In this paper, we will be exploring the evolution of language as it happens over social media specially Instagram, with a particular focus on how it develops among the youth. Language is a very valuable resource in the evolution of culture itself. Youth identity, while being performed in various ways including fashion, music, dance, etc. is very much performed through the medium of language as well. Social media is a platform through which this language is employed and developed by the people most invested in their online livesthe youth. The activities of social media are not static but mobile since users can document their movements with the help of phones and their cameras, thus bringing in the language of mobility and description of space, which gives insight into the perception of space as well. In a space where image crafting is essential, people are careful about the language they use and do not use to make sure they express their identities just right. This is also aided by the accessibility that mobile phones provide. Content Analysis is being used to draw finding regarding the youth language on Instagram platform in the UAE. hundredsInstagram comments will be analyzed in order to view the use of language by Youth while using simple random sampling technique.

1.0  Literature review:

1.1 Trait model for linguistic behavior:

In a paper,Kulkarni, & Kern(2018), developed a trait model for linguistic behavior on social media. Given the expanse of data present within social media, they decided to forgo questionnaires and directly collect this data to avoid systematic response biases. In line with trait theory, they developed what they called behavior based linguistic traits that they infer by analyzing the plethora of words and phrases used by social media users. They developed five factors that capture real personality traits and this study aimed to see if these factors are stable across time and subpopulations and generalizable with good predictive power (Kim &Phua, 2020 p.12). Their dataset was also skewed towards the youth with the average age being 25.49 years. They concluded that the factors that they established were indeed generalizable and stable. This proved to be a significant step towards research into inferring personality characteristics online (Kulkarni. 2018)Schwartz Park in an article discusses the use of social media language for automatic personality assessment. In the study they assess personality using open vocabulary analysis of language from 66,732 accounts of Facebook. As per the findings, assessment based on language can aid immensely in constituting the personality measures. It can also aid in assessing the mental/ psychological traits of associated with rich portraits.(Park, 2015)

1.2 Language identification technology:

In a study by(Shekhar, Sharma &Sufyan Beg, 2019) the researchers have tried developing a system using Artificial Intelligence to identify language used on social media. The authors focus on English and Hindi, acknowledging that the language used lately on social media is a mix of both languages, that they call Code-mixed text. Online Hindi is written using the English alphabet and often English and Hindi are mixed together in the same sentence. Since there are no established spelling rules for Hindi when it is written in English script, given that people write them as they are pronounced and some pronounce them differently than others, this process is tricky because words become difficult to identify(Shashi, 2019 p.2).

Souvick Ghosh in an article discusses Sentiment analysis is the (NLP) task managing discovery and order of in text sentiments. While a few assignments manage distinguishing the element of in text sentiments, others target to decide the extremity of the text classifying it as neutral positive, and negative. Sentiment analysis tasks intends to decide the subjects, the objectives and the extremity or valence of the conclusion. In their work, they attempt to naturally extricate feelings (positive or negative) from Facebook posts utilizing a machine learning approach (Ghosh, 2017).  In another study, Instagram influence about brands and campaigns was targeted and influence of advertisement was estimated (Kim &Phua, 2020, p. 12).

1.3 Emojis and their role in relaying emotions:

In “Psyco-emotional Impact of Social Media Emoji’s (Zareen, N., Kareem, N., Khan, U., 2016)the researchers carried out a questionnaire regarding the psychological importance of emoji’s. Ninety-seven people from different workplaces and educational institutions in Rawalpindi and Islamabad in Pakistan filled out the questionnaire. An almost equal number of males and an equal number of females took part in the survey. The results showed that ninety percent of the participants considered messages containing emoji’s more meaningful than ones that did not contain emojis. 42% considered emoji’s a strong indicator of emotional expression. They concluded that, given their importance, the use of emojis can cause stress and psychological trauma (p.7).  They also noted that there was a difference in response rate across age groups and gender regarding the emotional impact of emojis and their effectiveness in emotional expression(Zareen, 2016).

Socialmedia needs a marketingrhetoric that grasps rising language use and the growing communicationnorms(Bookman & Hall, 2019 p.4). The Emoji’shave become major components of communication on socialmedia; yet, their job in supporting attempts of persuasion have not been analyzed efficiently. Based on general rhetoric, this study dismembers, depicts and names influencers on socialmediato initiateengagementthrough emoji’s whereposts from 600 Weibomade by 200 influencers were gathered to build up a scientific classification of emoticons.(Ge, 2018).

1.4 Linguistic diversity and determining authenticity:

Sender Dovchin explores the linguistic diversity in the linguistic practices online of Mongolian students in university.  He takes into account the socio-cultural, historical and ideological meanings behind the use of language in interactions online as well. The paper explores two main questions. One looks into the extent of these Mongolian students integrating varied lingua-cultural resources in their social media interactions (p.24). The second question explores the meaning of linguistic authenticity as perceived by these young people. He drew on sets of data taken from Facebook. His findings provide understanding into the co-existence of numerous authenticities within the increasingly globalized social sphere(Dovchin, 2015).Bookman & Hall (2019) in a study explained the impact of Instagram that has highlighted significance of brand under youth and involvement in gaining knowledge.  Ingrid Piller, in an article discusses the element of social inclusion in neoliberal markets. The agenda of social inclusion has been widely adopted and the policies of social inclusion are blinded bythe ways in whichmediation of social inclusion is made via language ideologies in societies that are linguistically diverse. As per the findings, it has a major impact on the policies of the social medium being chosen. (Piller, 2011)

1.5 Identifying regional dialects:

Jacob Eisenstein, in Identifying regional dialects in online social media (2014), looks at how social media language is influenced by region. The study explores how geography might impact social media language and how it is related to the spoken language of the geographical location and the long-term implications of this variation. His dataset consisted of Tweets containing GPS metadata from the United States of America, taking into account demographic variance. His research showed how language trends in social media change over time and how they vary regionally. He looked at various abbreviations that are used online and how their usage varies across different areas. His study also shed light on how certain dialects have begun to spread beyond their original region of use because of how people from different people, used to different modes of communication start coming into contact with them online. These trends are explored over the years (Eisenstein, 2014 p.8).

YuanHuang in an article discusses the US regional linguistic variation in twitter alongside the analysis of data. It understands the US regional linguistic variation by data analysis. The tagged tweets were analyzed to understand, what are the variations in the language used across the US and as per the regionalization results linguistic variations were found in in the U.S. The discovered regions not only confirm past research findings in the literature but also provide new insights and a more detailed understanding of very recent linguistic patterns in the U.S.(Huang, 2016).

1.6 Social Media and Drama:

Kathleen P. Allen conducted a case study about Tweeting, Texting (2014) into the drama that can take place on social media.  Her case study focused on a mother and herteenage upper middle-class daughter who was at the center of the drama. Her study attempts to confirm if the kind of drama that takes place on social media conforms to the already existing definition of drama. This is confirmed in the case study. Furthermore, her work develops emerging themes and fill gaps within the current understanding of drama and its literature(Allen, 2014, p.2).

(O’Meara) 2019,highlighted the inclusion of dramatic conversation in order to make the conversation effective. The population was secondary school students of Australia. The technique used was regarding the development of digital pretext for the project. The approach generate the examination of the student’s in order to discover the understanding of mistaken identities. The twelfth night from Shakespeare was performed in the classes.

1.7 Language practices based on platforms:

Every social platform has a different way of communication, and that leads to having a different style of language(Soukup, 2000, p.410). For example, Tweeter has allowed users to create status and tweets that include a maximum of 140 characters, so the public does not have a massive space to express or to convey what they want to say clearly. Otherwise, Facebook, which permits people to uses approximately 60,000 characters that mean Facebook’s statuses exceed twitter over 430 times the amount of content.  However, Twitter’s audience more likely to use the shortened style of language to fit their social platform requirement. Compared to Facebook, which does not border its characters as it is difficult to reach up to number 60,000. Most often, users on Facebook do not shorten their expression and words as much as Twitter’s users do(Aeid, 2015).

Alexandra Georgakopoulou, in an article discusses YouTube being a major source of using internet and leading as the top video sharing website, where people from around the world share their video content and over the years, it has evolved as a major source and medium of information sharing. The title and description of the videos alongside thee hashtags are relevant in helping spread the website and content. Using the right words leads to be in the top searches. (Georgakopoulou, 2015)

1.8 Generational gap in communication:

A study conducted by the BBC regarding social media contribution in reducing the level of Arabic language between youth. They say that most of young create a circle linguistic consider as a boundary which does not allow other generations to understand what they mean. Probably, this case is spread between university students that creates thousands of words which only being understandable with them. Furthermore, this study illustrated main reason of why youth abandon their mother language. Some writers and thinkers use a contemporary language, but it is full of ambiguity or vocabulary that is difficult to understand its context at times. At the same time, it brings a book to the difficulty of the task for young people through the use of old and challenging vocabulary and structures that may contribute to alienating youth from classical, and choosing to refrain from reading(Khateeb, 2019).

In the United Arab Emirates, many youth groups see that this contemporary youthful language call “Arabizi”, which mean the mixture between Arabic and English, became a necessity imposed by the dimensions of technology. Moreover, its effects multiplied with the identity crisis in our Arabic societies, making us between a crossroads(Mousa, 2012).

2.0 Theoretical Framework

New Media theory refers to the conceptualization and understanding of digital culture and mediums that are computational in nature. From search engines to video & picture sharing websites, the new media theory helps understand the content and what each image, sign, symbol etc. mean. (Kim &Phua, 2020, p. 15).

The Emoji’s. Comments, tone of the comments, hence each and every element in the study is linked with this theory.

Through the lens of new media theory a content analysis of the posts made by a set of people who use Instagram in the UAE will be analyzed in this study.The new media has introduced the participatory culture where users become a part of the story and directly comment.  Each Post creates its own mythology and shapes the mind of the viewer(O’Meara, 2019, p. 21). Like said, social media Emoji’s have psychological impact on the viewer. One major question that this research plans to address is how much of a role do theseusers deliberately let language play in the crafting of their online personas and theaesthetics of their Instagram profiles.

New media theory will aid in analyzing that how they use certain phrases, abbreviations,etc. to come off a certain way and maintain consistency with a certain aesthetic? This theory describes about digital technologies and sophisticated configuration regarding digital culture. New media is about digital platform that contains information and the theory is organized on socio-political principles (Jeknic, 2014, p.180). Further, how do they feel the language is a significant contributor to maintaining and enhancing their chosen aesthetic? New media theory will also aid in that this research aims to look at the relation between the Instagramusers’ online personas and their real lives and, most importantly, the relationship betweenthe language they use online and the language they use offline. It will aim to establishwhether the online images and impressions are crafted to provide users with an alter egoof themselves – to escape their real lives in a way – or whether it serves to enhance andfacilitate their present selves (Soukup, 2000, p 410).

3.0 Research Questions and Research Methodology:

This research aims to look at what young people in the age (18-25) who use Instagram think of the kind of language they use online for their posts. Instagram accounts usually are deliberately crafted around certain themes or aesthetics. Following are the research questions this study aims to address:

  1. What are the common languages used by youth on Instagram in UAE?
  2. How Instagram raises linguistic trend among youth language in UAE?
  3. How emojis contribute to the meaning message by youth language on Instagram?

The methodology of this research will involve content analysis of the posts made by a set of people who use Instagram in the UAE. The content on their Instagram profiles will be analyzed and they will be categorized into Personas. The frequency of certain words and phrases will be recorded. New Media Theory will be applied as well to see how many different mediums are being used by the participants and how their outreach is affected by new mediums and where the things influencing them come from and how.

The participants will be grouped into Personas and then into the broader communities. Their interactions with different communities and people with different personas will be analyzed to answers.

4.0 Content Analysis:

4.1 Case Background

The case is featuring the comments of the students of University of Sharjah and Higher College technology official Instagram account. There are hundreds of comments regarding distance learning because of coronavirus issue was evaluated on the basis of which the results were drawn. Simple random sampling technique was used in order to conduct the study and on the basis of its findings with regard to the research questions a conclusion will be addressed.

The profiles of the youth will be chosen what are the common language is used by youth on Instagram in UAE. How are they using languages like Arabic, English, Arabize.  In order to figure it out hundredInstagram accounts will be evaluated with the text written and we’ll conclude our result based on these accounts and the comments sample. We studied the different comments, almost every student was worried about the distant learning strategy. Students who are not friendly with the technology were confused of online classes and exams because they prefer to attend classes in person. We experienced different emotions in comments by the students, they seemed to be furious against the decision of this distant learning and online exams. In this pandemic, where people are already psychological disturbed, students are more concerned about their studying techniques and they didn’t find themselves ready to accept this distant learning idea.  We will evaluate the comments posted on these specific posts & the responses gathered in terms of their post likes.

 4.2 sampling

We chose the qualitative content analysis in our study to analyze the youth language on social media. Besides, official Instagram accounts of Higher Colleges of Technology and the University of Sharjah in terms of the new decisions and regulations regarding distance learning and the new grading system. The number of student’s comments on these posts in both universities has increased. However, it was easy to collect a diversity of student’s impressions and assess their uses language on social media.

According to the official Instagram account of Higher Colleges of Technology. Occasionally, they are uploading posts concerning new politics and regulations, which consider as controversial news between college students. In light of the Coronavirus crisis, HCT established new decisions that led to attracting a considerable number of student’s participation. Besides the comments, we will observe the diversity of feedbacks and opinions between agreeing and disagree, and each student has an individual style of linguistic replying to that post. Nevertheless, we have chosen the post that uploaded on the 7th of April 2020 via the HCT account as it gains approximately 717 comments.

On the other hand, UOS has announced the continuous of using its distance learning technology on its official Instagram account on the 30th of March 2020 because of spreading Coronavirus. However, more than 100 students put comments and opinions regards this new decision whether to accept or reject. Usually, university students have using many linguistic styles to express their views.

4.3 Coding

Four main linguistic styles show similar in both accounts, which means the linguistic style of HCT students is identical to UOS students. Usually, the students whether in HCT or UOS, are using professional Arabic, UAE local linguistic, English, and Emojis linguistic. Besides the new decisions issued in both universities regarding continuous distance learning technology and the new grading system. There are a lot of complaints that came from students of these universities, so it was easy to observe their linguistic culture.

4.3.1 Emojis and symbols:

In this case of the university, students have shown their interaction and involvement by using emojis. We observed the repetitive of using similar emojis when they want to express their emotions. Using a happy face, clapping hands, Dancing, and hearts Emojis, all of them consider as an indication of approval. On the other hand, the crying, and angry emojis reflects that students disagree and did not accept the new regulations and decisions. Comparing between HCT and UOS Instagram accounts, we noted that there is a similarity of using Emojis types.

For example, every post, especially that regards to new decisions and regulations; we observe that students depend on similar Emojis. Sometimes they do a combination between comments and symbols, as they consider the Emojis as support to their opinions and expressions. However, the study selected two subjects, one from UOS and the other from HCT, both of them are talking about social learning distance and new grading system policies. We found that students used repetitive Emojis in both universities, such as hearts, happy faces, and clumping for accepting the new regulations and policies. Otherwise, some students in the same posts show the rejection and unaccepted that decisions, so they left the most common Emojis like breaking hearts, angry face, and crying emoji.

Figure 1 and 2 will clarify how the students using the Emojis to express their acceptance between two universities. Also, it shows the similarity of Emojis that have used by students:



Figure2: represents UOS
Figure1: HCT



The current research study shows the involvement of students with the decisions of university authority. According to the objective of this study, comments and emojis are important to understand the nature of decision and response. Comments discuss the common language used by students on Instagram and prevailing trends.Some students show liking and some disliking, based on the fact that coronavirus needs to adopt distance learning approach, it was not appreciated by many. Each social platform specially Instagram uses its own kind of language and emojis as sufficient communication. The study has identified regional dialects that are popular on Instagram because every region is common to use prevalent language with minimal variations.In comments, students’ best explain the expression they can.For example, students commented, ‘how classes can be stopped’, or ‘online learning is no easier’ etc. besides, this part will introduce the comments that have used via students in the posts that shared by UOS and HCT regards the news politics and decisions

  • Complaints and Criticisms

Many students see Instagram as a way of sending complaints, suggestions, and public discussions.  For instance, both universities have students do not communicate with management directly; they are sharing their problems on Instagram and publicly. Although the management of both universities replies to their complaints, still they insisting on creating controversially. For example, some comments were about the new policies of the final exam it shows the students are afraid. The common comment was, ” how will we deal with the online final exam?”. However, both of these universities students show the same expressions about the new policies.











  • Mockery and Irony

The purpose of irony in literature is to stop the audience and let them think about what they are doing. In this way, a criticism mockery is developed to achieve the objective. The objective of study is to find out the impact of youth language through Instagram while social media is a common way to estimate the way by which students behave. It is common among youth and students have shown their decisions in this way. For example, the comments included spoof words regards social distance learning and about their student’s life, and they are missing the parking traffic and university’s crowded.It is a common part of new media that aims at opinion meaning or shows sentiments.On the other hand, there are some students lifting comedian and irony comments on both universities’ decisions. Also, some students thanks to Corona Virus, because it let the universities to cancel the classes and attendance.

Figure5: represents comedian comments


  • Students discussions:

Also, Instagram allows the interaction of individuals through sharing, sending, posting, and uploading statuses. Students of these universities like and enjoy social media because of its trend in UAE. The common posts used for this paper are two posts from official Instagram accounts of Higher Colleges of Technology (HCT) and the University of Sharjah (UOS). Students commented on these posts and reflected their expressions.

For example, students in both universities, reply to each other under the posts regarding the new decisions. Although the universities were clarifying in-depth the details about the new regulations, some students still depend on their colleagues for discussions and questions. Another example, some students put predictable news and analysis the new decisions as they like, such as “they say that everybody will pass this course” or “the final exam will be difficult.” Sometimes the replies on one student’s comments reach to approximately 30.


Figure6: represents discussion comments on student’s reply

4.3.3 languages:

Also, there are a group of students left comments that clarify the reasons for acceptance or rejection of the new decisions. Besides the feedback, we noticed that UOS and HCT students using English, original Arabic, and UAE local linguistic to reply to the posts.for example, it is found out that language practice differs in Arab, Emirati, and international students, specifically at the University of Sharjah. The inference is drawn from the experiment to discuss an element of diversity due to multiple nationalities in this sample. The findings suggest that specialization has a significant role in determining language, such as Arab specializations that have shown students who were inclined to the Arabic writers.

The English language is found as a primary mode of communication because international students with majors preferred the English language. In Higher College of Technology, Emirati language is preferred by Emirati nationality holders, while the English language is also preferred because it is a primary language by college teachers.  There are three main linguistics elements that used by both university students which consists of:


  • UAE local Dialect:

We observed that local students preferred using the local language to express their opinions and feelings according to the new decisions and regulations that changed based on the Covid-19 crisis. There are a lot of comments that lifted by Emirates students, whether complaints or suggestions. Comparing UOS and HCT, we saw that HCT has students using the local language as all of them are citizens. on the other hand, UOS has a mixture of nationalities which shows some different local languages Egyptian.

Figure8: represents HCT language
Figure7: represents HCT language



  • Original Arabic Dialect:

Both universities have students who are depending on original Arabic for many reasons. When they communicate or sending questions to the university, they are using the Arabic language because it will become official participation. Another example, UOS consider as an umbrella of civilizations, so they using Arabic as an understandable way of communicating. Besides new decisions, many students lift a significant Arabic sentence to express if they accept or reject it. most probably they are writing and show more when they disagree as it considers the best method to suggest or sending opinions.

Figure9: represents original Arabic language




  • English Language

The English Language considers as the second primary language in UAE and, it is an essential language in most of the universities. According to UOS and HCT, when they posted about new rules and policies. Some students participated in English, especially foreigners. Both universities are teaching English, so usually, their students will depend on the English language, whether in classes or on social media. Moreover, there are many UAE citizens, and from the Arab region who is witting an English. Also, they are using this language to communicate with their universities or friends.

Figure10 & 11: represents English language by HCT students




5.0 Discussion and Conclusion

The issue of distance learning due to Covid-19 is discussed in this paper, under hundreds of comments by students of official Instagram accounts of the University of Sharjah and Higher College Technology. A random sampling technique is used to know results. After studying different comments, the use of emojis, and texts were written by students, and perception is examined. The content analysis provided a grading system, diversity of feedback, and their opinion about agree and disagree. This structure is analyzed under the linguistic style because it was most familiar with students to show their expression.

Research findings are drawn on theoretical framework under significant terms. Trait model for linguistic behavior analyzes the plethora of words and phrases used by social media. The Language identification technology like Artificial Intelligence Code-mixed text are important to understand the comments. In addition, emojis put psyco-emotional impact on behavior and expression. Emoji is also used frequently because it takes less time and effort to show the likeness. Linguistic diversity represents ideological meanings. It is clear from the study that diversity of language is common among students. The regionalization results linguistic variations such as different dialects.

The current research study discussed the impact of youth language on Instagram with specific reference to the UAE. Common words, phrases, emojis and symbols are popular with youth on social media. Through emojis, a higher proportion of the student’s reflected that they agree and disagree. Research has used different languages common with youth that they frequently used on Instagram.New media theory has added in this research by looking at the relation between the Instagram users’ online personas and their real lives and, most importantly, the relationship between the language they use online and the language they use offline.In UAE, different youth groups are engaged in youthful language, English, Arabic, and Arabize, a mixture of both English and Arabic. Research study has answered the research questions that English, Arabic and using emojis are the common languages used by youth in UAE for Instagram.Arabize is a combination of two languages, and none of such language was acquired that represent dual characters, so it is preferable to say it is an ancient language.

Also, the paper answered how emojis contribute to the delivery of the messageand youth using it. The situation presents that young people need a quick solution, so they preferred quick response through a short emoji expression. Current study has added value to existing literature by focusing on the linguistic behaviors and structural significance through prevailing social media methods.Instagram also raises the linguistic trend on them by using special comments, discussing the case and posts between each other, and taking answers by comments and replying.Content analysis has illustrated the scope of language and students’ perception due to social media and how effectively they describe.

6.0 Bibliography


  • Giraud, E. (2018). New Media Theory. Retrieved 3 27, 2020
  • Bookman, S., & Hall, T. (2019). Global Brands, Youth, and Cosmopolitan Consumption: Instagram Performances of Branded Moral Cosmopolitanism. Youth And Globalization1(1), 107-137. doi: 10.1163/25895745-00101006
  • Aeid, N. (2015). The Evolution of The Language Used In Social Media. Retrieved from Grin :
  • Khateeb, A. (2019). Do social media contribute to the weak level of the Arabic language among young? . Retrieved from BBC:
  • Mousa, N. A. (2012). Arabizi technology kills Arabic technology . Retrieved from Albayan :
  • Kulkarni, V., Kern, M., Stillwell, D., Kosinski, M., Matz, S., Ungar, L., Skiena, S., Schwatz, H., (2018).Latent human traits in the language of social media: An open-vocabulary approach, PLoS ONE 13(11):e0201703.
  • Shekhar, S., Sharma, D., Beg, M., (2019).An effective cybernated word embedding system for analysis and language identification in code-mixed social media text, International Journal of Knowledge-based and Intelligent Engineering Systems
  • Zareen, N., Kareem, N., Khan, U., (2016).Psyco-emotional Impact Of Social Media Emojis, Isra Medical Journal
  • Dovchin, S., (2015).Language, multiple authenticities and social media: The online language practices of university students in Mongolia. John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
  • Eisenstein, J., (2014).Identifying regional dialects in online social media
  • Allen, ,(2014). Tweeting, Texting, and Facebook Postings: Stirring the Pot with Social Media to Make Drama – Case Study and Participant Observation, The Qualitative Report.
  • Ge, J. (2018). Emoji rhetoric: a social media influencer perspective. Journal of Marketing Management, 1272-1295.
  • Ghosh, S. (2017). Sentiment Identification in Code-Mixed Social Media Text. Cornell University, 1-10.
  • Georgakopoulou, A. (2015). The Routledge Handbook of Language and Digital Communication.
  • Huang, Y. (2016). Understanding US regional linguistic variation with Twitter data analysis. Computers, Environment and Urban Systems, 244-255.
  • Jeknic, O. (2014). New media or new interfaces: The concept of interface in Lev Manovich’s’ theory of new media. Kultura, (145), 188-197. doi: 10.5937/kultura1445188j
  • Kim, T., &Phua, J. (2020). Effects of Brand Name versus Empowerment Advertising Campaign Hashtags in Branded Instagram Posts of Luxury versus Mass-Market Brands. Journal Of Interactive Advertising, 1-16. doi: 10.1080/15252019.2020.1734120
  • O’Meara, V. (2019). Weapons of the Chic: Instagram Influencer Engagement Pods as Practices of Resistance to Instagram Platform Labor. Social Media + Society5(4), 205630511987967. doi: 10.1177/2056305119879671
  • Park, G. (2015). Automatic personality assessment through social media language. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 934-952.
  • Piller, I. (2011). Linguistic diversity and social inclusion. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, 371-381.
  • Soukup, C. (2000). Building a Theory of Multi-Media CMC. New Media & Society2(4), 407 doi: 10.1177/1461444800002004002
  • Shekhar, S., Sharma, D., Beg, M., (2019).An effective cybernated word embedding system for analysis and language identification in code-mixed social media text, International          Journal of Knowledge-based and Intelligent Engineering Systems no. 3, pp. 167-179






Sociolinguisticconsiderations discuss the different attitude of language between nations. Different countries thrive with different languages for example, Spanish and Hispanics differ on the basis of positive attitude to own languages. Hispanics prefer Spanish than Englishwhile Spanish feel that for advertising, English language is the bestone. Language matters most in communication and helps buyer to make decisions(Chung Han & Soo Ahn, 2013). The language of communication in advertisement is important to know consumer decision. Global brands use English language without any hesitation because English can better provoke customers to purchase and it is the most used language over globe. This research paper will discuss the role and impact of language on advertisement.

Impact of Language

As humankind makes development and progression, the conversational competency flourishes, and its roots are going more extensive. When we have a command of the language we can convey our thoughts to others, and push our ideas to outsiders, or can change its content, and can convey a message through communications, these skills impact marketing to attract the customers, influence the faith to purchase the products of related brands.

Placing and positioning of the product is the only purpose behind the numerous campaigns of the world. It can create tremendous forces on the retailer series, which is establishing around the globe. For advertisement and marketing, the graphics, content, verbal and descriptive conversation are necessary to build a report and provide guidance to consume the product, and resources proposed by the brand who invests his money to persuade the consumers(Dobson &Poels, 2020).

Language is an essential conversational means that help humans in the way of interaction. Language helps to create certainty and afterward systemizes it. The language supports invisible things and displays the presence. It also portrays the knowledge of someone. The language emphasizes experience, and experience relies on incidents, manners, targets, thoughts, character, nature, status, and cultural relationship(Chung Han & Soo Ahn, 2013). Language is not a symbolic system that creates a human culture that might be in written or oral communication. It also discusses social aspects based on cultural values, for example, garments, foods, customs, and traditions to form a society.

The discussion that is made on electronic media also represents language appearance. This discussion follows the powerful and intense conversational methods to protect the human culture and their defensive existence(hooft, Meurs&Schellekens, 2020). It also practiced giving information to others, providing truth, analyzing the behavior and opinion of others. The language also draws a craft on assets, advantages, and explains the flavor of an object. It also presents a view of experiences. Thus, the language follows its circumstances(Bishop &Lambie, 2007). The language affected social, educational, cultural values. Although social values and linguistic values are the same in society. An established society occupies developed linguistic values. Language is a powerful tool to express his ideas and emotions to others, and also a self-reflecting agent. It has a variety of uses, like writing, talking. The language also assists in developing cultural values. It plays a vital role in current cultural values in other communities. It also provides an identity to its speaker(Rinard, 2008).

In terms of broadcasting, language plays a vital role. It considers an essential tool for advertisement. The language also used in an advertisement for the transaction language that encourages the communication level. It also discusses the interaction of thoughts, that preferred the addressed and addressee relationship. The writer wants to describe the impact of language on electronic media, and measure the effect of scholar, audience, and listeners. It plays a dominant role and is sharper than a knife. When a person uses any ethical language through action, it is difficult to determine(Woloshin, 2009). Communication is also a graphical sound character. This act pushes a person to collapse and then towards the suicides. Language is a mysterious strength that is known as conversation. The language leads the world to supreme power, and we can measure its power by advertisement, who is competent to influence the people.

Concept of meaning 

The language signifies the confusing term. It is also applicable to evaluations, diagnosis, exposure, and presentation methods. Human behavior and action also affected language subjects and intersubjective. To recognize the human activities, we should know basic motives, by placing himself at the position of the speaker(Bishop &Lambie, 2007). When the pronunciation purpose required, the essays and reviews need to pay consideration to follow the covered meaning of discourse. When a person listens to something, the audience listens and understands it and answers according to it. The conversational sense describes the discourse context should be shorter and easy to understand and must be creating a relationship between the body and object, and referent to understand.

The word ‘house’ provides a sense of appearance; House is a combination of door, roof, window, and some other objects that all form residence for a person. There is a deep relationship between expression and referent, which also produces its further meaning and recommendations. This meaning and evidence of house, focus on the effect that creates a relation on its formation and nonlinguistic experience that are serving as nature. There are different meanings, and opinions are available to find out the correct definition, it follows three concepts of applications: 1) referential purpose, it shows the symbolic and referential relationship. 2) Meaning: It shows the meaning of a symbol, and the term will provide a sense if they are associated with another, time which is called ‘legally.’ 3) Intention: It wholly depends on the speaker’s wording or meaning of conversation that is being performed on symbols(Alonso García, Chelminski& González Hernández, 2013).


Media holds an essential position in the world. Media has become a platform for many different ideological representations. Media can develop into a tool to create traditional and prevailing ideology for the interest of the leading class, at the same time it can develop into the instrument of struggle for the oppressed group of the society to create ideology and cultural competition, as media is described as the battlefield for the competing ideologies(Alonso García, Chelminski& González Hernández, 2013). As a source of communication in presenting news, analysis, or common view about anything, media has a significant part as an institution that develops public opinion as media can also shape into the imagery or pressure group that is placed into the life perspective more analytically. Media can present positive or negative influences. Certainly, this standardizing character is very relative, relies upon the provided interest dimension. People can learn to be familiarized with their atmosphere with the help of the media. Media has to turn out to be an instrument to deliver a message to the general public.

When mass media has used a language, then, in fact, their responsibility has increased toward the influence propagation, certain stereotype, and prejudice. Thus, the selection of words that are used by the journalists or creators of advertisements has to be significant because it can influence the choice of people in enhancing their knowledge.

In human culture, language is a global symbol system. Language meaning is not only limited to oral language, written language, but it also includes all social trends of extensive culture in society, for example, clothes, rituals, food menu, and others. In such a case, advertisement communication in all media forms is also taken as one of the phenomena of language. In the start, the system of language is an instrument of communication, to create combined social understanding in the general public. Language is not limited to its meaning of representing cultural realities, but having the power to develop or to build cultural realities(Bishop &Lambie, 2007). According to a study that there are fewer people who think that language has a major impact on their point of view or observation about something. In language development, it is not the only source of communication or code system against the norms that reflect the monolithic meaning of reality. Generally, language is continuously developed in a certain social system.

As the demonstration of different social connections, language always develops strategies, subjects, and different communication themes. Language is the visual mode in the shape of a symbol, or visual picture has the influence to develop a different ideology that will also change and outline our awareness and subjectivity. Sign language can also be as effective as oral language or written language. Language has a part to reflect the true nature of the use of significance of the advertisements to service or product goods that are advertised. Language is also used as a medium to advertise capitalistic commercialism beliefs to the community. The language power that has carried the colonization of human civilizing symbolic in the advertisement, in fact, is one evidence that the hostility of language show one influence that can poison the civilization’s existence today and in the future. As a study told that though the utilization of words can be mistreated and the struggle for respect may sometimes be observed helpless, we should never back-down the right to use them only in the truth service. One should aim to mean what they talk and talk about what they mean. The truth is that advertisements are used to persuade to purchase. But it is important to understand that in advising people to purchase a product, it needs to select the delivery well.

There are two important terms, high customer involvement, and low customer involvement. The first reflects the products that normally are higher in price and are bought comparatively barely; the second reflects the products that are lower in price and are purchased more often. Scholars gave a further detailed classification, that is, convenience products, shopping products, and specialty products. The former is the same as low customer involvement, whereas higher customer involvement goods are further divided into shopping products and specialty products. Specialty products are enormously more costly than shopping products such as marriage dresses(hooft, Meurs&Schellekens, 2020). The analysis of data in this study consists of all three kinds of products. Third, concerning techniques, there is a difference between tickle advertising and reason advertising. Reason advertising is simple and direct, whereas tickle advertising is in direct and needs viewers to exercise more efforts to understand them. And last, in view of the consumer-ship, advertisements may be classified by customers’ socio-economic class, lifestyle, age, gender, etc.


Bilingual advertising is important to know because it is increasingly used in communication. In US, advertisers are using many kinds of communication methods for advertisement. Ads with English and Spanish language are getting more recognition. Words, phrases and meaning in a language are linked to the socio-cultural values of a nation. Different languages work differently with advertisement and make consumers’ mind to buy. Impact of language on advertisement cannot be ignored.





Alonso García, N., Chelminski, P., & González Hernández, E. (2013). The Effects of Language on Attitudes Toward Advertisements and Brands Trust in Mexico. Journal Of Current Issues & Research In Advertising34(1), 77-92. doi: 10.1080/10641734.2013.754711

Chung Han, M., & Soo Ahn, B. (2013). A Study on the Effects of Motivations on Attitudes toward Advertisements : A Focus on Sina Weibo. The E-Business Studies14(3), 155-174. doi: 10.15719/geba.14.3.201308.155

Dobson, D., &Poels, K. (2020). Combined framing effects on attitudes and behavioral intentions toward mortgage advertisements. International Journal Of Bank Marketingahead-of-print(ahead-of-print). doi: 10.1108/ijbm-07-2019-0277

hooft, A., &Meurs, F. (2017). The same or different? Spanish-speaking consumers’ response to the use of English or Spanish in product advertisements. Conference Paper ·6(2), 1-8.

Luján-García, C. (2011). ‘English invasion’ in Spain: an analysis of toys leaflets addressed to young children. English Today27(1), 3-9. doi: 10.1017/s026607841100006x

Woloshin, S. (2009). Does Direct-to-Consumer Prescription Drug Advertising Do More Harm Than Good?. Annals Of Internal Medicine151(11), 824. doi: 10.7326/0003-4819-151-11-200912010-00021





Mobile devices are rapidly proliferating as more than 2 billion smartphones were reportedly used back in 2014, and it is anticipated that more will be deployed for use. These penetration rates introduce the use of different applications within mobile devices (Kortum, 2015). Until 2007, smartphones were not mass-marketed and were not commercially available. However, after the launch of the first iPhone back in 2007, and android launch in 2009, the smartphones became commercially available, before 2007, a large number of selectable consumer applications within mobile phones were not available (Kortum, 2015). Users can now easily customize the applications within their mobile platforms which suit their needs. The amount of downloadable user applications for the mobile devices is large and continues to grow, with more than 1.2 million applications available in i0s platforms and more than 1.3 million available via GooglePlay in Android OS (Kortum, 2015).

Pine (1998) defines user experience as a unique set of offerings that emerge s when an organization intentionally uses its product or service offerings to engage the users in such a way that it creates customer delight. User experience encompasses the whole aspect of a service acceptance by a user. It touches all the elements inclusive; hedonic and pragmatic of a product. The instrumental or pragmatic elements of a service or product referred to the beneficial aspects such as the ease of use of an application or usefulness of the service. The non-instrumental or hedonic elements refer to the experiential and emotional aspects of service use. Learnability, security, user satisfaction and user interface are some of the factors that contribute towards user experience for a mobile application.

Mobile applications like Netflix use online personalization to enhance user experience. Online personalization via adaptive user interface means that the user interface automatically adjusts context, demands, detected changes, adjusts content, visual presentation or layout (Yang, 2016). User experience design is immensely important in developing a good mobile application since it has a huge impact on the success or failure of the application (Yazid, 2017).

Purpose of the study

The purpose of this research is to enable practitioners to use the information concluded within the research to make informed decisions regarding the mobile application and benchmark their progress for Netflix against other applications for mobile platforms.

Research Problem

Netflix application allows individuals to obtain content anytime, anywhere and through a mobile platform. Because of this specialty, individuals show immense interest in the application all over the world (Cebeci, 2019). This is why it is imperative to investigate what makes a good user experience for Netflix application and how the application is perceived by the users.

Research Objective

Previous researchers have focused mainly on Netflix as an emerging media platform or on its content. It has been observed that there is little research regarding the factors that affect the user experience for Netflix mobile application. Since it is still a gap in the literature, the research aims to investigate the determinants of user experience for Netflix application. The current research will focus on the studies dedicated to the user experience of using Netflix.


Research Questions

  • Is the Netflix application easy to navigate for the users?
  • Is the Netflix application interactive?
  • Is the user interface (UI) plain and easy to follow?
  • What elements of user experience i.e. ease of use, learnability, security, user satisfaction, user interface design etc. does the application follow?
  • How satisfied are the users with the user experience?
  • How likely are the users to reuse the Netflix application?
  • Can the Netflix application serve the users to achieve the end goal, i.e. stream videos, watch TV shows, movies, etc.?
  • Does the Netflix application meet its functionality?

Interview Questions

  • In your opinion, is it easy to use Netflix mobile application? Explain your answer.
  • Is the setting of your device sufficient for the use of the application?
  • Do you think that all the functionalities of the Netflix application are designed in such a way that they aid the user in performing the task?
  • Netflix interface design has elements that invite the attention of the users and provide the ease of use such as auto-play which induces binge-watching in users. What are the features that make the user interface easy for you?
  • Do you think that the recommendation algorithm in Netflix application reduces the navigation time and enhances the user experience?
  • Do you think that the Netflix interface uses a narrative to make the user believes to be in control and has the agency of controlling his or her Netflix experience through their choices?

Literature Review

Research related to user experience while using mobile applications has gained momentum as well as considerable interest from both practitioners as well as scholars. The literature within the field of user experience happens to include all factors which affect the interaction of a user as well as their experience of the product or system (Yazid, 2017). Yazid (2017) uses User Experience Questionnaire adapted from Chen’s User Experience (UX) assessment model for mobile applications which offers insight into the factors that affect the user experience. Ease of use, learnability, user Interface, security, user satisfaction etc. are some of the elements that contribute towards a fulfilled user experience. Ease of use factor covers three elements of user experience: data accessibility, usability and navigation. Yazid (2017) defines usability by how functional an application is for the end-user. This means that all the functionalities of an application must be designed in such a way that they aid the user in performing the task most efficiently compared to what they have been using or are used to before.

According to Yazid (2017) , it is imperative that the navigation pattern within an app is simple to aid the users that are new in figuring out how to move across the mobile application with ease in the fewer number of clicks. Data accessibility aspect for an application means that the data must be available readily at any location for consumption by the user to make the application reliable. Validation aspect contributes towards the ease of use elements in the context of making the users aware of the mistake that they might have made. This enables the users to check the error before they click the submit button.

Learnability happens to be the degree of ease as well as the speed with which a user gets familiar with using a specific application. High learnability refers to how users intuitively learn how an application in a mobile phone is used without checking user guide or FAQs. The user interface, according to Yazid (2017), is a touch-sensitive display present on a cellular device and is highly important for engaging the customer’s attention as it is the first thing the user observes. Selection of size, colours and icon give a meaningful impact on user perception. Another factor that impacts user experience, according to Yazid (2017), is behavioural intent which is a subjective norm.

An application with a good user experience design deploys the user with the right information and fulfil their anticipation so that the user can bookmark the relevant material and use the application again in future. Reduction of user errors influences the user’s intention to reuse the application (Yazid, 2017). Thus having suggestion tools such as listing recommendations based on previous click or views can be used as a method to improve user experience.

Yang (2016) states that machine learning and the adaptive user interface has become an effective tool for enhancing mobile user experience (UX). Popular mobile applications such as Netflix, Facebook, Google Search, Instagram, Kindle, Mail, Pandora, YouTube, Safari, Twitter etc. regularly mine user behaviour and context data to enhance personalized recommendations, predict log behaviours like sleeping or walking and filter out spam. Moreover, users now expect mobile applications to have smart systems that have intelligent interfaces (Yang, 2016). Mobile interface (UI) benefits from adaptations which specifically reduce navigation because mobile contexts and tasks vary greatly small mobile screens limit interaction as well as content space. For example, the Starbucks application learns how a user pays through their phone learn about the user payment method when the application is launched inside the store.

Furthermore, Yang (2016) states that mobile applications like Netflix use online personalization to enhance user experience. Online personalization via adaptive user interface means that the UI automatically adjusts context, demands, detected changes, adjusts content, visual presentation or layout. Movie recommendations in Netflix mobile application reduce the effort needed by the user to find the right movie or TV show. The Netflix application employs adaptive UI that uses the user profile and the set of user models to personalize the user experience as well as to address the needs of heterogeneous users. This is because online personalization benefits the service providers like Netflix and users. The term “algorithm identity” is used by (Markham, 2018) to denote how user interface adjusts content for the users and is a crucial element of the user experience catered by Netflix.

Algorithm identity is the “self” of the user that is constantly reproduced based on user interaction with the platform through clicks. This claim is authorized by a growing body of research that acknowledges the role of algorithms for generating different versions of a user’s identity online. Cheney-Lippold (2011), for example, a claim that application algorithms categorize the identity of the individuals which are inferred based on their application usage. Similarly, Markham (2018) argues that algorithms personalize and construct relational meaning and construct identity in contemporary use of the application.

Markham (2018) also focuses on what does the algorithm do and how it shapes the behaviour as well as the experience of the users. When it comes to the interface in Netflix application, over time and with routine use, it can be seen that the algorithmic identity develops. At the start, there is no typical profile page which users can refer to; instead, users can set up a small profile to inform the application regarding “who’s watching?” by choosing several avatars (Markham, 2018). The application also provides choices such as ‘maturity level’ and language topic from which caters to the need to the user.

Netflix via its mobile application successfully uses personalization in such a way that it anticipates the users’ behavioural intent and reduces the navigation time also known as the number of screens and reduces selection efforts which are the number of inputs or taps (Yang, 2016). The adaptive user interface is also beneficial for the service provider such as Netflix as it provides enhanced customer satisfaction and loyalty. The research and service design community recognize personalization as an essential element in maintaining and building long-term customer relationships while enhancing customer lifetime value. Yang (2016) states that adaptive user interfaces might confuse users who have the perception that the changes within the system’s behaviour happen to be negatively inconsistent instead of taking it as personalized user experience. This is because adaptive user interfaces might decrease the sense of control for users.

Cebeci (2019) uses the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) to examine the factors that influence the intention of users to use Netflix and the user’s experience of the application. The Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) has been derived by Theory of Reasoned Action, which has four main constructs: attitude, intention to use, perceived ease of use and perceived usefulness. Cebeci (2019) states that perceived ease of use is the degree to which a user believes that using an application would be free of any effort and the perceived usefulness is the degree to which a user believes that an application would be beneficial to them. Users are having a high level of knowledge regarding application usage regard it as easy to use. Similarly, if a user has knowledge regarding Netflix application, he or she will believe it to be easy which means that Netflix is positively related to user’s perceived ease of use (Cebeci, 2019).

Similarly, Kortum (2015) uses the Technology Acceptance Model as a theoretical framework to denote the rapid adoption of mobile applications as the model suggests that technology and applications are widely adopted because of perceived usefulness. This perceived usefulness is related to the ease of use of the application such as the elements of availability, portability, low cost, ubiquity etc. contribute towards user experience (Kortum, 2015).

Markham (2018) uses a series of user journeys through the interface and critically analyzes each moment of the selected user’s Netflix experience (Markham, 2018). Over the course of the analysis, Markham (2018) ended up foregrounding different aspects of the influential, relational and infrastructural elements of the socio-technical experience of using Netflix. The researcher focused on three complexities, first being the user experience of the Netflix interface in which a complete narrative is implanted in such a way that the user believes to be in control and has the agency of controlling his or her Netflix experience through their choices. This happens to be apparent in the image of the company itself and is reinforced through the Netflix application.

Secondly, the Netflix application functions both indirectly as well as directly to condition the attitude as well as behaviours of the users. Directly, Netflix pushes to promote the original content as well as region-specific content. Indirectly, the Netflix interface design has elements that invite the attention of the users and provide the ease of use such as auto-play which induces binge-watching in users and promotes perceived ease of use.

The perceived ease of use is the degree to which a user believes that using an application would be free of any effort (Markham, 2018). Thirdly the recommendation algorithm creates an unsteady state of being in the users due to its incomprehensibility because of which users are never quite sure what the recommendation will be which enhances user attentiveness while using the application and engages them. Varela (2019) uses the user-focused approach for her study of the algorithmic culture that influences user experience. The researcher used Netflix’s recommendation algorithm to study the questions of black boxing, biases in the algorithm in terms of visibility as well as socio-technological elements of algorithms. The researcher conducted an in-depth interview methodology with users who are loyal users of Netflix in Singapore. Varela (2019) concludes that users also happen to be co-producers of the content as they contribute towards their experience as well through their usage of the application and consequently to the success of the application.

Pine (1998) defines user experience as a unique set of offerings that emerge s when an organization intentionally uses its product or service offerings to engage the users in such a way that it creates customer delight (Pine, 1998). Mobile user experience has been expanded upon using three dimensions such as device-related issues, application-related issues and communication-related issues. The device-related issues happen to be associated with hardware features that contribute towards ease of use of the accessories or the device such as a mobile phone. Communication-related issues tend to be focused on interpersonal communication, while application-related issues are linked towards the interaction of the user with the specific mobile application. The application related issues have been identified as the crucial layer which contributes towards user experience by Subramanya and Byung. Their research suggests that the application-related issues compensate for user constraints and underlying device constrains (Subramanya, 2009).

Research Methodology

The research methodology that is going to be used for this research is qualitative data collection and analysis (Hammarberg, 2016). Qualitative research is the most suitable method since the nature of this particular study is investigative. The research focuses on user experience while using Netflix application, and according to Hammarberg (2016), qualitative methods are used to explain research queries regarding perspective, experience and meaning from the standpoint of the participants. The research will employ qualitative research technique of small group discussions for investigating the concepts, beliefs as well as attitudes of normative behaviour. The quantitative technique has not been used because closed-ended questions that are asked for data collection do not provide good insight into the mind of the respondent.


Data Collection Technique

Focus group technique is going to be used as the data collection technique for this research because this technique provides insight into what individuals’ experience and feel. Focus groups are good for gaining a better understanding of the phenomenon being studied within the research. Data Analysis Technique used will be interviewed in which group interviews will be used that will allow the researcher the ability to capture in-depth information in a cost-effective way in comparison to individual interviews. The main benefit of this technique is that group interaction during the interviews will allow the researcher to grasp different views and will encourage the participants to make connections to various concepts of user experience while using Netflix.

Data Analysis

For each question asked during the focus group session, the researcher will summarize the main themes or the ideas that were discussed. Observations such as tone and opinion difference will also be taken into account. This procedure will facilitate a deeper understanding of the topic of the study. The discussion points that will not be coherent with the questions will also be noted and studied for a greater understanding of the topic. Data reduction will be done by summarizing the one to two-hour discussion with the focus group into manageable concepts for the development of the report. Concept map method will be used to aid in concept building during analysis (Barry Nagle, 2013).



Barry Nagle, N. W. (2013). Methodology brief: Introduction to focus groups. Center for Assessment, Planning and Accountability, 3.

Breen, R. L. (2006). A Practical Guide to Focus-Group Research. Journal of Geography in Higher Education, 463–475.

Bucher, T. &. (2018). The Affordances of Social Media Platforms. In J. Burgess, The SAGE Handbook of Social Media. Sage Publications.

Cebeci, U. (2019). Understanding the Intention to Use Netflix: An Extended TechnologyUfuk Cebeci. International Review of Management and Marketing, 152-157.

Cheney-Lippold. (2011). New Algorithmic Identity: Soft Biopolitics and the Modulation of Control Theory . Culture & Society, 164-181.

Hammarberg, K. (2016). Qualitative research methods: when to use them and how to judge them. Human Reproduction, 498–501.

Kortum, P. (2015). Measuring the Usability of Mobile Applications for Phones and Tablets. International Journal of Human-Computer Interaction, 518–529.

Markham, A. (2018). Netflix, imagined affordances, and the illusion of control. In T. Plothe, Netflix at the Nexus. Peter Lang.

Pine, J. B. (1998). Welcome to the Experience Economy. Harvard Business Review,, 20.

Subramanya, S. R. (2009). Enhancing the User Experience in Mobile Phones. IEEE 5th International Conference on Advanced Video and Sinal Based Surveillance, 200.

Varela, D. K. (2019). The Netflix Experience: A User-Focused Approach to the Netflix Recommendation Algorithm. In Netflix at the Nexus: Content, Practice, and Production in the Age of Streaming Television (pp. 197-211). Lang Publishing Group .

Yang, Q. (2016). Planning Adaptive Mobile Experiences When Wireframing. Proceedings of the 2016 ACM Conference on Designing Interactive Systems, 565-570.

Yazid, M. A. (2017). User Experience Design (UXD) of Mobile Application: An Implementation of a. Journal of Telecommunication, Electronic and Computer Engineering, 197-290.
















The millennial generation in the world is growing, so there values, demographic needs, and habits. The changes in their preferences are sparking, particularly in the hospitality industry (Aleks, R. and Saksida, T., 2019). The specific generation is born between 1980 and 2000, the early 1980s or early 2000s generation is a rapidly growing population and engaging world business. This new wave of travelers has spread significant influence over the hospitality industry. The youngest generation wants to explore new avenues, explore new experiences, and want to interact with different destinations (Carpenter, M.J. and Charon, L.C.D., 2014). Designers and architects have used this opportunity to create design elements and offer space to incorporate valuable preferences of the millennial generation.  Industry sources have discussed that millennial travelers contribute to more than 50% of all the guests of the hotel in 2020 (Chen, P.J. and Choi, Y., 2008). This critical reflection intends to address the significance of catering to millennials regarding the hospitality industry. It will explore its impact, stakeholders, and cultural factors with related evidence.

Literature Review

Collective consciousness has proposed the impact of baby boomers as a new force, while copious millennials are found to be more vital labor force than any other generation. The significantly different values, lifestyles, and beliefs from baby boomers generation have made millennials to dominate the hospitality industry (Dev, C.S., 2012). According to Talent’s development at Stamford, Erin Haid discussed that “millennials want companies to work according to their values and get connected to their preferences. They need better opportunities to grow and a clear path to accepting challenges”. Another evidence about millennials’ effect on the hospitality industry is described by Mike Oshins, the professor of Hospitality Administration Boston, “millennials like transparency and they need to work on a broader level in the hotel industry, reflecting different values like self-help, etc.

The impact of millennials on the hospitality industry, in general, can be seen from different perspectives, such as their way of work and understanding. They look for challenging and exciting work, and their role in the hospitality industry is different than previous generations. Guelph funded study at Dalhousie University proposed a comparative study to find out the work values in X and Y Generation. The study found that the oldest millennials, on average, had seven jobs till their 30s as compared to baby boomers and X generations. The study identified different novelty for millennials and their role in hospitality. The generation appeared to be tech-savvy but committed to work (He, J., Morrison, A.M. and Zhang, H., 2019). The roles of millennials in the hospitality industry have proven their flexibility for different purposes, expertise in locations, and priorities. Their impact on catering is witnessed from their flexible schedules and accommodation of personal needs. The effect of millennials on hospitality can be seen from their passion for working; for instance, they are more likely to leave if they think they cannot develop at a specific place and vice versa.

The impact of millennials on sustainable companies is due to the community growth they are seeking. The accomplishment of standard job duties and spirit of work is developing as culture becomes enriched. The Star Wood management program evaluated the role and performance of the millennial regarding the hotel industry. In hospitality organizations, millennials’ expectations represent their decisions about hospitality technology. Brands are engaged in targeting millennials in every segment of life because their preferences drive leading brands to get the benefit of technology (Kim, D.-Y. and Park, S., 2019). Through new processes, new technologies, the scope of management will increase, and new engagement ways will develop, according to a study.  The hospitality industry is specific to discuss millennial consumer expectations because they appear best guests to guide hotels.

According to the US Census Bureau, millennials are the largest growing demographic segment is millennials. The reason behind this is the immigration surge in the US from abroad. Another reason is the decline in the baby boomer generation when they reach their golden age. Pew Research Center has presented that a high number of millennials in 2030 will be 8.11 million. In the hospitality industry, this reason will increase investment due to their value as consumers (Kostuch Media Ltd. and Kostuch Media Ltd., 2015). They are future and perceived as a vital changing force for the coming times since they possess a great experience to think like a guest and use technology. The distinct culture millennials are come up with aligns consumers’ expectations (Kostuch Media Ltd. and Kostuch Media Ltd 2015).

The hospitality business significantly considers the changed scenario to cater to this tech-savvy generation. The five-star hotel industries are rethinking their stuff according to the millennial’s demand. The hotel and travel industry is lucrative and hugely attractive. Global millennials are two billion, and from Asia, 60% of them belong, and in India, only 400 million reside (Mejia, C. and Lavendol, V., 2015).  They are strong enough and the highest spending power, so big corporate travels. The director of Deloitte’s travel hospitality discussed that the impact of millennials on hospitality is significant since they focus more on experience and genuinely care for the shared values.

Kim, D.-Y. And Park, S (2019) discussed the effect of millennials in the hospitality industry regarding stakeholders and organizations. The well being and employee performance in the hospitality industry is analyzed in this study that how central workforce and its attitude is drawing attention in research. The study examined prior literature regarding human resource practices and its influence on millennials that is influencing behavior in the workforce.  Responsible leadership contributes to a productive workforce, and employees can make a difference in the hospitality industry. The qualitative study proved that the practical value of hotels is due to millennials and their wellbeing fosters to develop a responsible leadership.

Sofronov, B (2018) proposed a study to identify change due to millennials in the tourism industry and the significance they made. The study undertook a broader picture of social media and technology-based framework as well as internet access. Millennials are affecting buying elements due to their informed approach to decision making and the whole influence of technology. The perceived authenticity was discussed by the author that symbolizes millennials significant and different from other demographics. Millennials are found to be more interested in the hospitality and travel industry due to sustainability and a sense of fulfillment that the hotel industry understands.

He, J., Morrison, A.M., and Zhang, H (2019) analyzed the impact of millennials on tourism and hospitality industries. The focus of this study was to highlight the significance of the latest trends and differentiated buying preferences of the millennial generation. The research surveyed different employees of the hospitality industry to know about the wellbeing millennials get when they receive favorable behavior. The assessment of employees’ experience through their perception has provided a clear insight for their commitment to work. The characterization of employees’ assessment was positively related to work experience and interest in the hospitality industry.

Warda, S.Y (2019) discussed the tourist behavior under the shift of a generation. The study facilitated the latest accommodation and anticipation trends in the hospitality industry. Due to the unique, influential segment of tourism, the millennial generation is in the spotlight due to their preferences. The impact of millennial behavior on social media and travel choices has also significantly impacted stakeholders and related organizations. The study investigated past literature and conducted a survey for Emirati travelers to know their travel patterns. This research has provided useful insights about valuable preferences of millennials¸ their influential activities, destinations, and leisure time. The scope of this influence is exemplary for the hospitality industry since it develops suggestions for future businesses.

Kostuch Media Ltd (2015) developed a discussion about the impact of millennials on the hotel industry and the values. The research focused on critical values millennials possess and their behavioral perspective, which is a differentiated factor.   Hotels are a vital body that targets this particular group specifically, to know their interests and values and offer predictable products. The experiential part in this regard is to focus on the critical behavioral aspects which are seen from self-help, challenging nature, and sustainability factors of millennials. The hospitality business for millennials is valuable and attractive because they are well versed in branding.

Different contextual factors influence the hospitality industry when talking about millennial impact. The youngest travelers today seek the opportunity to interact with others and explore a different destination. The contextual factors in terms of high five star hotels and design elements can be discussed concerning millennials. The property and geography location is a valuable factor that targets millennials, for example, Pasito Blanco Resort is engaging differential design patterns to get involve the traditional design looks to target guests with the feeling of early Spanish villages (Mejia, C. and Lavendol, V., 2015). Different shared areas involve diverse experiences for travel generation. The traditional lobby, hotel design, and communal spaces are key factors that engage millennials in various design elements.

The emphasis on wellness is another factor, millennials focus. For instance, in some studies, the significance of exercise for health is found as valued by millennials, so hotels put more emphasis on such programs and offer facilities to attract this health-conscious generation. Hotel designers undertake the scope of work and accommodation to millennials with a specific focus on millennials. The hiking trails, biking, and yoga pavilions are developed in hotels to target this generation. For example, Antigua Carlisle Bay is introduced for guests with a unique mind and a passion for excursion (Verity, C., 2016). The millennials are mainly catered to rethink traditional procedures because they can likely be pay off by focusing on their demographics. The hotel industry primarily caters to millennials by keeping in mind their preferences and presuming as a forward-thinking generation.

Millennials prioritize their experience over products, and this notion mainly works in five-star hotels. The demand and emphasis on offering unique products to valuable customers is also a big challenge for marketers because, due to transitioning social media, preferences change most often. The buying of a product is not simple, but it is aligned with the elements and contextual factors that motivate millennials to purchase. The hoteliers are shifting their approach of marketing to align with that of millennials’ perception. Earlier, customers were satisfied with the standard services, but now hoteliers have to undertake an extra mile to satisfy the new generation and provide an outstanding intangible experience.

The attractive point for millennials is justified when they are offered with an exceptional experience, not only the functionality of the product. The cutting edge technology today is a necessary value for money, not only an option (Warda, S.Y., 2019). The contextual factors today are mostly being appeared in the form of the latest technology, for instance, virtual reality, a personalized approach, and a digital concierge. The virtual reality in the hospitality industry is all about investing in technology by hotels to allure guests. These devices are equipped with the latest travel guides and postcards, thus offering guests a firsthand experience of their travel. The hotel industry tends to increase this experience, thereby creates a sound environment for millennials.

The value of a personalized approach is significant when viewed in terms of imperative factors. In the hospitality industry, the innovative way is used to customize products and services, so guests’ data is used. The usage of millennials’ data offers valuable insight to get them back and understand the routine behavior that would, in turn, be helpful to take a personalized approach.  Millennials also believe in technology more than any other generation, so a sharp rise in communication applications is seen. Hoteliers also take this opportunity to develop a primary source of communication; for example, IHG and Hyatt hotels employ third party channels for communication to provide specialized experience to guests.

Many contextual and cultural factors are on their way to impact the hotel industry under the particular influence of millennials. They also focus on aesthetic preferences and thoughts more than any other generation. In North America and Western countries, millennials are culturally diverse larger than in any other country. In the US, 42.8% of millennials are in minorities and speak more than one language. Only 24.6% speak English at home. This evidence suggests that millennials are sensitive to culture and languages more than generation X and baby boomers.  It also necessitates the influence of multiculturalism. Due to diverse backgrounds and language, their interest in experience is more significant than any other generation in the hospitality industry.

Pew Research Center described millennials as a generation that accounts for 2 billion people, and it is the most diverse generation in the US. These consumers are also the significant generational cohort showing economic growth, employees’ sourcing.  Chen, P.J., and Choi, Y (2008) discussed the work values of millennials in a study. The focus of the research was generational differences in relation to the hospitality industry. The study explored how different generations perceive benefits in hospitality work management. The survey was used to investigate hospitality organizations in the US. The work values defined by millennials were personal growth, security, and comfort, and work environment.  It was inferred that work value structure in the hospitality workforce is based on cultural factors that are persistent in millennials. The study was limited to US tourism destinations, and the managerial staff was investigated.

Aleks, R. and Saksida, T (2019) illustrated that the millennial generation is valuable in terms of their perception and viewpoints regarding business. The study discussed that millennials prefer their travel experiences, yet they are diverse in the case of culture. The selection of knowledge is deeply linked to the personal approach, and they develop a particular identity for them. Authors discussed the way of living, incorporating digital technology in daily life, and the ability to enhance life’s value. The notion of culture and its impact on millennials can be seen in education. Valuable experience and thinking style helps drive different perceptions and diversity.

Carpenter, M.J., and Charon, L.C.D (2014) mentioned the role of millennials in the hospitality industry. The study found out differences in thinking and adopting culture. In Brazil, 99% of millennials tend to use their smartphones in the restaurants, but a fifth of Japanese millennials are not involved in this activity.  In a report by Oracle, hospitality was discussed with a broader point of view for millennials. Their impact on the hotel industry was analyzed by their focus on technology and its use in hotel premises. It was found out that millennials willingly use mobile phones in restaurants, while only 6% reported that they do not use these digital devices in hotels. Mexicans and Brazilian millennials always keep their phones, and many of them use phones to interact with other hotels.

Taking into account the cultural factors, millennials focus on engaging with the latest brands and value the marketing approach. This structural significance provides the idea of value to traditions and culture. They also focus on creativity, knowledge, identity, and creativity (Mejia, C. and Lavendol, V., 2015).  This style of work and understanding engages more people and demonstrate the value of the hotel given guests. The method of understanding and reflecting identity is seen in the hospitality sector; therefore, it generates personal viewpoints about culture.

Conclusions & Recommendations

Millennials are operating n a modern digital environment, and it is safe to say that social media and technology are present in their DNA. The digital transparent world is getting engaged in the brand value with a broader sense of the hospitality industry. The high technology modern advertisement practices are significant in building brand value and generate bottom-up or top-down approaches. This massive information group of the consumer is transforming the whole framework that has provided a larger scope to marketers. In particular, in the case of the hospitality industry, the need to target millennials is catered due to their success in the hospitality and travel sector. The focus of the brand portfolio and need is tailored to the millennial’s demand, not their ancestors. This shift of thinking has provided a valuable approach to target millennials, in the specific context of the hospitality industry, due to the key features, they possess.

It is recommended that due to the intensive significance of millennials in the hospitality industry, they should be targeted with their preference. Since they grew up witnessing the global financial crisis, it will empower their thoughts, rights, and opinions.  The generation has a significant drive for innovation, and being appreciative and loyal; it can be productive for the hospitality industry when targeted accurately.

The hospitality industry can make adequate consideration of millennials by engaging them in management and valuing their perspectives. It is recommended that they should have a significant opportunity for career progression (Mejia, C. and Lavendol, V., 2015). They should be offered development and training opportunities.

The millennial generation is also more diverse ethically than any other generation so they can contribute well in economic growth. They should be valued in terms of identifying key focused areas. Advertisement can also effectively target them by knowing their interests and incorporating changes they want in the hospitality industry (Kim, D.-Y. and Park, S., 2019).

The food industry has a significant impact on millennials and the other way round due to the emergence of the culture of food. This influence has changed the traditional methods of food and hotel management because today, a more attractive approach is used to target customers. The emerging trends due to the latest technology have customized food patterns and beverages, such as black ice cream or rainbow food. The foodservice companies are significantly targeting millennial generation, so they offer a massive scope to the hospitality industry. Restaurants and hotels can provide brand experience enhancement programs to cater to more millennials. They love and discover new experiences, and this aspect can be captured by offering them a flexible approach and customized options. Unique and authentic quality brands can approach millennials. They cannot be segmented towards brands because they seek out unique experiences and have a massive quest to personalize. The reflection has provided me an insight to understand and map the preferences of millennials. This approach is significant for me to learn the behavior of the hospitality industry in segmenting a demographic on its interest basis.





Aleks, R. and Saksida, T., 2019. Hero or Villain? How Millennials’ Attitudes towards Unions Compare to Those of Previous Generations. Academy of Management Proceedings, 2019(1), p.15933.

Carpenter, M.J. and Charon, L.C.D., 2014. Mitigating Multigenerational Conflict and Attracting, Motivating, and Retaining Millennial Employees by Changing the Organizational Culture: A Theoretical Model. Journal of Psychological Issues in Organizational Culture, 5(3), pp.68–84.

Chen, P.J. and Choi, Y., 2008. Generational differences in work values: a study of hospitality management. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 20(6), pp.595–615.

Dev, C.S., 2012. Hospitality Marketing and Branding: Past and Future. Hospitality Branding, pp.2–12.

He, J., Morrison, A.M. and Zhang, H., 2019. Improving Millennial Employee Well-Being and Task Performance in the Hospitality Industry: The Interactive Effects of HRM and Responsible Leadership. Sustainability, 11(16), p.4410.

Kim, D.-Y. and Park, S., 2019. Rethinking millennials: how are they shaping the tourism industry? Asia Pacific Journal of Tourism Research, 25(1), pp.1–2.

Kostuch Media Ltd. and Kostuch Media Ltd., 2015. Catering to Millennials in the Hotel Industry. [online] Hotelier Magazine. Available at: <> [Accessed 1 Feb. 2020].

Mejia, C. and Lavendol, V., 2015. Who’s the Boss?:Millennials Managing Across Generations in the Hospitality Industry.

Sofronov, B., 2018. Millennials: A New Trend For The Tourism Industry. Annals of SpiruHaret University. Economic Series, 18(3), pp.109–122.

Verity, C., 2016. The Millennials and Catering In The Hospitality & Travel Industry. [online] Crown Verity. Available at: <> [Accessed 2 Feb. 2020].

Warda, S.Y., 2019. Emirati Millennials: A Catalyst for Innovation in the Tourism Industry. Transnational Marketing Journal, 7(2), pp.131–160.




The purpose of this literature review is to identify the impact of ethical leadership on the organization. Ethical leadership is important to know about personal ethics and integrity and implementing it in real life. The paper will discuss different categories of leaders. Good leaders promote ethics in multiple organizational settings to lead exemplary attitudes (Belschak, Den Hartog and De Hoogh, 2018). The individual decision making power at the workplace is influenced by others’ expectations, which in turn, are established, enforced, and nurtured by the organization’s leadership (Collier and Esteban, 2000). Ethically positive leaders promote productive employees’ behavior. Any failure to bring ethical leadership in an organization makes leaders responsible for the decline in output (Alshammari, N. Almutairi, and Fahad Thuwaini, 2015). The ethical leadership has a strong impact on the organization’s environment, but it is important to differentiate between ethical leaders and leadership, which is ethical.


The main objective of this paper is to find out the impact of ethical leadership on the organization. Different organizations have different kind of managerial style, which is impacted by ethical leaders. The scope of ethical leaders is different and categorized into transformational and authoritative styles. Ethical leadership, in its essence, tends to aid the organization’s atmosphere through the root level, thereby improves performance (Ghahroodi, Tan Sri Mohd Ghazali and Ghorban, 2013).  This paper will highlight the key perception and theories that are necessary to discuss ethical leadership. The objective will focus on the appropriate ethical leadership that can enhance the efficacy of the organizations. The objective will address the differentiation of ethical leader and ethical leadership style.

Research Problem

Current literature about ethical leadership discusses the significance of ethical leaders to boost the performance of employees. The problem explored in this paper will deal with the impact of ethical leadership in a constructive way for employees and promote the overall productivity of employees. This aspect will break down in detail with the help of scholarly studies to get evidence. Ethical leadership affects employees, but the clear process is not discussed in detail. However, different studies have highlighted particular segments of ethical leadership (Alshammari, N. Almutairi, and Fahad Thuwaini, 2015). The research problem deals with the positive behavior of leaders in ethical considerations that promote the efficacy of the organization. A dynamic situation will be focused with the help of theories and leadership approaches that will be in accordance with the previous subject matter. Ethical management is an essential factor for today’s organizations because it attracts financial and human resources in the best form (Benevene et al., 2018). The core concept in ethical leadership is aligned to address the ethical leaders’ approach, which streamlines working practices, sharing of ideas, and constructive approach towards employees (Khan, Ahmad, and Ilyas, 2018).


The rationale of the study revolves around addressing core aspects of ethical leadership, prevailed in multiple organizations under the realm of globalization. The constructive patterns followed by this study will bridge the gap between the ethical and unethical styles of leadership, thereby reflect a considerable discussion. Studies have presented that the ethical style of leadership offers cohesion of organization, but a body of literature focused more on workforce style, i.e., ethical workers. The leader-employee relationship offers a constructive understanding of prevailing work-related practices; therefore, ethical leadership is responsible for the modification of employee’s behavior (Khuong and Dung, 2015). Recent qualitative studies in a similar area offered an opportunity to discuss future implications of ethical leadership by addressing its impact on employees. Chughtai (2015) pointed out that leadership practices are aligned on a psychological basis. Many quantitative approaches have highlighted the significance of ethical leaders for organizations, but quantitative studies offer a limited analysis of these theories. Benevene et al. (2018) argued that leadership could be a process of influencing others’ behavior and actions, in terms of social actions, and thinking process, which does not overall depicts the picture of the organization.

Belschak, Den Hartog, and De Hoogh (2018) discussed the scope of leadership theories through an iterative process of data collection, analysis, and coding, but this process only discuss some aspects of the scenario, and for instance, the analysis is limited and based on certain variables used. This research study involves academic and professional studies by incorporating their viewpoints about ethical leadership. The contribution of this study will be significant when analyzed on broader perspectives, offering a clear understanding of ethical leadership by addressing simpler variables. The contributions by authors in previous studies in the field of ethical leadership will be discussed through a reflective approach. The leadership theories generate new variables and discuss the relationship that benefits the whole organization. The expected outcome of this study is to find out ethical leaders’ influence on the overall wellbeing of organizations with the help of key variables, such as accountability, fairness, etc. It has been seen that organizational platforms benefit employees in their ethical approaches when implemented at workplaces (Collier and Esteban, 2000). Additionally, organizational influence is maintained only when ethical leadership engages in consistent behavior and tailoring employees’ needs.  The structural significance of ethical approaches is seen through training and employee development practices. This study has an advanced pattern of the discussion by engaging various theories advancements, so it urges to analyze key perspectives of ethics (Rahimi, Bohlooli and Eskandarzadeh, 2019). It has also included prior research in a similar area to make a sound foundation and offers rich detail to develop cohesion analysis.

Literature Review

Ethical Leadership

The beliefs, values, and principles about wrong and right characterize the appropriateness of behavior. This behavior puts influence on the employees to attain their organizational goals (Alshammari, N. Almutairi, and Fahad Thuwaini, 2015). Ethical leadership is defined in the form of a process that influences workers in positive and negative values and beliefs. Studies on ethical leadership tend to portray the key characteristics of ethical behavior by taking into account the morale of employees. The need to discuss ethical leadership in organizations is significant in finding out the competitive nature of the marketplace. The global impact of the organization on employees appears in the form of ethics, integrity, and ethical concerns. (Belschak, Den Hartog, and De Hoogh (2018) discussed the scope of influence that the organizational platform sees in relation to ethics. The study has presented evidence in Machiavellian employees and their work behavior. Authors focused on the ethical behaviors’ principles that are existent in the workplace to motivate the ethical attitude of employees. The ethical leadership shadows a key tendency to influence the performance of the organization. However, any negative influence leads to deception, misconception, misplaced localities, and inconsistent behavior by employees (Collier and Esteban, 2000).

Dion (2012) illustrated the process in which leadership influences organizations, thereby impacts individuals. Theoretical reasons for this issue are leadership theories that impact behaviors of managers, such as ethical leadership theories constituting traits. The leadership process can occur in one of the two ways, i.e., transactional and transformational. The transformational way mainly characterizes the way of vision and informs the mission of the organization. It also sets the foundation of strategies of the organization, its procedures, and policies. The transformation leader tends to focus on the techniques that help empower its workers so as to enhance their self-efficacy. Chughtai (2015) discussed a similar context in the form of norms and attitudes that makes up the vision of a leader. Ethical leadership is thus associated with a plethora of moral attributes such as integrity, honesty, reliability, and conscientiousness. It further can be extended to respect, trustworthiness, and modesty. The transactional leadership explains about the practicality, resistance to change, constrained thinking and extrinsic motivation.

Fulmer (2004) examined the concept of ethical leadership in a constructive way to demonstrate the appropriate conduct through building interpersonal relationships. The normative aspects of ethical theory development allow followers to improve their way of communication and decision making power. The conceptualizing of ethical leadership in terms of Benevene et al. (2018) is all about addressing a key matrix that comprised of unethical leadership. This matrix constitutes a weak morality of a manager and a strong morality of a manager. The ethically silent or neutral leadership is all setting the dimensions of equality and fairness at the workplace so as to promote equality of gender within the organization. The moral person portrays good skills, ethical conditions, and is always trustworthy. He/she concerns employees’ welfare, and these actions are apparent from his attitude. The scope of discussion is extensive by undertaking ethical standards that moral managers seek and communicate (Sharma, Agrawal, and Khandelwal, 2019).      

Ethical Leaders

Ghahroodi, Tan Sri Mohd Ghazali, and Ghorban (2013) mentioned the goodness of a good leader, in the form of depicting ethics. A good leader exhibits care, strong concern about ideas that deserve prudence, and openness to show leadership traits. The ethical leaders are positioned at the center of an organization; thereby focus on the traditional attributes like trustworthiness, integrity, and honesty. Moreover, ethical conduct is applicable to ethical standards. The ethical leader tends to stick morality and shows consistent behavior. The authors analyzed six key attributes regarding ethical leaders exercising ethical leadership, such as ethical awareness, integrity, community orientation, and encouraging, motivating, and ethical accountability. These characteristics of ethical leadership show the embodiment and articulation of the leaders’ values in an organization. The imaginative performance can be seen from the values and support the leader offers to the organization. 

Khan, Ahmad, and Ilyas (2018) illustrated the ethical leaders’ attributes reflecting from their actions, for instance, the embodiment of values and purposes for organizations. The leader focuses on the success of the organization, rather than focusing on personal ego. The leader also finds out the best practices to develop in the organization. He creates productive discussions and engages employees in a healthy learning environment. The leader also makes imaginative perception and tough calls to bring societal legitimacy. The support of the ethical leader is enormous for the organization. Khuong and Dung (2015) mentioned a similar structure of ethical leaders in the sense of ethical lens. The leader uses a productive approach by focusing on long term implications of its key organizational strategies and decisions. The focus of the study is to highlight ethical conduct and actions by an ethical leader. Such a leader develops key considerations about the significances of moral decisions by acting as a role model. The ethical leader offers significant support and training to the employees and makes them different from common workplaces. The core attributes of ethical leaders are different from all the common managers as they are sensitive to the employees’ interests.  Different managerial styles tend to highlight the structure of leadership, for instance, servant managerial style, autocratic, democratic and visionary. All of these managerial styles portray the prevalence of leadership skills and characteristics in different way.

Ethical Leadership and Organizations

Employees are the core aspects of any organization, who work to accomplish key goals and purposes of the workplace. Studies have discussed the role of ethical leaders that engage employees so that their satisfaction is increased. Nikpour (2017) mentioned the role of ethical leaders to acquire employees’ satisfaction. Ethical leadership plays a significant role in maintaining employees’ outcomes and organizational culture. The study has described how ethical leadership is useful to get the effectiveness and willingness of employees to work. It not only increases employees’ performance but makes an atmosphere to generate the desire to work, thereby flourishing working engagement patterns. Ethical leadership is associated with the positives structure of employees’ performance and their intrinsic engagement. Intrinsic motivation suggests their involvement by valuing tasks and responsibilities. It also describes ethical commitment that has a positive impact on the autonomy of job descriptions (Yang, Pu, and Guan, 2019).  Ethical leadership has a tendency to view the manager’s performance and the employee’s good moral image.   

Rahimi, Bohlooli, and Eskandarzadeh (2019) portrayed the impact of ethical leadership on the organization in terms of managing work-related stress. The authors define the perceived environmental demand and its relationship with the ability of employees to cope up with demand. The study provides dimensions of occupational aspects and their relation to success. For instance, work-related stress can increase depression physical and behavioral issues for employees. It is also a significant cause of sickness, absenteeism, and low productivity. The work-related stress is responsible for high turnover, possible human error, and increased incidents at the workplace (Çelik, Dedeoğlu, And İnanir, 2015). The pressure is related to turnover and has been studied in different articles. According to past studies, the factor of turnover creates tension, which makes employees quit from the overburdened atmosphere. The causal modeling is investigated by the authors to find that stress predicts high turnover rates in the organization.  

Sharma, Agrawal, and Khandelwal (2019) examined the organizational commitment by understanding the ethical conduct and behavior of leaders. The scope of attachment is illustrating the critical concepts of virtue in practices that are necessary to increase compliance of employees with organizational laws and rules. In most of the cases, it is observed that employees are less likely to follow leaders when they are dishonest. The authors found that the impact of trust is essential to increase long term accomplishment for the organization. 

Yang, Pu, and Guan (2019) highlighted the role of distinctive ethical leadership in improving the way to organizational value. The ethical leaders epitomize a compelling and moral narrative to organizational commitment. The challengeable business tasks are oriented to get personal satisfaction while in a society; the tendency of public display highlights the ethical concerns. The role of chief executive in an organization is seen from ethical business leadership that can benefit the whole society. The culture offers critical aspects of ethical implementation at the workplace because it not only necessitates the equality basis in the organization but also values the distinctive approach of ethical leaders. On account of business leadership, ethics develop a decisive dimensional role for society. It offers a tendency to focus on the empowerment and encouragement of employees. Organizational success is based on ethical decision making power of management because only a moral leader can highlight the role of productivity.      

Business entities govern the scope of accountability and fair value (Çelik, Dedeoğlu, and İnanir, 2015). This situation sets some expectations from employees and makes leaders accountable for producing a productive behavioral relationship with stakeholders. The study has discussed that ethical leaders correspond to the consistent behavior of employees in the workplace. For instance, in the organizational workplace, the quality of a leaders’ action can be identified from its followers’ interaction. The conditions of leaders play a significant role in expressing the mission and vision of the organization, as it lays the foundations of policies, procedures, and strategies. Leaders use specific techniques and strategies to improve workers’ abilities and empower them (Benevene, P., Dal Corso, L., De Carlo, A., Falco, A., Carluccio, F. and Vecina, M 2018). This helps to maintain their level of sufficiency, in accordance with the norms and beliefs.

Alshammari, N. Almutairi, and Fahad Thuwaini (2015) witnessed some critical elements of ethical leadership with a strong influence on organizations. The knowledge of ethics and leadership builds concepts and understands the facts of the organization. The practices of ethical leadership at a workplace organize staff by enforcing them for collective action. It also allows learners to focus on their responsibilities to develop an impressive outcome. For the more abundant sake of organization, ethical leaders create opportunities and build interaction with other leaders to demonstrate courage. In the learner’s point of view, ethical consideration about enhanced experience reflects the foundational approach for integrity, loyalty, and positive services. 

Belschak, Den Hartog, and De Hoogh (2018) discussed the scope of ethical leadership in relation to the organization. The study offers an understanding of the wholesome of employees’ activities, which are influenced by a common good. The authors observed that ethical leadership is not a phenomenon that is observed theoretically, but it explains the structure of the workplace and lead the foundation of critical behaviors. The qualities of a leader can play a decisive role for employees when they are inbuilt through transformational leadership. The impact of ethical leadership on the organization is significant when visualized in the form of employees’ involvement. With trustworthy and reliable conduct development among employees, ethical leaders can transform the traditional path of growth for the organization. 

Benevene et al. (2018) presented a view explaining the critical aspects of leadership with its overall impact on the organization. Ethical leadership is considered significant when idealized in terms of morality and building ethics in workers. The behavior of employees is necessarily affected when a moral leader drives them. The scope of leadership is wide to alter organizational goals, directions, dimensions, and achievements. It transforms corporate objectives by replacing them with coherent and consistent workflow patterns, thereby increases the chances to work in long term projects. The ethical leaders drive organizations into a positive and optimistic horizon, thus improve the development of responsible employees.

Appropriate ethical leadership, which necessitates ethics and morality at workplace, is necessary to maintain standards of the organization. The reviewed scholarly studies have presented various normative and specific opinions about ethical leadership, its characteristics and impact on organizational behavior. It is concluded that efficiency of an organization is guaranteed when ethical leadership takes the charge and it transforms the behavioral patterns of employees.    

Two main problems during conducting of research were the analysis of scholarly studies when I narrowed down to evaluate the impact of ethical leadership on organization and I also found difficulties in peer reviewed studies’ analysis because they were too professional for me. The weakness of this paper is the inclusion of limited studies because the topic is vast and extensive discussion is required for it. The potential limitation of the paper is its narrow scope that cannot considerably talk about the nature of ethical leadership and its prevalence in the workplace.


Alshammari, A., N. Almutairi, N. and Fahad Thuwaini, S. (2015). Ethical Leadership: The Effect on Employees. International Journal of Business and Management, 10(3).

Belschak, F., Den Hartog, D. and De Hoogh, A. (2018). Angels and Demons: The Effect of Ethical Leadership on Machiavellian Employees’ Work Behaviors. Frontiers in Psychology, 9.

Benevene, P., Dal Corso, L., De Carlo, A., Falco, A., Carluccio, F. and Vecina, M. (2018). Ethical Leadership as Antecedent of Job Satisfaction, Affective Organizational Commitment and Intention to Stay Among Volunteers of Non-profit Organizations. Frontiers in Psychology, 9.

ÇELİK, S., DEDEOĞLU, B. and İNANIR, A. (2015). Relationship Between Ethical Leadership, Organizational Commitment and Job Satisfaction at Hotel Organizations. Ege Akademik Bakis (Ege Academic Review), 15(1), pp.53-53.

Chughtai, A. (2015). Creating safer workplaces: The role of ethical leadership. Safety Science, 73, pp.92-98.

Collier, J. and Esteban, R. (2000). Systemic leadership: ethical and effective. Leadership & Organization Development Journal, 21(4), pp.207-215.

Dion, M. (2012). Are ethical theories relevant for ethical leadership?. Leadership & Organization Development Journal, 33(1), pp.4-24.

Fulmer, R. (2004). The Challenge of Ethical Leadership. Organizational Dynamics, 33(3), pp.307-317.

Ghahroodi, H., Tan Sri Mohd Ghazali, M. and Ghorban, Z. (2013). Examining Ethical Leadership and Its Impacts on the Followers’ Behavioral Outcomes. Asian Social Science, 9(3).

Khan, N., Ahmad, I. and Ilyas, M. (2018). Impact of Ethical Leadership on Organizational Safety Performance: The Mediating Role of Safety Culture and Safety Consciousness. Ethics & Behavior, 28(8), pp.628-643.

Khuong, M. and Dung, D. (2015). The Effect of Ethical Leadership and Organizational Justice on Employee Engagement — The Mediating Role of Employee Trust. International Journal of Trade, Economics and Finance, 6(4), pp.235-240.

Nikpour, A. (2017). The impact of organizational culture on organizational performance: The mediating role of employee’s organizational commitment. International Journal of Organizational Leadership, 6(1), pp.65-72.

Rahimi, G., Bohlooli, N. and Eskandarzadeh, T. (2019). The effect of development of ethical leadership on organizational adaptability capacity, education and training organization- case study: ILKHCHI city of Iran. Estação Científica (UNIFAP), 8(3), p.89.

Sharma, A., Agrawal, R. and Khandelwal, U. (2019). Developing ethical leadership for business organizations. Leadership & Organization Development Journal, 40(6), pp.712-734.

Yang, J., Pu, B. and Guan, Z. (2019). Entrepreneurial Leadership and Turnover Intention in Startups: Mediating Roles of Employees’ Job Embeddedness, Job Satisfaction and Affective Commitment. Sustainability, 11(4), p.1101.



Architectural design undertakes numerous parameters regarding residential buildings. The design process is difficult to elaborate on due to its stakeholders and multifaceted interactions. The design quality of buildings accompanies structural components to determine the design loads. Residential construction in architecture scenarios impacts the aesthetic of the environment (Beazley, Heffernan & McCarthy, 2017). The architecture in the building is the embodiment of a modern structure that undertakes cultural change. Architecture impacts the social, cultural, technical, and economic advancement of a place.  Cultural heritage represents the aesthetic elements in residential buildings (Emmanuel Arenibafo, 2017). The aesthetic elements in residential buildings portray the significance of culture and sustainability. 

Long-term strategies in Qatar have been used to construct more efficient buildings regarding energy efficiency.  The sustainable energy-efficient buildings are built according to the construction regulations to assist aesthetic objectives (HARPUTLUGİL, GÜLTEKİN, PRINS & TOPÇU, 2014). Policies related to developing efficient buildings for improved sustainability are based on certification schemes, education, and training, codes and regulations, and communication activities. In Qatar, a focus is made on residential buildings’ design and architectural regulation to fulfill the need of the community (Deng & Poon, 2013). Promoting the demand for sustainable buildings is based on the necessity of the aesthetic beauty of the environment. Professionals understand the role of energy-efficient buildings for residential purposes and translate this objective into concrete actions. 

Residential facilities in Qatar are aligned to improve the information mechanism for the construction of residential buildings, according to sustainable design and aesthetics. Communication and information activities are central to promote the value of sustainable buildings because they convince architects about the necessity of such buildings. Qatar has the fastest growing economy, and it has experienced steady growth in the past decade (Fadli & AlSaeed, 2019). The complexes of residential buildings are built in a modern uniform style to offer recreational facilities.  Our focus in this research is residential villas in particular and then buildings. The goal of this research is to assess how the architectural regulations, in regards to residential dwellings and courtyard houses, have affected the ugly-fiction of the neighborhood.

Qatari residential projects are affected due to certain factors such as deviation in terms of scheduling and cost. Complex projects vary in time schedule, cost structure, and aesthetic beauty. This activity constitutes the main portion of the gross national product. The architectural design and regulation affect the construction of residential buildings in Qatar (Han & Kim, 2014). This study is designed to examine the current architectural design regulations and their impact on aesthetics.

Research Problem and Objectives

Residential buildings construction is associated with a high cost.  A lack of defined and unified consensus architectural design regulations for residential buildings exist that meet the aesthetic diversity and local identity. This research is based on analyzing the traditional architectural values while satisfying the legal requirements of the construction industry for residential buildings. The aim of the study is to review the current architectural design regulations for residential buildings and identify their level of impact on the current design controls on the urban aesthetics of the state of Qatar. Research objectives are to review the existing residential design regulations in the State of Qatar and how these regulations are being enforced and implemented in Qatar. It will also focus on the residential design regulations and how it is being implemented in other countries. The research will identify the insufficiencies in the current residential design regulations. It will analyze the level of impact of the insufficiencies towards the urban aesthetics in neighborhoods of Qatar.


In order to collect data on this matter and to better understand the cause and impact factors of problems, a number of publications will be reviewed. The literature reviews will focus on two main matters, theory, and research. The methodology will analyze literature review, such as reviewing problems of insufficient building regulations in other countries and reviewing the subject of building codes. The analysis of residential buildings will be done. It will further include reviewing the Qatar residential zones under different requirements. The literature review, as a part of the methodology, will also review the different municipality’s vision and development strategies, such as reviewing the Qatar National Master Plan. The study research design process will also include general management. The main concerned management is the Ministry of Municipality and Environment. The administrative structure of residential building regulation consists of permit issues, plan reviews, site inspections, and final approvals.

Research Design

This paper will include semi-structured interviews for qualitative data collection through meeting with parties concerning residential building regulations. The participants in the interview will be officials and professionals from the Ministry of Municipality and Environment, Fire Defense, and other institutes. The questionnaire will add value to the research by investigating individuals about their opinion. It will focus on the selected residents to elicit responses on issues and problems related to the current residential regulations in the country.

In addition to this, site visits will also be conducted to inspect, observe, and evaluate residential regulation practices. The dwellings that will be observed are located in Al-Daayen Municipality. Al-Daayen Municipality has been established in 2005, which is one of the latest municipality’s establishments in Qatar. This is going to provide us with a better and newer result outcome on the impact of residential regulations and the level of its impact on the aesthetics of the urban environment. In previous studies, architectural designs are investigated, but the impact of residential building designs on aesthetics is not inquired. This paper will focus on the intensive involvement of management and architectural regulations for the quality of design service.

The questionnaire will be prepared in the English language and Arabic to meet the different needs of respondents. In total, 50 questionnaires will be distributed among respondents. The number of respondents will be an equal ratio of male and female i.e., 25 males and 25 females. To make some ease to respondents, some will be contacted via electronic mail. Municipality members will be contacted via mail due to their tight schedules. Most of the respondents of this study are high-profile managerial positions and architects. All of them have strong experience working in the construction industry. 

Data Analysis

For this paper, data will be analyzed by using sampling techniques. There are different kinds of sampling, such as stratified, cluster, and convenience sampling. Cluster sampling is used to identify the fundamental reasons for the construction industry as an initial survey (Kim & Park, 2018). For example, an international architect has diverse experience in construction and accommodates aesthetic aspects in development. Qatar has many impressive buildings, and many architects have been focusing on residential ethics as well as beauty aspects.

Stratified sampling will be used to address different aspects, such as to categorize experienced professionals and to focus on international players. It is also essential to know the diverse nature of architects. The design agencies also focus on working conditions and share their extensive experience of work by handling complex projects (Shaaban, 2013). The process of design tendering is significant and complex to identify qualified respondents at the regional and international levels. Furthermore, it also elaborates on the flexible behavior of architecture regulations. 

The most suitable process of pilot testing needs convenience sampling. The international experience of respondents and in the Ministry of Qatar allows for the discussion of the liaison process and diversity of work nature about residential buildings.

Selection criteria

The respondents are selected on the basis of inclusion of the client organization, as on the basis of client pressing issues for residential projects, and to discuss the issues under government regulations. Respondents who belong to interdisciplinary practice projects for design tasks will be selected. Potential candidates from the decision-making industry will be chosen to ensure the accuracy of first-hand data and its validity.


Beazley, S., Heffernan, E., & McCarthy, T. (2017). Enhancing energy efficiency in residential buildings through the use of BIM: The case for embedding parameters during design. Energy Procedia121, 57-64. doi: 10.1016/j.egypro.2017.07.479

Deng, Y., & Poon, S. (2013). Professional practice in programming large public buildings in China: A questionnaire survey. Frontiers Of Architectural Research2(2), 222-233. doi: 10.1016/j.foar.2013.04.002

Emmanuel Arenibafo, F. (2017). The Transformation of Aesthetics in Architecture from Traditional to Modern Architecture: A case study of the Yoruba (southwestern) region of Nigeria. Contemporary Urban Affairs1(1), 35-44. doi: 10.25034/1761.1(1)35-44

Fadli, F., & AlSaeed, M. (2019). Digitizing Vanishing Architectural Heritage; The Design and Development of Qatar Historic Buildings Information Modeling [Q-HBIM] Platform. Sustainability11(9), 2501. doi: 10.3390/su11092501

Han, J., & Kim, S. (2014). Architectural Professionals’ Needs and Preferences for Sustainable Building Guidelines in Korea. Sustainability6(12), 8379-8397. doi: 10.3390/su6128379

HARPUTLUGİL, T., GÜLTEKİN, A., PRINS, M., & TOPÇU, Y. (2014). Architectural Design Quality Assessment Based On Analytic Hierarchy Process: A Case Study. METU JOURNAL OF THE FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE. doi: 10.4305/metu.jfa.2014.2.8

Kim, J., & Park, K. (2018). The Design Characteristics of Nature-inspired Buildings. Civil Engineering And Architecture6(2), 88-107. doi: 10.13189/cea.2018.060206

Shaaban, K. (2013). A proposed transportation tracking system for mega construction projects using passive RFID technology. Qatar Foundation Annual Research Forum Proceedings, (2013), ICTP 04. doi: 10.5339/qfarf.2013.ictp-04






This questionnaire is to know about the residential buildings designs and architectural regulations.  The questionnaire is based on six parts, in which some questions are semi-closed-ended, some questions are close-ended and some are open-ended. Participants are from Al-Daayen Municipality, administrative members of residential buildings, and architectures from different residential building professionals.

Part 1

Q.1 For how long you are serving construction industry?

Q.2 Name of your specialty and occupation?

Q.3 Name of your education level?

Q.4 Your channel of training in construction?

Q.5 What is your recent involvement in the industry?


Respondents profile

Q1. Name of respondent

Q2. Profession level

Q3. Yearly income

Q4. Marital Status

Q5. Ethnicity


Q.1 Demand for residential services

Q.2  Demand for aesthetic building for residence

Q.3 Programming about construction services

Q.4 Awareness level about construction planning

Q.5 Awareness about residential architecture regulations


Q.1 Factors influencing design competition outcomes

Q.2 Client’s structure and program issues

Q.3 Prevailed methods of buildings construction


Q.1 Residential programming methods, i.e. short and long term

Q.2 Benefits of programs used in residential building construction


Q.1 Profiling information of the project

Q.2 Client’s profile, in terms of experience, ownership and organization

Q.3 Scope of competition

Q.4 communication approaches used for construction



Crazy Offer!

25% off

on your first order