tickle advertising is in direct and needs viewers to exercise more efforts to understand them. And last, in view of the consumer-ship, advertisements may be classified by customers’ socio-economic class, lifestyle, age, gender, etc.


Bilingual advertising is important to know because it is increasingly used in communication. In US, advertisers are using many kinds of communication methods for advertisement. Ads with English and Spanish language are getting more recognition. Words, phrases and meaning in a language are linked to the socio-cultural values of a nation. Different languages work differently with advertisement and make consumers’ mind to buy. Impact of language on advertisement cannot be ignored.





Alonso García, N., Chelminski, P., & González Hernández, E. (2013). The Effects of Language on Attitudes Toward Advertisements and Brands Trust in Mexico. Journal Of Current Issues & Research In Advertising34(1), 77-92. doi: 10.1080/10641734.2013.754711

Chung Han, M., & Soo Ahn, B. (2013). A Study on the Effects of Motivations on Attitudes toward Advertisements : A Focus on Sina Weibo. The E-Business Studies14(3), 155-174. doi: 10.15719/geba.14.3.201308.155

Dobson, D., &Poels, K. (2020). Combined framing effects on attitudes and behavioral intentions toward mortgage advertisements. International Journal Of Bank Marketingahead-of-print(ahead-of-print). doi: 10.1108/ijbm-07-2019-0277

hooft, A., &Meurs, F. (2017). The same or different? Spanish-speaking consumers’ response to the use of English or Spanish in product advertisements. Conference Paper ·6(2), 1-8.

Luján-García, C. (2011). ‘English invasion’ in Spain: an analysis of toys leaflets addressed to young children. English Today27(1), 3-9. doi: 10.1017/s026607841100006x

Woloshin, S. (2009). Does Direct-to-Consumer Prescription Drug Advertising Do More Harm Than Good?. Annals Of Internal Medicine151(11), 824. doi: 10.7326/0003-4819-151-11-200912010-00021




Executive Summary

In this paper, we will be looking at the history of democracy and its emergence in the Victorian era of Britain. The paper aims to analyze the all-time famous conception that religion is the enemy of freedom. We make use of multiple secondary sources and one primary source to reach our conclusion. Our research mostly negates the famous statement, and instead, the main driver of the transitioning process seems to be the economic change that happened in Britain after the industrial revolution. The new working classes wanted autonomy, political power, and civil rights, and this is what drove to the transition and automatically decreased the influence of the Church.


The Victorian age or era in Britain is defined to be the period of the rule of Queen Victoria, which ended till 1901. During this, a lot of political and social change came to Britain. In the early 1800s, Britain was still ruled by the higher upper class. Later on, however, Britain transitioned into democracy. In this paper, we will look at how that transition took place, and the role religion played in it. We will do a comparative analysis through some primary sources to make our conclusions aided by secondary sources as well. It is widely understood that religion has been an obstacle in the path of democracy. The objective of this paper is to analyze how much truth that statement holds by looking at the transition of Great Britain into Democracy while previously being highly influenced by order of the Church.

Impact of Working Classes

Victorian Britain had always been conservative when it came to politics. Unlike its neighbors, such as France, the upper and middle class in Britain despised the idea of a violent revolution. They believed in bringing about political reforms without a revolution. Until 1832 the first political reform passed. Before that, in what is also called the Georgian period, majority men and women had no voting rights except only a handful of the upper class could vote that too in a disproportionately represented parliament, which relied on violence and bribery. Even after the first reform act got passed, women were not allowed to vote until much later. Despite people not having voting rights, the public has strong political opinions, which they expressed through different mediums such as the print. Political figures often got ridiculed and joked upon in newspapers, and books et cetera (White, 2009)[1].

Similarly, violent riots were also a prominent example of strong political sentiments by the locals. White (2009)[2] also narrates an incident as proof to the above statement: “In 1780, after the government had passed legislation giving more political rights to Catholics, thousands of people rioted for a week in London in protest.” That led bloodbaths in which many Catholics got killed and the army had to restore order. This example shows the general public was not happy with the religious institutions dominating them, and this sentiment further played an essential role in the transition to democracy in Britain. Despite these riots here and there, the country still never succumbed to a long-lasting rebellion which would result in a revolution(White, 2009)[3].

In another important secondary source Trygve R. Tholfsen (1961)[4]The author has described the transition to democracy in Britain. According to the author, the need for reform in Britain was very crucial in the 1800s as riots had started in the 1830s and 1840s. There was a lot of class conflict, as well. This need was felt explicitly in England, which was predominantly undemocratic. Unlike White (2009)[5] above, Tholfsen (1961)[6] Writes that it is a misconception that the transition to democracy happened in a continuous flow. Instead, the process that followed the development was a lot more “complex.” The main issue was the working class ever since the industrial revolution had started. They had worked towards agreeing with their social and political statuses. For the most part, this implied that the working class had accepted being ruled by the middle class as a way of cooperation, which allowed them to progress in their current status and power. These political formations of class relations initiated the transitioning to democracy.

According to Tholfsen (1961)[7]There were three distinctive ways in which the transition to democracy got influenced. Firstly, the relations building between the working class and the middle class also obliterated some barriers in the path. Secondly, there was unease and agitation for parliamentary reforms in the locals. And thirdly, the increasingly changing attitudes of the local people triggered the process of democracy as well. As industrial towns established in Britain, more and more people started embracing liberalism and accepting the rule of the middle class. Up till now, only the higher upper level had ruled. However, all this didn’t just happen automatically. The changes in cultural patterns for the working class played a vital role in the transition (Tholfsen, 1961)[8].

Analysis of the Primary Source

There are conflicting ideas and perspectives when one looks at the primary literature present concerning religion and the spread of democracy. One such primary source is the sermon given by Charles Latimer Marson back in 1890 on Church and Democracy; it is now saved as a piece of text. In this text, Marson (1890)[9]  It gives off the idea that Christianity and the code of the Church itself are very “democratic” of the sort that people expect from the notion of democracy. He says that the literal definition of democracy given by Pluto is a phenomenon that no one wants. He says that democracy implies “negation of law” in all its sense, and there is no rule that people abide by. That basically, democracy means anarchy. He says that the modern democratic mindset does not wish for that. If democracy were to be implemented in its purest form, everyone and anyone would be allowed to rule and do as they wish. Parliaments would have no order and would be dominated by the “idlest, noisiest, and rowdiest,” which is why Marson endorses that the Church believes in the application of laws despite being criticized by modern democratic.

He says that the goal civic political reforms want to achieve in the name of democracy are essentially two. Firstly, the government should work for the general good of the masses and secondly, the ones governing should be chosen (or elected) by the ones who will be governed. He says that looking at recent history it has been made clear that those in power are never concerned for the common good of other but rather their own selfish desires. Any form of rule, inevitably, becomes tyranny, and this is why the Church stands against “autocracy, and oligarchy,” as it believes that it will be the ultimate result of democracy as well (Marson, 1890)[10].

Marson (1890)[11] talks about how peace and unity are also challenged and taking the turn for the worst with this shift in the social paradigm. Everyone is concerned about themselves only, and each acts its own master. “there is no friendship between the executive and the man in the street,” and all issues are left for the police to resolve. Police are now considered to be protectors of property instead of God or the “king of glory.”  Marson makes an important point here, stating that the religion of Christianity itself is a religion of peace and unity. It promotes friendship amongst all classes and gives people good sense so that they can follow the “Divine plan as laid down by our Lord His Church.” Necessarily implying that the need for democracy is redundant as all are servants of God even if they govern, and they are chosen by Him as well. According to him, this satisfies the second condition for the goal of democracy that a new democratic want. Everybody is governed by God and his principles, which will not be eradicated from any aspect of human life.

Marson (1890)[12] says that the early Church in itself was very democratic in nature and working. He mentions that in the early Church, the bishop who was chosen to lead was no extraordinary individual in the sense of status and class. He was nobody famous or noble. Instead, he used to be from amongst the common folk who did manual labour. And he was not given his position by way of bribe and was instead elected by the entire body of the Church, which comprised of abiding “baptized” Christians. Even a layperson could lead if no one from the clergy seemed fit. The man chosen would be someone who was known to be sinless and a good man who was accepted by everyone unanimously whereas in the democratic procedure no such guarantee could be given. However, the author also admits the present Church and bishops of that time were no good and had destroyed that original image and purpose of the Church. From the analysis of the above primary source, we can grasp the idea that religion was still here to stay for many, even if the change was expected.

More on the Relationship Between Religion and Democracy 

In another secondary source which is an article by Pierpaolo Donati (2002)[13] We get to see further the relationship between religion and democracy and why the two did not go hand in hand. Even though history offers us many examples of democracies around the world till our present day, and there have been many governments which have claimed to be a “religious democracy” where the religion was any such as Islam or Christianity, it has also given us enough evidence that despite the simple term, religion and democracy have always been at odds with each other. The truth is that democracy is a type of governance that separates itself from religious principles. Hence, the conflict between them is inevitable since religion itself claims to play the role of defining social institutions and boundaries. The author further tries to answer the question, which asks whether religion is an obstacle to democracy or a prerequisite. There have been many democracies that were influenced by religions, but it depends on the nature of the religion how it would affect the success of democracy. The author cites Collins (1992)[14] who claims through his research that it is wrong to say that democracy came about in Europe as a result of opposition to religion and was instead, profoundly impacted by Christian notions. This also further confirms what Marson (1890)[15] talked about in his sermon in the primary source discussed above. Moreover, if anything, religion prompted the emergence of democracy. The civil society in the West was already by defined the Church very profoundly, and so religion had the power to influence the political system via the public.

Religion is believed to have a positive influence on democracy in the sense of making it more moral and humanitarian, but lately, this role of religion has ceased. Modern democracy also considers a lot of religious content to be dogmatic and hence, unfit to have any relation with it. Donati (2002)[16] says democracy is understood by many to be an escape from religion. These are very conflicting perspectives and seems difficult to reach to any one conclusion. The main difference between the two is the idea of rationality. While religion dictates that one has faith, which is not rational, and follows a certain set of values and ethics, while democracy endorses individuality, rationality, and neutrality in decision making. It negates the idea of relying on a given set of instructions to make the right decision. Both, however, want to be a system of good.

The economic and political entities in the new industrial Europe were the prominent source for the divide between church and the state (Donati, 2002)[17]. They triggered the transitioning to democracy as the modern economy, which is highly capitalist, requires individualistic freedom to make choices that were hindered by religion. So, this is one point that seems to be the most important up till now in the transition to democracy. It also relates to the paper by Tholfsen (1961)[18] discussed above, which also emphasized that working classes stimulated the transitioning process. Slowly but gradually, religion has become more of a private matter rather than a public one in Western societies. That implies that it no longer plays any significant role in the public sphere. Since democracy is also not equipped to pick any one religion that would be favorable to it, it rejects all of them by not choosing at all. Hence, it depends on the society to be civil on its own, and the “public” factor is slowly becoming obsolete. This is because a democratic government ensures that one can make individual decisions which do not concern with the good or bad of anyone else, nor their sentiments, given that they do not cause any disturbance to others. Everything is depersonalized, and everybody is to be given equal opportunity, so there is “common good.” Many religious spheres have to accepted by democracy.

Overall, Donati (2002)[19] gathered from his research that given different historical contexts, the relationship between religion and democracy fluctuates. For some, religion acted as an obstacle in the transition to democracy, and for others, it did not and was instead a “prerequisite.” Religion does undoubtedly play a vital role in society, and the economy as well since people from a particular religion follow particular traditions and lifestyles. Even non-believers conform to certain notions to be for all the public. Together, people can agree on a lot of matters for the common good of society. The definition of freedom has become very relative and subjective and not only limited to freedom from religion, which was the earlier European model for converting to democracy.

Ziblatt (2006)[20] also talks about how Europe democratized in the nineteenth century. He once again emphasizes the point that we have explored in quite a lot of detail above. That democracy emerged as a result of industrialization and the working classes. Also, Britain did not want a violent revolution, so it brought political reforms to comparatively peacefully, unlike other nations such as France. Economic changes and class differences also fuelled the emergence of democracy as people wanted to become liberal. Ziblatt also mentions that every country whose political system became democratic transitioned in a different sequence. Such as the way the United States transitioned to democracy than Europe’s. However, the need to become liberal, and having civil and political rights was the same everywhere and is what led to the transition.


Conclusively, we can say, after looking at the primary and secondary sources, that the transition to democracy was not particularly hindered by religion. Instead, the literature suggests that this notion of religion being the enemy of democracy is open for debate, and everyone has a different perspective on it. The main stimulators from the information we gathered and presented here seem to be the emergence of working classes and their need to have more power rights, whether it be socially or politically. This economic change drove towards an inevitable transition to democracy. The fact that religion did not allow those civil rights further triggered the transition, if nothing else. So, it is wrong to believe that religion is the enemy of democracy bluntly. It has played a different role in different historical contexts. However, it is correct to say that religion and democracy have no direct relationship, and the main principles of both differ and cannot be integrated.


Primary source:

Marson, L. Charles. “The Church and Democracy: A sermon.” LSE Selected Pamphlets (1890). Contributed by the LSE library.

Secondary sources:  

White, Mathew. “Popular politics in the 18th century.” British Library (2009).

Tholfsen, Trygve R. “The transition to democracy in Victorian England.” International Review of Social History 6, no. 2 (1961): 226-248.

DONATI, PIERPAOLO. “Religion and democracy: The challenge of a” religiously qualified” public sphere.” Polish sociological review (2002): 147-172.

Collins, R. “The Rise and Fall of Modernism in Politics and Religion.” /Icta Sociologica , vol. 35, n. 3, (1992), dd. 171-186

Ziblatt, Daniel. “How did Europe democratize?.” World Politics 58, no. 2 (2006): 311-338.




[1]White, Mathew. “Popular politics in the 18th century.” British Library (2009).



[4]Tholfsen, Trygve R. “The transition to democracy in Victorian England.” International Review of Social History 6, no. 2 (1961): 226-248.

[5]White, Mathew. “Popular politics in the 18th century.” British Library (2009).

[6]Tholfsen, Trygve R. “The transition to democracy in Victorian England.” International Review of Social History 6, no. 2 (1961): 226-248.


[7], Tholfsen, Trygve R. “The transition to democracy in Victorian England.” International Review of Social History 6, no. 2 (1961): 226-248.


[9]Marson, L. Charles. “The Church and Democracy: A sermon.” LSE Selected Pamphlets (1890). Contributed by the LSE library.


[10]Marson, L. Charles. “The Church and Democracy: A sermon.” LSE Selected Pamphlets (1890). Contributed by the LSE library.


[12]Marson, L. Charles. “The Church and Democracy: A sermon.” LSE Selected Pamphlets (1890). Contributed by the LSE library.

[13]DONATI, PIERPAOLO. “Religion and democracy: The challenge of a” religiously qualified” public sphere.” Polish sociological review (2002): 147-172.


[14]Collins, R. 1992. “The Rise and Fall of Modernism in Politics and Religion.” /Icta Sociologica , vol. 35, n. 3, 1992, dd. 171-186

[15]Marson, L. Charles. “The Church and Democracy: A sermon.” LSE Selected Pamphlets (1890). Contributed by the LSE library.

[16]DONATI, PIERPAOLO. “Religion and democracy: The challenge of a” religiously qualified” public sphere.” Polish sociological review (2002): 147-172.


[17]DONATI, PIERPAOLO. “Religion and democracy: The challenge of a” religiously qualified” public sphere.” Polish sociological review (2002): 147-172.

[18]Tholfsen, Trygve R. “The transition to democracy in Victorian England.” International Review of Social History 6, no. 2 (1961): 226-248.

[19]DONATI, PIERPAOLO. “Religion and democracy: The challenge of a” religiously qualified” public sphere.” Polish sociological review (2002): 147-172.

[20]Ziblatt, Daniel. “How did Europe democratize?.” World Politics 58, no. 2 (2006): 311-338.


 Annotated Bibliography


Camacho, M., & Palmieri, G. (2019). Do economic recessions cause inequality to rise? Journal

Of Applied Economics, 22(1), 304-320. doi:10.1080/15140326.2019.1620982

This study applies the local projection approach to analyse the economic recession’s impact on income inequality. It elaborates the difference created by the economic depression between the rich and the poor. This is also a major concern of most interviewees regarding how it can impact the overall wellbeing of the people in a society. The economic recession in the long run negatively impacts the lives of the people and it widens this divide amongst the rich and the poor. This study will help in understanding the reasons of rise in inequality due to recession. It will also point out towards the steps that need to be taken in order to minimize the damage of economic recession in terms of economic inequality.

THE, A. P. (2009, Sep 29). Recession widens gap between rich, poor. Charleston Daily

Mail Retrieved from

This study elaborates how the widening of the gap amongst the wealthy and the poor affects the society on a larger scale. This paper explains the effect upon the US middle-income households due to the economic gap that keep on growing. How the Household incomes have fallen across all income groups. It elaborates how some cities, were affected less as those cities are different in nature. Hence the gap varies from city to city. Big cities like Atlanta, New York, San Francisco Washington, Miami and Chicago were the ones with the most inequality. This article will help understand how there is more and less economic differences between these cities. Hence it elaborates how the economic recessions keep growing in some cities while not applicable in some other cities.




Burgard, S. A., & Kalousova, L. (2015). Effects of the great recession: Health and wellbeing. Annual Review of Sociology, 41(1), 181-201. doi:10.1146/annurev-soc-073014-112204

This study elaborates a gap as per the latest evidences linking recession to population’s health and wellbeing. Unemployment is one of the major problems brought on by the global crisis. This article is showing that employment losses since the recession are worse and how economic hardships and joblessness also contribute to poor health. Suicide rates have also increased in many parts of the country. Some studies indicate that people who undergo the issues in labor markets, housing that proliferate in the time of recession suffers adverse health effects. On the other handsome studies show that mortality rate declined soon as the economic predicament worsens. In the light of new results, this analysis synthesizes the evidence from distinct research and traditions.

Zorn, M. L., Norman, P. M. (2017). Cure or curse: Does downsizing increase the likelihood of bankruptcy? Journal of Business Research, 76, 24-33. doi:10.1016/j.jbusres.2017.03.006

Downsizing is a growing global practice, but researches done on the downsizing effects have generated mixed findings. To add to this discussion, they point out regarding corporate reforms in order to examine how the large-scale changes involved in downsizing have adverse effects on businesses. These effects are hard to reverse and eventually raise the risk of bankruptcy. Businesses are cutting jobs to cut costs. The approach will reduce the company’s chance of bankruptcy. Downsizing also raises the risk of losing the job. But downsizing may not be the right way to do it. The article notes that unemployment will also boost a company’s risk of bankruptcy.

Wei. (2019). International talent inflow and R&D investment: Firm-level evidence from China.

Economic Modelling.

Companies adopt the practice of Downsizing to reduce the impact of recession. Companies will rely on benchmarks for talent. This literature will reinforce my idea regarding the impact of hiring new talent for making the predicament better. Highly qualified workers with bilingual backgrounds may be able to improve productivity. Adding to that it plays a significant role in the process of specializing on cross-border knowledge.

Evidence for: The government should control economic development.

Camacho, M., & Palmieri, G. (2019). Do economic recessions cause inequality to rise? Journal of Applied Economics, 22(1), 304-320. doi:10.1080/15140326.2019.1620982

  1. Camacho conducted a systematic survey of 43 countries from 1960 through 2016; they used a local prediction method to examine the impact of economic recessions. Even though they recognize both the business-cycle and the growth-cycle recessions, yet once controls are applied to the model, yet fail to find evidence of substantial impact of recession on income distribution. The Great Recession sparked a renewed interest in the possible actions of inequality in the business cycle. Atkinson and Morelli, among others, realized that banking crises appeared to end up with increases in income inequality. The economic recession in the long run negatively impacts the lives of the people, and it widens this divide amongst the rich and the poor. The unequal distribution of income, regardless of the efforts made by anyone, disrupts society. This study will help in understanding the reasons for the rise in inequality due to recession. It will also point out the steps that need to be taken to minimize the damage to the economic downturn in terms of economic inequality. (Camacho, 2019) Hence the government should correctly control the economic development and make efforts to reduce the financial problems caused by economic inequality. The predicament can’t suddenly become perfect for everyone yet fact of the matter is, governments need to take control over the economic policies.

THE, A. P. (2009, Sep 29). Recession widens gap between rich, poor. Charleston Daily

Mail Retrieved from https://search-proquest-


Associated Press conducted a study that elaborates on how the widening of the gap amongst the wealthy and the poor affects the society on a larger scale. The recession has hit particularly the middle-income groups and those that are low-income families the hardest. It widens the economic divide between the wealthiest and poorest Americans as an immense amount of cuts have ravaged the household finances. Hence the economic downturns keep growing in some cities while not applicable in some other cities. The wealthiest American’s are just 10% of the economy. The ratio increased to 11.4 from 11.2%, which depicts the fact that the recession makes the more prosperous wealthy. The Median of incomes as compared to the previous years for middle-income groups also decreased from 52,163 USD to 50,303 USD. This negatively impacts the overall predicament and hit the bottom level back in 1997. Findings also depicted that people earning over 180,000 USD showed an increase of 3.58 the median income of the middle-income groups that was higher as compared to the other parts of the country. (A.P, 2009) These findings lead to the federal government making new rules for executive pays leading to the higher number of taxes to be implemented on these high-end income sources in health care. If government across the globe make reforms and the tax system is rectified, these issues can be reduced from occurring. The economic imbalance can be reduced from where it is now. This economic instability in the long-run negatively impacts the whole society.

Evidence of:  Business Failures

Zorn, M. L., Norman, P. M. (2017). Cure or curse: Does downsizing increase the likelihood of bankruptcy? Journal of Business Research, 76, 24-33.


M Zorn in this article elaborates that Downsizing is a growing global practice. Researches done on the impact of downsizing have generated mixed findings. To add to this discussion, these searchers did a viewpoint regarding corporate reforms in order to examine how the large-scale changes involved in downsizing have adverse effects on businesses. These effects are hard to reverse and eventually raise the risk of bankruptcy. Businesses are cutting jobs to cut costs. The approach will reduce the company’s chance of bankruptcy. Downsizing also raises the risk of losing the job. But downsizing may not be the right way to do it. The researchers also investigated what factors, if any, could minimize the probability. To do so, they build a resource-based view to imply that valuable resources will minimize the risk of bankruptcy triggered by downsizing. We consider support over a selection of publicly traded companies for our theorizing. With the unemployment rising, companies won’t be able to sustain as skilled workers will be leaving companies and this would end up making the whole predicament. As per the results of the study, downsizing companies are much more likely to declare bankruptcy than companies that are not engaged in downsizing, and that intangible resources are helping to minimize that possibility. The physical and financial capital is also very important in finding out the outcomes of the predicament yet there was no solid evidence found regarding these that aid in helping sort the predicament.

Evidence of:  Combating recession by hiring new talent

HaoWei. (2019). International talent inflow and R&D investment: Firm-level evidence from China.

Economic Modelling.

HaoWi in a study discusses the companies adopt the practice of downsizing with an aim to reduce the impact of recession. These companies rely on talent as their benchmarks. Highly qualified workers that have bilingual backgrounds may be able to improve productivity. Hence, the research found evidence that supports the idea of breaking barriers across the globe. These results stem from two mechanisms: getting talent from across the world & improving the development of human capital. It is also an integral to create a diversified labor force. Furthermore, the impact of promoting R&D is greater if companies are based in Eastern China rather than in other areas, that where there are small and medium-sized companies. The suggestion was regarding the inclusion of international talent that can aid in introducing innovation and creativity. (HaoWei, 2019) Immersive ideas will be generated that will ultimately impact the whole predicament in the long-run. Another element highlighted is the inclusion of R&D department. This department can aid in creating breakthroughs towards strategizing to generate maximum output from minimum budget. More and more skilled individuals can be introduced that aim to create a difference with their idea. This will not only help in fight predicaments such as recession by creating new jobs but also stop the overall system from collapsing.

Burgard, S. A., & Kalousova, L. (2015). Effects of the great recession: Health and wellbeing. Annual

Review of Sociology, 41(1), 181-201. doi:10.1146/annurev-soc-073014-112204


  1. Burgard, in its study, elaborates on the impact of the great recession: on the health and wellbeing of the people. Unemployment is the cause of stress and depression that negatively impacts the overall wellbeing of the general population of the country. Some studies have assessed the correlation between recessions and health by analyzing how the various patterns in measures of the economic cycle follow changing mortality or sickness levels. Reviews from the 1920s revealed the very counter-intuitive silver lining with lower average death rates during the times of recessions. Until then, a trend has been observed in the United States — through which the death rate rises through expansions and decreases in recessions. Unemployment is one of the major problems brought on by the global crisis. Suicide rates have also increased in many parts of the country. Hence serious measures need to be taken to control the overall predicament from worsening. Another element is that the economic downturns also affect government and local revenues, increasing pressure to curb budget deficits and reducing borrowing. Hence unemployment should be controlled by hiring new talent that can make a positive impact on the overall economic predicament. (Burgard, 2015) Unemployment should be controlled by hiring new talent that can make a positive impact on the overall economy.


Economic recession stands as one of the most devastating issues across the globe. The recession has many consequences that lead to overall economic instability in the country. It broadens the divide within society between the wealthy and the poor. The great recession that occurred in the 1930s had an overall impact on the economies across the world. The crises cost millions of people their jobs, and they lost their whole life savings. There was a decline in economic growth to an extent where people became bankrupt. Companies cut staff off to lower the expenditures. This approach will ease a financial problem for the client, yet this is a temporary solution, and leads are significant consequences of overall economic growth. The recent recession that started in the US from December 2007 had an adverse impact on the global economy. The unemployment rate has increased by 10%. (mlr, 2018) and many financial institutions also go bankrupt due to income disparities. The biggest problem with this crisis is unemployment & fresh students find it challenging to get a job. Employment pressures continue to rise that reduce the impact of the recession. Young talent that gradates is uncertain about the economic predicament and how it will impact their future. This study will explore how to reduce financial instability, the gap between rich and poor, and suggest solutions to counter unemployment.

Working thesis

Economic depression is inevitable in the course of economic development. Economic inequality, corporate financial crisis, and employment difficulties come side by side with economic depression wherever it occurs across the world. To minimize the challenge of business growth induced by the economic crisis, the government should be active in economic development activity, the university should allow the students to take internships in advance, and the organization should promote and use talent.


As per the findings, recession creates a difference between the rich and the poor. The research done by Atkinson and Morelli depicts the realization that the financial crisis appeared to end with increasing income inequality. In the long run, the economic crisis has a negative effect on people’s lives, and this divide among rich and poor is widened. The uneven distribution of wealth, regardless of anyone’s efforts, destabilizes the whole society. This research helps to explain why inequality is soaring, and it also points out the steps that need to be taken to minimize the damage due to the economic downturn in terms of economic inequality. The role of the governments should be to focus on improving the life quality of the masses. There is a need to control the economic development for only a few numbers of people. The distribution of wealth needs to be equal. The governments need to make efforts to reduce the financial problems being faced by the masses due to this economic inequality.

The recession has struck Middle-income groups and low-income families. It has widened the economic gap between the wealthiest and poorest Americans, as a large number of layoffs devastated household finances. Hence the economic downturns in some cities tend to rise while in some other cities they are not relevant. The wealthiest Americans are just 10 percent of the population.  The percentage rose from 11.2 percent to 11.4, which reflects the fact that the crisis is making the wealthy affluent. Compared to previous years, the median of income for middle-class classes also dropped from USD 52,163 to USD 50,303. This has a devastating impact on the prevailing situation and reached the lowest stage back in 1997. Hence recession helps in making the lives of rich people better. This is a point that needs to be addressed that the economic system should be made to strengthen the financial predicaments of the non-privileged as compared to the ones that already have a considerable amount of resources available.

Highly skilled new talent with bilingual experience can turn out to be a perfect addition to the economy. The impact of promoting R&D is more significant if companies are based in Eastern China rather than in other areas, that where there are small and medium-sized companies. The suggestion was regarding the inclusion of international talent that can aid in introducing innovation and creativity. With the inclusion of new and creative minds, the overall production quality can increase. Immersive ideas will be generated that will ultimately impact the whole predicament in the long-run. More and more talented young talented individuals that wish to make a difference with their concepts need to be hired. This would counter the issues such as unemployment and help generate new jobs but also deter the deterioration of the economy.

Unemployment is the cause of stress and depression, which adversely affects the overall health of the country’s general population. Any researchers have examined the link between unemployment and wellbeing by reviewing whether the changing trends of economic cycle indicators match increasing rates of death or illness. In the United States, a pattern has been identified so far — in which mortality rates increase across increases and decreases in recessions. Unemployment is one of the significant issues that the financial economy is producing. In other parts of the world, too, suicide rates have risen. Therefore drastic steps need to be taken to mitigate the aggravation of the overall situation. Another factor is that economic downturns can affect national and municipal budgets, rising pressure to reduce budget deficits. Unemployment also has an adverse impact on the health of the people that leads to psychological and other health issues as well.

In the long run, the global crisis has a negative effect on people’s lives. It is also adversely affected by the unfair distribution of income, irrespective of any effort made by everyone. There tends to be a rise in inequality due to recession. The disparity between rich and poor creates by the economic downturn is leather. It may affect the overall health of people within a community. The financial recession has a devastating impact on the lives of people in the long run. It is also adversely affected by the unequal distribution of profits, irrespective of any effort made by all. Despite the recession, inequality continues to increase. Hence steps need to be taken to make the overall economic predicament better.

Entrepreneurs need to fill in with their ideas and how the overall world economic predicament can be made better. The number of billionaires has increased over the years, yet so has the percentage of low-income groups. Adding to that, talent management is the key in order to make the best use of their skills. If talent is not hired and appointed for the skills that they are best at, that can also go to waste. Universities need to play a role in making it happen and send the students for internships to learn the business and make the best use of the knowledge they gain at schools to be applied to their jobs. The need to emphasize on shaping their minds as creative entrepreneurs that can end up generating new employment opportunities for others.


It can be concluded on the fact that the difference created by the economic depression between the rich and the poor is leather. It can impact the overall wellbeing of the people in a society. The economic recession in the long run negatively impacts the lives of the people. The unequal distribution of income, regardless of the efforts made by anyone, also affects it adversely. There tends to be a rise in inequality due to recession. Taxes need to be imposed in order to impact the whole economy. Unemployment is one of the significant issues that the financial economy is producing. In other parts of the world, too, suicide rates have risen. Therefore unemployment can be managed by hiring new talent who can come up with entrepreneurial ideas. It will also point out the steps that need to be taken to minimize the damage to the economic downturn in terms of economic inequality.

Furthermore, the widening of the gap amongst the wealthy and the poor affects the society on a larger scale—the US middle-income households due to the economic weakness that keeps on growing. The R & D department needs to be formed, fully incorporated, and their role should be designed in alliance with the skills of the team. This will help in maximizing the value of the team’s efforts. Yet the gap varies from city to city. Hence the economic recessions keep growing in some towns while not useful in a similar fashion in some other cities. Therefore extreme steps need to be taken to mitigate the aggravation of the situation caused by the recession.  Another factor is that economic downturns can have an effect on national and municipal budgets, rising pressure to reduce budget deficits. New talent needs to be incorporated in order to cater to the challenges, and entrepreneurship needs to be promoted in order to face and counter this predicament. This divide needs to stop; otherwise, it will keep creating a significant amount of unrest in the society.




A.P, T. (2009). Recession widens gap between rich, poor. Retrieved from

Burgard. (2015). Effects of the great recession: Health and well-being. Annual Review of Sociology, 181-201.

Camacho. (2019). Do economic recessions cause inequality to rise? Journal of Applied Economics, 304-320.

HaoWei. (2019). International talent inflow and R&D investment: Firm-level evidence from China. Economic Modelling.

mlr. (2018, 4). Great Recession, great recovery? Trends from the Current Population Survey. Retrieved from

Zorn, M. (2017). M. S. (2017). Cure or curse: Does downsizing increase the likelihood of bankruptcy? Journal of Business Research, 76, 24-33.





This study investigates making ethical decisions across the globe. It explores how managers can incorporate ethical issues across the world and consider them in their decision making. A Literature review was conducted from peer viewed articles, and as per the findings, ethics and rule differ from culture to culture. Rules and ethics that apply in one part of the world won’t apply in other parts of the world. Yet specific laws apply similarly, including discrimination including gender, race, sexual orientation, etc. Furthermore, the realization of the value of ethics in business also needs to be enforced down to each member of the hierarchy. Even if a single team member feels that the manager’s decision was biased in any case, he/ she will not have the same loyalty with the firm again and might go as far as making a petition against that brand. Ethical concern implies realizing that missing one transaction now is better than losing even more in the future, as the business has a reputation for not being truthful. Another realization was that the potential for ethical conflict is growing as companies from the US join China for production. While knowing the essence and history of both cultures will contribute to an appreciation of the basis of their ethical process. It’s essential that Western marketers realize the cultural differences of their competitors.


Incorporating ethical principles in the business refers to using the norms of what defines ethical or unethical conduct in that community as the foundation in terms of the strategies and policies applied in a company. Ethics influences behavior inside any firm, from the owner to the lowest-ranked team member. The actions of the business heads towards clients, staff, and creditors impacts the conduct of its workers, who look up to him to set the norm. Compliance of strict ethical practices is mandatory, resulting in consumer satisfaction, higher productivity of staff, and having a strong and exemplary reputation in the market and the society. When global business ethics issue is brought up, most people automatically concentrate on corruption and bribery. This paper investigateshow managers can incorporate ethical consideration in decisions making.

Literature Review

P.C. Wright, in an article, describes the necessary economic reforms and the existing condition of business ethics in China. He explores the ethical precepts of a group of Chinese experts who are participating in a Mainland Chinese management learning program. The study provides a standard that not only tests the existing state of corporate ethics but also looks at potential improvements over the past five years. From these results, guidelines are established that are useful for policy-makers and executives wishing to conduct business with Chinese nationals.  (Wright, 2003)

Yongsun Paik, in an article, studies the importance of ethical decision-making while managing companies. Business ethics differs apply on all societies and functions alongside culture & time.Their study addresses 2 critical questions that were raised regarding the issue.As to whether the national differences in managerial theories regarding ethics continue over the period and whether how vital is this association amongst ethical decision making and a managers thinking process. They performed a survey on ethical decision-making while takingKorean managers as sample. A cross-cultural & cross-temporal comparison was established in line with the findings of the previous studies with the same questionnaire at different periods. Their research depicted that Korean managers have become more dependent on the rules applied globally in terms of ethical decision-making. (Paik, 2019)

Wendy S Becker is an article that discusses an exercise involving new employees to teach through a moral dilemma. A predicament where two or more beliefs contradict one another can’t work together. Ethical business dilemmas affect four significant areas: human resources, trust of customers, and corporate resource use. They realized that it is most challenging to define ethical dilemmas as they mix many different fields. New workers are particularly exposedto this because they are frequently fresh and have knowledge. They have not yetmixed into the organizational culture of that company. Management of human resources by providing orientation and training to the new employees can play a critical role in fostering an ethical culture of the organization. (Becker, 2010)

Dennis A. Pitta, in an article, discuss the value of knowing cultures from across the world. The study highlights that US advertisers are familiar with US ethics & principles. However, when Americans come across the emerging market giant, China, the norm can lead to building conflict related to ethics. The potential for ethical conflict is growing as companies from the US join China for production. While knowing the essence and history of both cultures will contribute to an appreciation of the basis of their ethical process. It’s essential that Western marketers grasp the aspirations of their competitors from around the world. Realizing the cultural foundations of these different cultures is integral to ethical conduct in both the US and China will provide a marketer with the skills required to be effective in the cross-cultural industry. Implementing that information with a simple set of management guidelines will make the importance of that understanding a reality. (Pitta, 1999)


Ethics in management practices differ from culture to culture, especially those practices that involve human resources. Local cultures change the way people perceive the relationship between employee and employer. There are no simple social rules in many societies that prohibit discriminations that’s based on age, gender, ethnicity, sexual orientation, disability. Companies that neglect the needs of the community do not automatically face adverse repercussions. A small business owner who implements innovative approaches to help community members can gain rewards in terms of making such ads and get recognition from the industry.

Some businesses also have goals for recycling, eliminating waste, and donating to some local charities in their business plans. Ethical consideration includes recognizing that the organization and its staff are community members and have a duty to be positive contributors to community well-being and to protect the environment. Yet, it is integral to follow business ethics across the board.


It can be concluded on the fact that Management ethics are a central aspect of corporate ethics. It is the collection of moral values & convictions which influence each team member’s behavior. Although most people believe that ethics coincide explicitly with rules, this is not always the case. It also comes under management integrity to do the best thing for staff and clients, and to show the ability to go the extra mile. The application of these ethics globally needs firstly, the realization of the value of ethics in business. Even if a single team member feels that the manager’s decision was biased in any case, he/ she will not have the same loyalty with the firm again and might go as far as making a petition against that brand. Ethical concern implies realizing that missing one transaction now is better than losing even more in the future, as the business has a reputation for not being truthful.


Becker, W. S. (2010). Ethics and human resources: An exercise involving new employees. Journal of Human Resources Education, 26-34.

Kolk, A. (2016). The social responsibility of international business: From ethics and the environment to CSR and sustainable development. Journal of World Business, 23-34.

Paik, Y. (2019). Convergence in International Business Ethics? A Comparative Study of Ethical Philosophies, Thinking Style, and Ethical Decision-Making Between US and Korean Managers. Journal of Business Ethics, 839–855.

Pitta, D. A. (1999). Ethical issues across cultures: managing the differing managing the differing USA. JOURNAL OF CONSUMER MARKETING, 240-256.

Wright, P. (2003). Ethical perceptions in China: the reality of business ethics in an international context. Management Decision, 180-189.




Significance of selected industry for the economy

The Moroccan economy is based on tourism, agriculture, and phosphate. The seafood and fish also play an integral role in the Morocco economy. Gross Domestic Product of Morocco is dependent on mining and industry. After China and the US, Morocco is the third large producer of phosphate. Therefore, it holds a central significance for the economy. Morocco phosphate is an important mineral that has diverse usage. Due to the production of mining n four different sectors, its significance is increased. These four sectors are Boucraa, Youssoufia, Benguerir, and Khouribga. The mining in Khouribga is carried out on the deposits of OuladAbdoun phosphate. These phosphates are found 140 kilometers southeast Casablanca.

This mine has greater potential for extraction and estimated as 17-18 million tons on an annual basis. The extracted phosphate from this mine is exported globally. The ores found here are different quality and substantial support to the chemical industry worldwide. Moreover, this is also supportive of the JorfLasfar chemical industry hugely. A state-owned company OCP is responsible for the ownership and control of Morocco phosphate. It stands for Office Cherifien des phosphate. The extraction potential is key to understand the value of chemicals. OCP operates on five continents (Update, 2019). Since 1920, its creation is set up at the international level. Later, the operations are developed into adjustment, anticipation, and flexibility capacities with the requirement of a competitive industry.

Morocco has OCP as the largest enterprise, so it has employed more than 2% population, so it has contributed significantly to reduce the unemployment level in the economy. The company also provides training to the labor force, so it is a contributing buildup of skilled people in the economy (Encyclopedia Britannica, 2019). Morocco houses about two-third of the phosphate reserves of the whole world, so this is a higher league as compared to Russia, China, and the US. Morocco has four main producers of phosphate, so the reserves account for 50% of the global reserves. The consumption growth of phosphate in Morocco is estimated at as1-2% per annum. These economically exploitable reserves hold central significance in the Morocco economy, so it is taking measures to reduce the prices of phosphate in 2008 (Babali, B. 2019).

An estimated investment of $4milllion, the economy is planning to increase the production of phosphate from 30-55 million tons per annum. The analysis provides that the GDP of the economy is significantly affected by this growth and export. So the country is famous for attracting foreign investment and other countries to increase business relationships and collaboration with the phosphate industry (Update, 2019).

Political and Economic Influence of the Phosphate Industry

Morocco’s export market in Europe has faced successive shocks due to the financial crisis. The stronger position of Morocco’s economy is due to strategic advantage. On the political side, it gas faced political issues with Arab neighbors that created difficulty in maintaining growth. World economic forum reported that Morocco is a competitive economy of North Africa and stable in terms of democracy. After the constitutional changes in 2011, the elected government faced a strong role of parliament among developing countries (Rarick, 2011). The plan of government to capitalize on the strategic location was to focus on the African and American markets. The development strategies of the economy regarding mining and chemical have faced a great set of reforms and policies aiming at growth.

The phosphate industry is facing huge advantage of the growth, and its presence in Morocco’s geographical areas has created wealth, job training, and better supplier connections. Due to the wellbeing of its employees and contribution to improving GDP, political influence is increased. Peace and Security Council of Africa decided that Morocco will not enter in the contracts of exploration and exploration of natural resources of Western Sahara. The decision shows that Morocco faced criticism about not showing up at the meeting of Sahara. Morocco aims to be the large producer of fertilizers and phosphates, and by 2017, this production was increased to 12 million tones.

The big plans of OCP under construction framework and fertilizer production are elapsed at US $2.4 billion investment for a period of five years. In 2016, OCP signed a contract with the Dangote group, which is by the wealthiest person from Africa and Nigeria. These domestic and foreign plans of Sahara with Russia show political goodwill about phosphate partnership, which is relevant to the economy of Morocco. In Sahrawi and Nigerian news sources, the phosphate related collaboration can be a misunderstanding because most of the phosphate and fertilizer is sold to factories and mines. Towards political aspects, Morocco is a leader of Arab states and Mediterranean unions. The stable status of politics in Morocco has international influence. For instance, phosphorus is a chemical fertilizer, and this industry will be engaged in more than 65 new production units and by 2017-2021 (Update, 2019). The stable political status of the economy is seen in all the aspects and industries, so effective measures have been taken for universal education and securing human rights as well as employment opportunities.

Demographic Profile of the Labour Force

The living standard in Morocco is not up to the international level, and a decline is seen since 1990. People living below the poverty line are increasing, so since 1991, 19% are below the poverty line. Another reason for this is uneven development and the emergence of the affluent class. The flexibility of the labor market in morocco is not estimated, but it describes financial productivity and inflation rate. The structural changes in labor 2019 have reported that a shift in labor and productivity is seen from industry to services sector. On account of the phosphate industry, the labor force has specific records, for instance, unemployment is a challenging issue, but due to the phosphate industry, a trained labor force exists in Morocco. The North African average is estimated as 10-12% for unemployed people, while 9% of women laborers are a part of regional unemployment when measured on average (International Monetary Fund, 2019).

In Morocco, no specific unemployment gender gap exists, but data by ILO reveals that a steady rate is observed in the past decade. Youth unemployment is also increasing, while in the past ten years, this ratio is hovering over the regional average. As compared to Arab countries, Moroccan workers are manly working in the agriculture and mining sector (Rarick, 2011).

In the Morocco phosphate industry, the unemployment ratio is at a declined level as compared to other sectors. North African estimates state that 65% of the unemployed force is estimated for a year, while 52% are job seekers. The government is paying job security (social) and medical insurance to employees. If the higher education sector is observed, the unemployment rate is high, and since 2012, this ratio is increased to 6.8% (White, 2015). In the mining and quarrying sector, total employment is 67,664 in 2012, while this sectoral share was 0.6%. The ratio of men employed in this sector was 98%. The estimates show a positive result for the phosphate industry that this sector is engaging more people and increasing the employment level (Update, 2019). In addition, the Gross Domestic Product of Morocco due to mining and quarrying was 3.2%, while per-share GDP in US$ is 64,651. Different channels explain the gender gap and growth rate of employment; for instance, women’s participation in the labor force increases the talent of potential entrepreneurs. The participation rate in the labor force is 25% overall that highlights the case of lags. The Moroccan labor market experiences gender gap. There are gender disparities observed in the participation of the rural and urban areas of the labor force (Ashford, D.E.1961).The employment rates in different sectors, particularly the mining sector, face the rate of unemployment, despite training and formal jobs (Prettitore, P.S. 2015). However, this ratio is minimal, and the labor market is facing mismatch under regulation, yet this impact is acute for women.Moroccan has taken measures to reduce the prices of phosphate in the past. Though it is a large country to produce phosphate rock in the world, yet its labor force is facing different issues. Despite training, involvement, and job opportunities for the labor force in Morocco, specifically in the mining sector, there is a gap in labor force participation.

The manufacturing sector in Morocco is contributing to the GDP of the country (Watch, 2020). Raw material and transportation sectors are linked to the mining sector, and there are enormous opportunities for the labor force to participate, yet some lags exist, and a need to improve this labor force participation is inherent. Though the mining sector is attracting the attention of the private sector and other state operations as well as foreign sources. Processing of phosphate and export needs of fertilizers is a key part that needs the involvement of the labor force. The economic activity of this sector, in relation to labor force participation, is a significant attempt of government because, with the increase in global collaboration and investment, the export will be increased (White, 2015). Morocco’s economy needs an emphasis on the added value of phosphate due to the increased focus on exports. The government is attempting to control basic hurdles and challenges for the labor force to enhance their participation in the mining sector since this will enhance the GDP of the economy (Medsocialdialogue, 2016). The involvement of labor in producing phosphate is inherent for the economy, and this will transform the industry as well as its capabilities.

Evaluation of Economic Growth

The economy of morocco needs high investment as well as private sector growth to reduce unemployment and increase job opportunities for youth. There are some weaknesses in a competitive business environment for small and medium enterprises development. The role of the government to improve private sector involvement is supportive for the acceleration of mining sector growth (Rarick, 2011). These reforms are reinforcing and boosting a rich growth tendency. The public sector involvement, efficiency, and governance are linked to anti-corruption policies and transparency. For the progress, administration, and promotion of government policies, there is an increased need to reduce corruption as well as vulnerabilities in all the mechanisms. The information access law is enacted in 2019 to facilitate all feedback received from the public. The economic forces are now aligned with the communication perspectives, and national strategy implementation is focused that will increase the public trust level (Watch, 2020).

Morocco’s economy has stable politics and enormous natural resources, i.e., phosphate industry potential. This scope can easily attract foreign investment and activate anti-corruption policies. The public sector efficiency for the economy is significant. Civil service and quality of public investment are linked to reforms that can help maintain public wages (Hahn, T. and Auktor, G. 2018). These motivating factors for the labor force can increase the engagement of people and youth. In the Morocco economy, fiscal decentralization in 2018 presented transparent criteria for the public resources in the region. The public enterprises are also working for the financial management level, and it is helpful for the adoption of a strategic approach. The public investment management is linked to increasing the efficiency of public investment because of improved execution and better coordination of public, private partnership welcome labor participation (Rarick, 2011).

The Morocco economy has much potential that can be cultivated by focusing on the transparent involvement of private companies (White, 2015). The standard of life and per capita income in Africa can be increased by the increased involvement of youth in different sectors. Moreover, rural-urban migration in different areas is contributing to economic development. Young Moroccans seek employment opportunities in the economy, and if phosphate production is accelerated by advanced technology, the quality of the labor force can be improved. By improving government involvement, the political & economic spheres can be accelerated that enhance the rapid economic development and growth of certain sectors (Fabbe, K. et al. 2018). Authorities in Morocco are focusing on advanced structural reforms since it will be helpful to accelerate capital. The economy needs to reduce inequalities, remove corruption, and create job opportunities for the business environment. There should be mutually reinforcing reforms like social participation & education practices that will empower vulnerable groups.



Ashford, D.E.1961.Political Change in Morocco in Princeton. Princeton University Press. pp. 25-34.

Babali, B. 2019. Twist of Phosphate. The Business Year. Available at: phosphates-resources-critical-for-global-agriculture/focus [Accessed: 20 March 2020].

China Economic Net. 2012. Reopening border between Morocco, Algeria requires deeper examination: minister. Available at: [Accessed 26 March 2020]

Encyclopedia Britannica, 2019a. History of Morocco. Encyclopedia Britannica. Available at: [Accessed: 26 March 2020]. (把原文中的reference按照这个改过来)

Encyclopedia Britannica, 2019b. Morocco – Local Government. Encyclopedia Britannica. Available at: government [Accessed: 26 March 2020]. (把原文中的reference按照这个改过来)

Economic and Commercial Counsellor's Office, 2015. Morocco country profile. Available at:[Accessed: 20 March 2020].

El Ouahabi, S. and Bousselhami, A. 2018. Markup estimate of industrial branches in Morocco. Journal of Economics and Political Economy, 4(4), pp.396-407.

Fabbe, K. et al. & OCP Group & Harvard Business School Case 718-002, December 2017 (Revised December 2018). Available at:  Accessed: 17 March 2020].

Hahn, T. and Auktor, G. 2018. Industrial Policy in Morocco And Its Potential Contribution to A New Social Contract. Available at: [Accessed: 26 March 2020].

International Monetary Fund, 2019. (2019 ARTICLE IV CONSULTATION—PRESS RELEASE; STAFF REPORT; AND STATEMENT BY THE EXECUTIVE) 这是报告吗? 把报告名字放在这,不要全部大写. 2019 Article Iv Consultation=Press Release:StaffReport:And Statement By The Executive Available at:  ttp:// [ Accessed July 2019].

Medsocialdialogue, 2016. MOROCCO: Economic, Social, Political and Institutional Situation and Its Connection with Social Dialogue. Available at: content/uploads/2018/09/1.1.3_Social_Dialogue_Connection_With_Economic_Social_Political_Institutional_Situation_Morocco_VA.pdf [Accessed 26 March 2020].

Prettitore, P.S. 2015. Family Law Reform, Gender Equality, and Underage Marriage: A view from Morocco and Jordan. The Review of Faith & International Affairs13(3), pp. 32-40.

Rarick, C., 2011. An Element of Concern in North Africa: The Case of Morocco’s Phosphate Industry. SSRN Electronic Journal,.

Update, E., 2019. Morocco’s Economic Update — October 2019. [online] World Bank. Available at: <> [Accessed 26 April 2020].

Watch, W., 2020. Morocco’s P For Politics In Africa – Wsrw.Org. [online] Available at: <> [Accessed 26 April 2020].

White, N., 2015. Toxic Shadow: Phosphate Miners In Morocco Fear They Pay A High Price | Natasha White. [online] the Guardian. Available at: <> [Accessed 26 April 2020].





Mobile devices are rapidly proliferating as more than 2 billion smartphones were reportedly used back in 2014, and it is anticipated that more will be deployed for use. These penetration rates introduce the use of different applications within mobile devices (Kortum, 2015). Until 2007, smartphones were not mass-marketed and were not commercially available. However, after the launch of the first iPhone back in 2007, and android launch in 2009, the smartphones became commercially available, before 2007, a large number of selectable consumer applications within mobile phones were not available (Kortum, 2015). Users can now easily customize the applications within their mobile platforms which suit their needs. The amount of downloadable user applications for the mobile devices is large and continues to grow, with more than 1.2 million applications available in i0s platforms and more than 1.3 million available via GooglePlay in Android OS (Kortum, 2015).

Pine (1998) defines user experience as a unique set of offerings that emerge s when an organization intentionally uses its product or service offerings to engage the users in such a way that it creates customer delight. User experience encompasses the whole aspect of a service acceptance by a user. It touches all the elements inclusive; hedonic and pragmatic of a product. The instrumental or pragmatic elements of a service or product referred to the beneficial aspects such as the ease of use of an application or usefulness of the service. The non-instrumental or hedonic elements refer to the experiential and emotional aspects of service use. Learnability, security, user satisfaction and user interface are some of the factors that contribute towards user experience for a mobile application.

Mobile applications like Netflix use online personalization to enhance user experience. Online personalization via adaptive user interface means that the user interface automatically adjusts context, demands, detected changes, adjusts content, visual presentation or layout (Yang, 2016). User experience design is immensely important in developing a good mobile application since it has a huge impact on the success or failure of the application (Yazid, 2017).

Purpose of the study

The purpose of this research is to enable practitioners to use the information concluded within the research to make informed decisions regarding the mobile application and benchmark their progress for Netflix against other applications for mobile platforms.

Research Problem

Netflix application allows individuals to obtain content anytime, anywhere and through a mobile platform. Because of this specialty, individuals show immense interest in the application all over the world (Cebeci, 2019). This is why it is imperative to investigate what makes a good user experience for Netflix application and how the application is perceived by the users.

Research Objective

Previous researchers have focused mainly on Netflix as an emerging media platform or on its content. It has been observed that there is little research regarding the factors that affect the user experience for Netflix mobile application. Since it is still a gap in the literature, the research aims to investigate the determinants of user experience for Netflix application. The current research will focus on the studies dedicated to the user experience of using Netflix.


Research Questions

  • Is the Netflix application easy to navigate for the users?
  • Is the Netflix application interactive?
  • Is the user interface (UI) plain and easy to follow?
  • What elements of user experience i.e. ease of use, learnability, security, user satisfaction, user interface design etc. does the application follow?
  • How satisfied are the users with the user experience?
  • How likely are the users to reuse the Netflix application?
  • Can the Netflix application serve the users to achieve the end goal, i.e. stream videos, watch TV shows, movies, etc.?
  • Does the Netflix application meet its functionality?

Interview Questions

  • In your opinion, is it easy to use Netflix mobile application? Explain your answer.
  • Is the setting of your device sufficient for the use of the application?
  • Do you think that all the functionalities of the Netflix application are designed in such a way that they aid the user in performing the task?
  • Netflix interface design has elements that invite the attention of the users and provide the ease of use such as auto-play which induces binge-watching in users. What are the features that make the user interface easy for you?
  • Do you think that the recommendation algorithm in Netflix application reduces the navigation time and enhances the user experience?
  • Do you think that the Netflix interface uses a narrative to make the user believes to be in control and has the agency of controlling his or her Netflix experience through their choices?

Literature Review

Research related to user experience while using mobile applications has gained momentum as well as considerable interest from both practitioners as well as scholars. The literature within the field of user experience happens to include all factors which affect the interaction of a user as well as their experience of the product or system (Yazid, 2017). Yazid (2017) uses User Experience Questionnaire adapted from Chen’s User Experience (UX) assessment model for mobile applications which offers insight into the factors that affect the user experience. Ease of use, learnability, user Interface, security, user satisfaction etc. are some of the elements that contribute towards a fulfilled user experience. Ease of use factor covers three elements of user experience: data accessibility, usability and navigation. Yazid (2017) defines usability by how functional an application is for the end-user. This means that all the functionalities of an application must be designed in such a way that they aid the user in performing the task most efficiently compared to what they have been using or are used to before.

According to Yazid (2017) , it is imperative that the navigation pattern within an app is simple to aid the users that are new in figuring out how to move across the mobile application with ease in the fewer number of clicks. Data accessibility aspect for an application means that the data must be available readily at any location for consumption by the user to make the application reliable. Validation aspect contributes towards the ease of use elements in the context of making the users aware of the mistake that they might have made. This enables the users to check the error before they click the submit button.

Learnability happens to be the degree of ease as well as the speed with which a user gets familiar with using a specific application. High learnability refers to how users intuitively learn how an application in a mobile phone is used without checking user guide or FAQs. The user interface, according to Yazid (2017), is a touch-sensitive display present on a cellular device and is highly important for engaging the customer’s attention as it is the first thing the user observes. Selection of size, colours and icon give a meaningful impact on user perception. Another factor that impacts user experience, according to Yazid (2017), is behavioural intent which is a subjective norm.

An application with a good user experience design deploys the user with the right information and fulfil their anticipation so that the user can bookmark the relevant material and use the application again in future. Reduction of user errors influences the user’s intention to reuse the application (Yazid, 2017). Thus having suggestion tools such as listing recommendations based on previous click or views can be used as a method to improve user experience.

Yang (2016) states that machine learning and the adaptive user interface has become an effective tool for enhancing mobile user experience (UX). Popular mobile applications such as Netflix, Facebook, Google Search, Instagram, Kindle, Mail, Pandora, YouTube, Safari, Twitter etc. regularly mine user behaviour and context data to enhance personalized recommendations, predict log behaviours like sleeping or walking and filter out spam. Moreover, users now expect mobile applications to have smart systems that have intelligent interfaces (Yang, 2016). Mobile interface (UI) benefits from adaptations which specifically reduce navigation because mobile contexts and tasks vary greatly small mobile screens limit interaction as well as content space. For example, the Starbucks application learns how a user pays through their phone learn about the user payment method when the application is launched inside the store.

Furthermore, Yang (2016) states that mobile applications like Netflix use online personalization to enhance user experience. Online personalization via adaptive user interface means that the UI automatically adjusts context, demands, detected changes, adjusts content, visual presentation or layout. Movie recommendations in Netflix mobile application reduce the effort needed by the user to find the right movie or TV show. The Netflix application employs adaptive UI that uses the user profile and the set of user models to personalize the user experience as well as to address the needs of heterogeneous users. This is because online personalization benefits the service providers like Netflix and users. The term “algorithm identity” is used by (Markham, 2018) to denote how user interface adjusts content for the users and is a crucial element of the user experience catered by Netflix.

Algorithm identity is the “self” of the user that is constantly reproduced based on user interaction with the platform through clicks. This claim is authorized by a growing body of research that acknowledges the role of algorithms for generating different versions of a user’s identity online. Cheney-Lippold (2011), for example, a claim that application algorithms categorize the identity of the individuals which are inferred based on their application usage. Similarly, Markham (2018) argues that algorithms personalize and construct relational meaning and construct identity in contemporary use of the application.

Markham (2018) also focuses on what does the algorithm do and how it shapes the behaviour as well as the experience of the users. When it comes to the interface in Netflix application, over time and with routine use, it can be seen that the algorithmic identity develops. At the start, there is no typical profile page which users can refer to; instead, users can set up a small profile to inform the application regarding “who’s watching?” by choosing several avatars (Markham, 2018). The application also provides choices such as ‘maturity level’ and language topic from which caters to the need to the user.

Netflix via its mobile application successfully uses personalization in such a way that it anticipates the users’ behavioural intent and reduces the navigation time also known as the number of screens and reduces selection efforts which are the number of inputs or taps (Yang, 2016). The adaptive user interface is also beneficial for the service provider such as Netflix as it provides enhanced customer satisfaction and loyalty. The research and service design community recognize personalization as an essential element in maintaining and building long-term customer relationships while enhancing customer lifetime value. Yang (2016) states that adaptive user interfaces might confuse users who have the perception that the changes within the system’s behaviour happen to be negatively inconsistent instead of taking it as personalized user experience. This is because adaptive user interfaces might decrease the sense of control for users.

Cebeci (2019) uses the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) to examine the factors that influence the intention of users to use Netflix and the user’s experience of the application. The Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) has been derived by Theory of Reasoned Action, which has four main constructs: attitude, intention to use, perceived ease of use and perceived usefulness. Cebeci (2019) states that perceived ease of use is the degree to which a user believes that using an application would be free of any effort and the perceived usefulness is the degree to which a user believes that an application would be beneficial to them. Users are having a high level of knowledge regarding application usage regard it as easy to use. Similarly, if a user has knowledge regarding Netflix application, he or she will believe it to be easy which means that Netflix is positively related to user’s perceived ease of use (Cebeci, 2019).

Similarly, Kortum (2015) uses the Technology Acceptance Model as a theoretical framework to denote the rapid adoption of mobile applications as the model suggests that technology and applications are widely adopted because of perceived usefulness. This perceived usefulness is related to the ease of use of the application such as the elements of availability, portability, low cost, ubiquity etc. contribute towards user experience (Kortum, 2015).

Markham (2018) uses a series of user journeys through the interface and critically analyzes each moment of the selected user’s Netflix experience (Markham, 2018). Over the course of the analysis, Markham (2018) ended up foregrounding different aspects of the influential, relational and infrastructural elements of the socio-technical experience of using Netflix. The researcher focused on three complexities, first being the user experience of the Netflix interface in which a complete narrative is implanted in such a way that the user believes to be in control and has the agency of controlling his or her Netflix experience through their choices. This happens to be apparent in the image of the company itself and is reinforced through the Netflix application.

Secondly, the Netflix application functions both indirectly as well as directly to condition the attitude as well as behaviours of the users. Directly, Netflix pushes to promote the original content as well as region-specific content. Indirectly, the Netflix interface design has elements that invite the attention of the users and provide the ease of use such as auto-play which induces binge-watching in users and promotes perceived ease of use.

The perceived ease of use is the degree to which a user believes that using an application would be free of any effort (Markham, 2018). Thirdly the recommendation algorithm creates an unsteady state of being in the users due to its incomprehensibility because of which users are never quite sure what the recommendation will be which enhances user attentiveness while using the application and engages them. Varela (2019) uses the user-focused approach for her study of the algorithmic culture that influences user experience. The researcher used Netflix’s recommendation algorithm to study the questions of black boxing, biases in the algorithm in terms of visibility as well as socio-technological elements of algorithms. The researcher conducted an in-depth interview methodology with users who are loyal users of Netflix in Singapore. Varela (2019) concludes that users also happen to be co-producers of the content as they contribute towards their experience as well through their usage of the application and consequently to the success of the application.

Pine (1998) defines user experience as a unique set of offerings that emerge s when an organization intentionally uses its product or service offerings to engage the users in such a way that it creates customer delight (Pine, 1998). Mobile user experience has been expanded upon using three dimensions such as device-related issues, application-related issues and communication-related issues. The device-related issues happen to be associated with hardware features that contribute towards ease of use of the accessories or the device such as a mobile phone. Communication-related issues tend to be focused on interpersonal communication, while application-related issues are linked towards the interaction of the user with the specific mobile application. The application related issues have been identified as the crucial layer which contributes towards user experience by Subramanya and Byung. Their research suggests that the application-related issues compensate for user constraints and underlying device constrains (Subramanya, 2009).

Research Methodology

The research methodology that is going to be used for this research is qualitative data collection and analysis (Hammarberg, 2016). Qualitative research is the most suitable method since the nature of this particular study is investigative. The research focuses on user experience while using Netflix application, and according to Hammarberg (2016), qualitative methods are used to explain research queries regarding perspective, experience and meaning from the standpoint of the participants. The research will employ qualitative research technique of small group discussions for investigating the concepts, beliefs as well as attitudes of normative behaviour. The quantitative technique has not been used because closed-ended questions that are asked for data collection do not provide good insight into the mind of the respondent.


Data Collection Technique

Focus group technique is going to be used as the data collection technique for this research because this technique provides insight into what individuals’ experience and feel. Focus groups are good for gaining a better understanding of the phenomenon being studied within the research. Data Analysis Technique used will be interviewed in which group interviews will be used that will allow the researcher the ability to capture in-depth information in a cost-effective way in comparison to individual interviews. The main benefit of this technique is that group interaction during the interviews will allow the researcher to grasp different views and will encourage the participants to make connections to various concepts of user experience while using Netflix.

Data Analysis

For each question asked during the focus group session, the researcher will summarize the main themes or the ideas that were discussed. Observations such as tone and opinion difference will also be taken into account. This procedure will facilitate a deeper understanding of the topic of the study. The discussion points that will not be coherent with the questions will also be noted and studied for a greater understanding of the topic. Data reduction will be done by summarizing the one to two-hour discussion with the focus group into manageable concepts for the development of the report. Concept map method will be used to aid in concept building during analysis (Barry Nagle, 2013).



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Assisted dying or euthanasia is a substantial debate today. Researchers have focused on discussing this topic regarding moral values and ethical framework. The success books by Jack Kevorkian and Derek Humphrey reflect plenty of societal values, trust, empathy and harmony.. Public interest is related to the legislation for assisted death. This issue in the western state is considering legislation regarding general welfare means to help society. The argument taken in this form is support position for assisted deaths. Similar arguments will be made about it in this paper.This paper will take the support position under persuasive arguments that assisted death is a legal right, and it should be considered as a public good

The question of euthanasia is old, dates back to 2000 years ago. This is associated with the aging population, uncontrolled technology, and medical involvement of the patient.In the US, since the past half-century, society is carefully nurturing individuals’ liberty rights (Pro-euthanasia). Public goods are those goods that are supplied by the government to the entire people. Such products can be consumed by people at the same time. There are some examples of public goods such as air, defense, and lighthouse, public parks, street light, etc. (Kathy). In the characteristics of the public good is the non-rival benefit, it means if one takes the benefits, other people’s interests will not be reduced. The other feature is non-excludable means one cannot refuse to anyone to consume public goods. This all relates to improvement of welfare of human beings, that is what assisted deaths do.

Arguments to support Assisted Deaths

Physicians believe that moral differences should prevail between assisted suicide and euthanasia. Physicians have not initiated acts that can contribute to assisted suicide as patients’ death. Public opinion regarding assisted death is seen in past four decades that has shown that about 35% Americans are in favor of legalization and from 1991, this ratio increased to 60% (Eastman). Euthanasia is generally an act that is done by a physician in which, it ends the life intentionally, upon the request of the patient. Any lethal substance is administered to take patients’ death. This paper is discussing assisted dying under the context of the public good and whether people should consider it a public good or not (Kailash).  Some people say it is right, and some say it is wrong to practice. It is not considered to be harmful in the European and in few American states. It is normal in these states. It is not only including the people but also animals when the animal falls ill and takes a long time to recover from the disorder, so it is rightly processed for the animals of these states to assist death. Helping individuals through mercy killing is to relieve their pain.

Arguments to support

Assisted death is a controversial issue for healthcare in recent times because once abortion was legalized, voices were raised about euthanasia. Social workers hold the position of debate, while in 1993, the Delegate Assembly US passed the bill about self-determination decisions regarding end of death (Owen). This kind of situation highlight that assisted death should be a pubic good where everyone should be given a right to decide about his life (Assisted). Under this policy statement, end of life decisions addressed the critical issues related to advance directives, palliative care, and terminal illness, active and passive euthanasia (Eastman). The situation under this policy offered a position that self-determination can have a dominant value. Under this policy, it was also clear that social workers cannot be forced about their will, they are free to do what they want, i.e., participate in the act of suicide or personally inappropriate for workers to supply, deliver and personally participate in assisted death act (Owen).

The public health policy was lacking in terms of many holes, such as the American Association of suicidality that discusses individuals’ rights regarding public or common good. The perspective about public good was missing from this policy, and it was commonly argued that the wellbeing of society is above everything in this society.  The argument is clear here, in the case of self-determination, human being, if suffering from pain should be provided freedom. According to contemporary American culture, the scope of individuals is standard in it that can threaten how someone is destructive to the whole community but assisted death is a favor to all those patients who want to be free. The community has to face a harsh decision in the form ofassisted deaths, though it harms a life but it is beneficial for patient (Young).

There are different philosophical foundations regarding considering euthanasia a public good. There are various moral beliefs that this should be pubic good or not. The assisted death phenomenon exists due to the favor of physicians in some countries(Friesen). Generally, two ethical theories illustrate the wellbeing of human beings. Deontology and utilitarianism are two moral aspects that focus on the wellbeing of society and individuals. These theories are according to individual rights and describe how it implements to societal welfare(Eastman). Utilitarianism is about the action; if it is taken inherently good or right, that will create more good benefits as compared to bads, so it leads to the maximization of goods.

If a person favors euthanasia or assisted death concept, it will maximize goods for society. However, it will bring more consequences for the individuals and the community as a whole, a difference for those, who believe it is unethical. People who advocate this concept are enhancing the respect notion for autonomous decisions. The dying patients tend to promote trust in doctors because they willingly choose death over life. In this regard, physicians are creating cost-effective medicine and lethal injections to end the presence of such patients.

The assisted death can decrease the pain of the patient, but it overall hurts the wellbeing of society (Friesen). Utilitarian arguments are not in favor of euthanasia because this legalization can welcome the slippery slope argument. This argument is to invite involuntary euthanasia. For example, in the Netherlands, physicians have reported that lethal injections are provided to only people who are willing to die, so they provide formal approval.

The utilitarian argument also considers that assisted deaths speculate the physicians’ distrust, and this is increased due to the legal conditions of euthanasia. It is perceived that it can manage healthcare conditions. The physicians are the third party payers and members of family who coerce patients to request assisted death. The second leading theory against assisted deaths is deontology(Eastman). This moral theory argues that “actions can be bad or good for reasons rather than consequences.”  On the basis of this theory, assisted death has a good moral in it. Under the universal ethical principles, the actions and intentions are guided in the form of right and wrong determinants. These principles also argue that it is illegal to see the enslavement of human beings(Arguments). The argument against the deontological perspective shows that assisted death is “just participating in the act of killing a patient, and this concept is antithetic to the concept of the physician.” Many physicians face this asa moral consideration (Eastman).

Evidence has shown that assisted death occurs for the welfare of patients, so physicians favor it. The value of objective information in this regard can act minimal because assisted deaths in the Netherlands are only done under the prescribed limits of the guidelines. The state of individualism in different societies is at priority under humanitarian grounds. If it is to be considered according to American culture, the act of assisted deaths is destructive to the whole nation and human life. The community feels it as an act of real interaction that is reciprocal to care and mutual ties (Arguments). Community ideas about crisis management should be considered that need to be tackled. The action is not taken for the more significant interest of society as well as the public good.

Assisted death is not equivalent to murder and killing of the human being. This concept is related to the devastation of the idea of humanity. In this scenario, legal punish should not be allowed because it aids a person get relief from pain. The debate over the legalization of assisted death is not subsided for decades because people who support it have created strong beliefs to negate morality and feasibility. It is essential to respect individuals who are terminally ill. European convention for human rights has decided that though everyone has to face death ahead, conditional death in the form of assisted dying is not allowed (Arguments). This concept is related to the right to self-determination. The scope of this investigation under active euthanasia emphasizes the holiness of life. Declining the level of respect for every individual’s life is unjustified. Moral obligations on doctors are to end the terminally ill patients’ experience.

These arguments mainly discuss the connection between individuals and communities. Respecting fundamental values of life is essential that can be related to the interest of patient. The assisted death in the world has been faced many obligations and criticism because these activities are against the standard right to life for a person. The secular arguments in this way are different because they don’t consider the significance of the entire universe. The position of people, in this way, provide a clear introspection of the fundamental values that work for societal welfare.  For people, it is essential to consider the legal and ethical rights of the human being before considering such decisions.

Assisted death is such a process of termination of life intentionally. In the qualities of the this action,the beneficial approach is to help patients, it implies in the event that one takes the advantages, others’ inclinations won’t be diminished (Kathy). The other element is non-excludable methods one can’t decline to anybody to expend open products. The third component is resolute. The general wellbeing arrangement was inadequate as far as numerous gaps, for example, the American Association of suicidality that talks about people’s privileges with respect to greater welfare appear in favor of the assisted deaths.

Assisted death should be legal, it provides people a right to end their life when they need. The people of European and American states, they should be given the right to die with respect instead of facing pain and trouble in the hospitals who are the victims of the disorder. People of these states think it is a personal right of everyone to live and die; it is not a loss and benefit of other people. In this regard, the opinion is it should be lawful in other countries of the world.


In the Netherlands, assisted death was legalized in 2001 after a lot of controversial public issues. In the 1980s, this process was performed legally under the adaptation of the system in the Royal Dutch Medical Association(Kailash). The judicial system of the country was aligned with the medical association. This law was guided by the Oregon experience, but the public was assured that Dutch law has some defects, and it must be addressed in the proposal formulated by Belgium. In all the jurisdictions, assisted deaths were considered as a well informed and well-considered form that is persistent. In law, the requesting person was permitted to explicit a written form as consent and should be competent by that specific time (Kailash).

Whether assisted death is a public good or not, it has seen a debate for decades. According to the American public, distinct viewpoints about public policy are discussed to show the legalization concept (David). According to 20% public in America, “it is logical to consider assisted death in the form of lethal injection.” 72% of people, in a survey, said, “It should not normally be considered to assist a relative or friend required this matter.” According to physicians, personal involvement in assisted death is not clear yet. The Colorado physicians in a survey said that 59% of them are willing to help patients in assisted deaths while in San Francisco, 70% of them were ready (Phoebe). According to the physicians of Washington State, 33% of physicians are of the view that they would be fine if assisted deaths will be performed (Robert). All these arguments highlight that euthanasia is considered to be a public good that is needed to be freely implemented in public.


Arguments, Pro-euthanasia. Ethics – Euthanasia: Pro-Euthanasia Arguments. 2017,

Behrendt, Kathy. “Whole Lives and Good Deaths.” Metaphilosophy, vol. 45, no. 3, 2014, pp. 331–347., doi:10.1111/meta.12089.

Chand, Kailash. “Why We Should Make Euthanasia Legal | Kailash Chand.” The Guardian, Guardian News and Media, 1 July 2009,

Deaths, Assisted. Should Euthanasia or Physician-Assisted Suicide Be Legal? – Euthanasia – 2019,

Dyer, Owen. “More than 1% of Deaths in Canada Last Year Were Medically Assisted.” Bmj, 2019, p. l1989., doi:10.1136/bmj.l1989.

Eastman, David L. “Dating the Deaths.” The Many Deaths of Peter and Paul, Feb. 2019, pp. 68–102., doi:10.1093/oso/9780198767183.003.0003.

Friesen, Phoebe. “Medically Assisted Dying and Suicide: How Are They Different, and How Are They Similar?” Hastings Center Report, vol. 50, no. 1, 2020, pp. 32–43., doi:10.1002/hast.1083.

Young, Robert. “Medically Assisted Dying.” Oxford Bibliographies Online Datasets, 2011, doi:10.1093/obo/9780195396577-0042. Accessed 16 Apr. 2020.

Feminism in the 20th and 21st Century



Literature Review

Companies go public to raise funds from private investors by issuing them their company’s shares or stocks. The decision to go public is the most challenging period a company faces. Companies go public via the process called Initial Public Offering. However, there are different types of shares issuance involved, and a company can either sell new shares or sell existing shares. Some Initial Public Offering (IPO) contains a whole newly selling stocks. While some IPOs consist only selling existing shares with no raising capital. However, some include both (Ljungqvist, 2001)

Almost an entire initial public offer IPO is reflected in the initial stock price selected by the underwriter. The bank who is doing the underwriting for the respective company examines the market behavior and then set the price accordingly. (Conroy, 2000). In the long run – that is five years – the Initial Public Offer returns declines drastically; the returns are, most of the time, contrary during the start two to five years (Madan, 2003) Facebook’s stock started trading at $38, with huge demand. However, after a few days, the stock price was down to $28, which created hysteria amongst investors (WOS, n.d.)

A study by (Jagannadham) said that investors must learn the basics of investing. They should acknowledge the fact that a company offering shares at IPO has put a price on their earned money, and investors have to do their due diligence and decide what’s best for them. The aim of investors should be to understand the business and earn some decent money gradually, rather than becoming rich overnight (Thunuguntla, 2011). A company’s operating performance is slightly affected negatively after the transition from private to public, in the initial stages. There is a direct relation amongst the after-period of an IPO and the equity retentiveness of a primary investors (Ahmad-Zaluki, 2008). Most of the time, investors overvalue the newly issued shares by a company by misinterpreting the high earnings reported during that time. Therefore, investors are likely to be frustrated by the post IPO declining operational performance, which in turn leads to the decline in demand and hence poor market performance. Current literature from the U.S. supports this hypothesis (Teohet, 1998) (Roosenboom, 2003). A study conducted in the U.S. by Jain &Keni, examined the performance of companies that went public. The sample included 682 IPOs in the U.S. They used two ratios to measure the operational performance one was the operating return of Assets, and the other one was the cash flow from operations. They compared the ratios for the pre-one year of IPO with the post-three years of IPO and calculated the median percentage change. The evidence showed that companies undergo a fall in operating performance in the post three years of IPO. The declining operating performance, however, comes with a caveat. They also found that there is a direct relation between the operating performance and the entrepreneur’s ownership of the shares – that is – higher the entrepreneur’s shares, better will be the compant’s performance in the post IPO years. The decrease in operating performance is mainly because of the overvaluation of the Price Earnings (P/E) ratio, meaning that investors were speculating higher earnings. Moreover, the study also found that companies in pre-IPO stages have a higher Market-to-Book ratio as compared to other similar companies in the industry. But, when they go public, they experience a decline in both Market to Book ratio as well as earnings per share (EPS) (Kini, 1994).

The profitability of a company declines during the first four years of IPO, but it gradually increases after that. A study conducted by McConaghy, he considered the net income from sales, the operating income from sales, and the cash flow from operations, for testing the operational performance and profitability of companies after IPO. He evaluated that the median operating income on sales was 12.702 in 1985, 7.632 in 1989, and 9.542 in 1991. Moreover, he also concluded that public companies were consistently seen as more profitable than the counterfeit private companies. The increase in profitability in 1991 and 1992 was mainly because of the increase in operating cash flow, operating margins, and the initial investment returns. It is worth mentioning that the IPO year was used as a base year; it was easy just to evaluate the post IPO performance rather than comparing both pre-IPO and post IPO (McConaughy, 1995).

Venture-capitalist backed IPOs are more likely to exhibit excellent performance in the post-IPO years, as compared to IPOs not backed by any venture capital firm. The quality of venture capitalists has a direct relation with the post IPO operating performance (Kini, Venture Capitalist Participation, and the Post-Issue Operating Performance of IPO Firms, 1995). The value of a stock price of a company depends on the earnings and discount rate.  (James H. Lorie, 1997). There exists an asymmetry in information for investors investing IPOS. Small companies, when going public, faces a sharp swing in market valuation. Setting prices could be steep because investors have no full information; therefore, they urge companies to disclose complete material information (Ritter, 1998).

Moreover, a few events in history show that even with the advanced technology and automated systems, malpractices cannot be stopped. Therefore, steps should be taken by the authorities to control the IPO scam (Varodkar). One recent example was the IPO of Facebook when the demand for shares was higher than the supply. Few investors received their shares after a week, even though the price by then had dropped down significantly (WOS, n.d.). Some studies have overcome the problem associated with data, and their main focus was more regulated and structured firms, such as banks and insurance companies. A study done by Ke et al. (1999), with a sample of 45 privately owned insurers and 18 publicly owned insurers, found no significant difference in profitability between private and public companies. However, this study was based on a small sample; therefore, much cannot be concluded. Furthermore, a study conducted by Forbes, with a sample of 500 big private companies in the U.S., found that private companies are less profitable in contrast to similar public companies.

In the long run, IPOs show the performance of negative 17.8 percent. The pre-IPO situation of a company’s performance helps in explaining how the stock will perform after it is publicly traded. The number of shares and countries the company operates in are the two crucial elements that influence the post-IPO performance. The higher the amount of equity issued, the negative will be the long run post-IPO performance. Companies that have high costs of flotation (as a % of the raised fund), greater profitability, and high initial returns before IPO, perform well in the longterm of post-IPO (Mudambi, 1999). A study done by Gompers and Lerner showed that no abnormal returns are seen when using the Capital Asset Pricing Model and the Fama French 3 factor model. The study concluded that these methods are best for analyzing the long term performance of IPOs (Lerner, 2001). Haulthausen and Larcker examined companies’ market performance of reverse leveraged buyouts (LBO), by evaluating median of accounting measures (operating income and cash flow from operations). The study found that the accounting measures of reverse LBOs were superior to other firms in the industries, in post-IPO years. The reverse LBO companies continued performing significantly better in the four to five years. Equity and Leveraged were better off together (Larcker, 1996). Cai and Wei found that Japanese companies face a considerable drop in operational performance in post-IPO years after adjustment with industry. Moreover, the decrease in operational performance results in a decline in shares held by the company’s directors (Wei, 1997).

Data Source and Methodology

Companies find it profitable to go from private to the public when then the opportunity cost of staying private becomes too large to the lower cost of borrowing capital from the broad public. The total cost of IPO includes the ongoing cost of staying public, the one-time cost associated with the process, and the indirect costs. The ongoing cost involves presenting financial reports of each year & quarter to shareholders and investors. One-time cost consists of the underwriting process done by the Investment bank selected by the company, and the legal and auditing fees. It also involves the indirect cost associated with the time spent by management to work before and after the IPO to keep the stock price at its best. The human resource capital included in the IPO are the management of the company, founders of the company, the underwriters, and institutional investors. However, if the company, at its initial stages, was backed by a Venture Capital (V.C.) firm, also known as “venture-backed,” the V.C. members are also invited to the IPO process. By going public, the company provides a reward to all (HBS, 1998).

The Saudi Arabia authority of Commerce introduced the companies Act in 1965, that deals with the companies’ regulations. (Commerce, n.d.).

There are several course of actions for going public in Saudi Arabia. Including the following (S.A., n.d.)

  • Offer for sale. The company offers new shares to a brokerage house or the underwriter(s), by putting a fixed price of the stock.
  • Offer by tender. The mechanism is same as the ‘offer for sale’. But, the value of a stock price is not fixed; it varies with the market fluctuations.
  • Offer for Subscription. This procedure does not include a third party – that is – no investment bank or underwriters. The company sells its shares directly to the public
  • This procedure takes less time as compared to others. When companies want to raise capital in less time, they sell shares to investors who will become shareholders in the company. Therefore, the company can negotiate with the expected shareholders directly without involving any third party.

A company deciding to go public has to arrange negotiation with the Ministry of Commerce about the IPO procedure by disclosing the total number of shares that will be trading and the total number of investors buying the shares.

However, according to the Act, the founder of a company has to meet the following requirement.

  • The company must have total assets of worth S.R. 50 million- S.R.: Saudi Riyal.
  • The return on equity must be greater or equal to 7%, three years prior to and after the IPO.
  • The company must be operating for 5 pre-IPO years.
  • The company must have a strong management, who is competent enough to manage assets effectively, and have the potential to compete in the market.
  • If a company wants to go public by using the ‘subscription’ procedure, it must not offer shares less than 40% of the total.

A company possessing these features can appeal to the Ministry of Commerce. However, for application approval, it must include the following items:

  • Name of the company and the year it was founded.
  • The top executives’ salaries, bonuses, allowances, and other individual endowments.
  • Disclosure of the company’s financials. Such as Net income, Revenue, Working Capital [1]

If a company has been under any lawsuit for which no adjudication has been reached, it must be disclosed in the application.

  • The company must explain the purpose of money raised through IPO.
  • The company must disclose the method of calculating the share price and the capital.
  • The company must give detail of the shares owned by the management for the last three years and the shares held after the IPO.
  • The company must provide detail of unsubscribed shares.

The company, when filling for IPO, must attach the following line of items as well:

  • A duplicate of the MOA (Memorandum of Association).
  • An approval letter from the founder.
  • The audit report for the last three years’ financial statements.
  • A feasibility study report, evaluating the coming three years’ financial position and the share price of the company.
  • After permission is granted, the company only has thirty days to offer its shares (Article 54) [2]

The next step is the Prospectus, which includes the company’s current status and future goals. If it is wrongfully included, the founder is then liable to civil and criminal charges. The founders are, therefore, required to provide the following information.

  • Founder (s): Name of all founders included in the MOA
  • The founder must choose the name of the corporation, and it must not be the name of a person. Objectives have to be stated clearly [3]
  • The capital. The company must possess assets of S.R. 10 million
  • Dividends: The policy on dividend distribution.
  • Incorporation cost. The amount that founders paid for the IPO process.
  • Operation time: The date set for offering shares.
  • Allotment: Arrangement between the Ministry of Commerce and the company about the procedure.

Moreover, the founder of the company must make duplicates of the company’s bylaws and distribute it to shareholders. The advertisement campaign for the publication must be run for at least five days before the operation. Moreover, the regulations for companies after the IPO process includes:

  • The Board of Directors. The company must be regulated by a board of directors of not less than three persons. Each director must own shares of not less than SR 10,000 (Article 68).
  • Shares need to issue at a price less than the face value. But, can be issued at a premium (once approved by the authorities) (Article 98).
  • Company Accounts. Each year, the company must disclose the three financial statements. Including the Balance sheet, Income statement, and the cash flow statement. Increase/decrease in capital owned by the company. According to Article 135 of the Act, a company capital can be increased by issuing new shares, issuing new shares against debt, shrinking the face value by the equivalent of the loss incurred by the company.

Furthermore, The Income Tax and Zakat law require that zakat shall only be levied on Saudi nationals, wholly Saudi owned companies, or jointly owned by Saudis and foreigners.

Results and Conclusion

The literature review of the study shows that most of the studies have been conducted in the developed economies of the world like the U.S., the U.K., Japan, and Germany, etc. However, emerging economies only include India. The study is an attempt to find the gap between the notion for going public via the Initial Public Offering, the barriers in the IPO process, and what are some of the limitations faced by companies that undergo IPO in Saudi Arabia. However, the research material used for this thesis, and several other sources and interviews concluded that IPO gives the companies several advantages. It improved the companies’ asset liquidity and credit ratio. Moreover, it also found that IPO positively affected the companies’ growth and that it helped companies diversify their business; the reason was that companies’ executives and employees became stockholders, and it gave the motivation to develop new strategies that allow the company to generate more profits and expands its business further. One study also concluded that the IPO would help Saudi Arabia’s economy by bringing more investment and improving the countries’ Balance of trade (BOP). Research also suggested that disclosing full information to investors will improve the chances of a successful IPO, and public interest will be enhanced.

Moreover, if Saudi Arabia’s government generate a full-fledgedsystem and create clear guidelines that explain the financial regulations, that would undoubtedly increase the rate of Initial Public Offering in the country.


Ahmad-Zaluki, N. A. (2008). Post-IPO Operating Performance and Earnings Management.

Commerce, M. o. (n.d.). Companies Law. Retrieved April 16, 2020, from the Ministry of Commerce.

Conroy, R. A. (2000). Price Discovery in Initial Public Offerings and the Role of the Lead Underwriter.

HBS. (1998). The Process of IPO.

James H. Lorie, P. D. (1997). “The Stock Market – Theories and Evidence.

Kini, B. A. (1994). The Post-Issue Operating Performance of IPO Firms.

Kini, B. A. (1995). Venture Capitalist Participation and the Post-Issue Operating Performance of IPO Firms.

Larcker, H. a. (1996). The financial performance of reverse leveraged buyouts.

Lerner, G. a. (2001). The Venture Capital Revolution. Journal of Economic Perspective. Retrieved April 16, 2020

Ljungqvist, J. a. (2001). Going Public: The Theory and Evidence on How Companies Raise Equity Finance.

Madan, A. A. (2003). Investments in IPOs in the Indian Capital Markets.

McConaughy, D. M. (1995). Performance Entrepreneurship: Theory and Practice. In D. M. McConaughy, Agency Costs, Market Discipline and Market Timing: Evidence from Post-IPO Operation (pp. 43 – 57).

Mudambi, K. G. (1999). On the Long-Run Performance of IPOs.

Ritter, J. R. (1998). Initial public offerings. Contemporary Finance Digest.

Roosenboom. (2003). Earnings management and initial public offerings: Evidence from the Netherlands.

S.A., M. o. (n.d.). Companies Law.

Teohet. (1998). Earnings Management, Lawsuits, and Stock-for-Stock Acquirers’ Market Performance.


Vodka, J. B. (n.d.). Capital Market: Trends in India and abroad – the impact of IPO Scam an Indian Capital Market. Souvenir, All India Accounting Conference.

Wei, J. C. (1997). The investment and operating performance of Japanese initial public offerings.

WOS. (n.d.). Facebook’s IPO. Retrieved from

[1] All of the points and articles in this section are taken from the Act issued by Ministry of Commerce

[2] All of the points and articles in this section are taken from the Act issued by Ministry of Commerce


[3] All of the points and articles in this section are taken from the Act issued by Ministry of Commerce


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