The paper begins with an overview of the confectionery industry and its substantial competitiveness among other industries in the market and states that Western Europe and North America contributed to two-thirds of its sales. Consumers of this industry comprised mostly of teens and adults, who bought chocolates and candy products in very high quantities. Among chocolate and candy, statistics show that 86 percent of overall consumption is due to chocolate, whereas 17 percent is due to candy, which shows significant profit to be belonging to chocolates. According to statistical details obtained, the leading confectionary producers and exporters were renowned chocolate companies like Nestle, Kraft, Hershey, and in this list, Arcor ranked 13th. Amongst the confectionary market, companies have varying categories of chocolate and candy based on their quality, shelf-life and taste (in turn depending on the way cocoa beans were picked and mixed.). The production process was complex, and due to transportation constraints, firms chose to be located near the suppliers for efficiency of time and capital and convenience of employees. Channels for distributing these confectionary goods were mostly supermarkets and self-supporting retailers. But distribution could be a frenzied task, as competition existed therein and creating awareness regarding the product’s reimbursement was necessary. Marketing was mainly via television advertisements. The article then pointed out Arcor and its origin and its journey of success under the sovereignty of Luis Pagani and the 300 percent rise in sales was proof of his efforts. The company’s goal was affordability in terms of prices, popular products in variety, and uncompromised quality of confectionary, and the company strived for these and achieved their desired goals to a huge extent. This brought Arcor corporation, the market, popularity and success it deserved and it spread as far as Brazil and Latin America and moving further overseas. Arcor was smart and diligent enough to develop supply chains of its own and preserved effective production facilities by spending adequate capital on improved technology for production. However, for Argentina, 2003 was the year of disaster. It suffered devaluation of currency, esteemed corporations shutting down and a massive financial crisis. In these times, the Arcor Group, which was one of the more fortunate enterprises to remain financially stable, underwent a change of plans. Arcor planned to put into operation a novel international strategy that would globalize the corporation with respect to distribution networks and facilitation in products. But for Arcor’s produce to spread far and wide across the world, it was primarily necessary for the corporation to have a firm ground at its country of origin, Argentina. Arcor being a stable corporation during the times, contributed in eradicating the adverse effects by increasing worker wages and giving out food necessities. They attempted to build symbiotic relationship with government as an attempt to develop transnational strategy which will act as a tradeoff. They reduced prices of their most popular products by altering the ratios of ingredients, in an attempt to keep sales continued and worked to bring in more revenue from exports by cost effective process of production. Arcor’s plans for globalization included expansion upto countries such as Latin America, North America, Europe, and Asia.

This article is an amalgamation of quite important lessons with respect to business because with its help, I could learn crisis management which is essential in business because there are ups and downs all the time, sometimes within the firm, and sometimes in the world outside too and for businesses to flourish, employees and enterprise owners need to be prepared to face anything. We also get the lesson that the key to important decision making in the face of uncertain times is dependent on the analysis of pros and cons and a long term thought process of the consequences of the decisions. Moreover, the article provides an insight into globalization practices and how to formulate effective strategies to accomplish those for the success of the enterprise.


The first part of the book introduces the discussion of corporate social responsibility by initiating with Jill J. McMillan, who discusses why corporate social responsibility? To sum up his debate, he says that over the years, individuals have stopped showing genuine care for each other. They don’t care that much for each other. The debate that why now to show this care is answered that. Lately, there has been a realization regarding how much there is a lack of moral authority, and corporation’s only focus on earning. Further, Michael Stohl discusses the new generation of CSR and how they are responding to this call.

Considering the overall changing global predicament, there have been significant efforts made in terms of CSR in the past three decades, and companies have moved on from being mature in their understanding of their corporate social responsibility, but be actual pragmatic and theoretical changes have occurred in their system. Malcolm McIntosh describes the progression of the companies from showing Corporate Social Responsibility to moving towards brand integrity. A brand that becomes renowned as socially responsible gains a lot of public respect. Either it is automobile companies turning towards making electric cars or fast-food chains using biodegradable packaging, moving towards sustainability has become a part of brand integrity now.

In the second part of the book, we learn about how social groups are facing corporate power to make them realize the repercussions of their actions. The 3rd generation CSR explores doesn’t represent any particular firm, individuals, groups, or interests that are specific. It also focuses on public & private boundaries to sort out the underlying issues. It further explains how corporations are playing by the set rules of CSR that are implied across the globe. They merely externalize the actual imports of the overall society and ignore the consequences of their actions.

It doesn’t mean that they are ill-intentioned. They are trying to meet the expectations, yet they need more clarity regarding the activities that are truly helpful and realize how CSR is defined nowadays. Mette Morsing talks about the Scandinavian companies that integrate their corporate strategies with ethics and social responsibility. Mette presents the thoughts that CSR is a moving and ongoing task. Companies need to evolve and immerse themselves in terms of their strategies towards CSR.

Glen Whelan discusses the case of CSR in Asia and Confucianism. The chapter discusses the importance of correct behavior towards CSR. Glen concludes on the importance of CSR in the modern-day corporate structure. Chew Wee Ng discusses the perceptions and practices related to CSR & PR in Singapore. Singapore has organized numerous conferences related to CSR over the years. The classic economists separate the economic approach from the approach of the stakeholders. The survey conducted showed the majority of the business owners depicted their understanding of the modern-day needs of CSR.

Mariela Perez discusses CSR in Mexico with the viewpoint of communication, which faces a lot of challenges in terms of the realization of its importance. From the 1990s onward, Mexico also went through a lot of changes in terms of business and strategy. As per the findings of the study, Mariela found it to be still a new topic to be discussed in Mexico’s business fraternity. There still is a need for a lot of effort to be done, and business needs to change.

In the next part, Methew Seeger discusses the Legal vs Ethical Arguments regarding the CSR. As per Seeger, organizations can’t just be bounded in terms of their understanding of the law. As per their knowledge, there need to be legal strictures placed to address these issues. There need to be ethical boundaries, and moral contingencies need to be placed. Adding to that, a social responsibility model alongside an approach to address organizational responsiveness also needs to be introduced. Keith Michael Hearit discusses the element of corporate deception and Fraud. Legal perspectives are discussed concerning misconduct on behalf of organizations towards their legal obligations, and they need to act socially responsible in predicaments where there is a crisis situation.

They should apologize directly to the victim in that predicament. John Llewellyn discusses the regulations set by the government regarding the CSR. If the governments set rules to follow the basic CSR rules, firms will automatically need to adapt as per the law. The standard rules and regulations will aid in adapting to the situation automatically. Dean Ritz focuses on the concept of corporate personhood and being socially responsible. It helps in bringing out the political predicament, yet the individuals/ human beings also need to rise to the occasion and play their roles in such difficulties.

In the next section, James Arnt Aune discusses the modern-day capitalism and CSR. James discusses Friedman’s arguments and the CSR debate that highlights the role capitalism to be kinder and gentle. Capitalism is always presented as very cold and the CSR debate is dependent upon the assumptions. Facts need to be included more into this debate. Dana L Cloud discusses CSR as an oxymoron, its utilization, and exploitation at boeing. As per her understanding, CSR consists of the real interests of workers that will come up against the essential elements of injustice in capitalism.

Critics of the concept of CSR, as per her understanding must concern themselves with politics. Stewart Lawrence discusses the accounting of sustainability, and as per his/her knowledge, modern societies are involved in their overall understanding. If firms are held accountable for their actions, firms will become more serious about keeping their teams responsible for their actions. An external factor like accountability is highly integral in building the element of understanding regarding this topic. Brenden Kendall discusses consumer activism regarding any issues in a predicament. Consumers need to realize their rights regarding the CSR’s that the companies need to address in their conduct. They need to be conscious of their roles as consumers.

The next part begins with Stanley Deetz discusses the importance of providing a communication-based understanding regarding the complex processes of life. There also needs to be a direction regarding official communication from the government regarding their practices. Stakeholders and other members should be guided to maintain social values CSR. Grant Samkin discusses the threats of sustainability concerning corporate & institutional responses to HIV. There is a need for inclusiveness in the understanding and realization of the problems related to and causing HIV. Companies need to address the crises associated with HIV and how it is infecting the overall predicament.

Marcus Breen addresses the impact of indigenous people on business and society. As per his understanding, they stand on the crossroad where they don’t realize the effect of uniformity and challenge the fundamental assumptions of globalization. The realization of evolving needs is necessary to help them understand the benefits. Graham Knight describes activism, risks, and communicational policies. The movements for sustainability need to become more serious, and the activism related to them needs to be replaced. The interests of producers and consumers both need to be there to implement any policy.

The next chapter begins with Connie Bullius discussing the corporate environmentalism. As per her understanding from the study conducted, more companies haven’t mentioned/ portrayed environmental stances as their primary concern. Hence businesses need to be more open regarding their position on sustainability. Sharon Livesey, in an article, discusses the greening of corporations. A per her understanding, the greening of the brands has an impact on not only the overall market but other competitor brands as well. The practitioners and researchers need to set indicators to further emphasize on the matter. Todd Norton discusses the discourses regarding Public Space & sustainability.

The society promotes sustainability by bridging the gap between social practices. Environmental regulations need to be enforced in order to implement the rules. The US Congress enacted 1982 Act of Coastal Barrier Resources to increase the cost of construction in coastal areas. Yim Ongkrutraksa discusses environmental marketing and advertising techniques to promote sustainability. As per his understanding, voluntary actions need to be taken by the organization, and the ads need be made to encourage the habits like recycling and other practices to promote green culture.  Japan, China, and Thailand have made such ads and tactics have led to promote these actions of the government.

Shiv Ganesh describes the sustainable development discourse for the global economy. He highlights the impact of the green economy and how sustainability impacts the overall economic system. To generate meaningful conversations, there needs to be a more profound realization and understanding of the whole predicament to make things better. Douglas Crawford describes the roles of corporate species in the ecosystem. Global climate impact human health directly and the corporate sector while understanding the predicament needs to consider this while making their decisions.

Corporations that are realizing the importance of sustainability are highly commendable and those that give importance to environment quality, economic vitality. Social justice need to work following the changes required in policies, and new structures need to be introduced. Global organizations, Industry regulating authorities, and other entities need to fill in with these economies as per the designs of sustainable communities across the globe. The final section begins with the debate of Eva Collins that discusses if sustainability is sustainable or not? She discusses the management fashions, CSR techniques, sustainable businesses need to develop a framework to address the issues that are existing in the society.

Sustainability needs to be emphasized as the most critical issue & only by prioritizing it can the matter be resolved. Jeanna Abbot writes on CSR and public policy making while emphasizing on the role of government in enforcing laws against this act. There needs to be actions taken in order to make actual difference in terms of CSR and a proper public policy can ensure to address all the concerns presented in the argument. NGO’s role should be taken over by the government organizations that need to address this issue. Priya Kurian describes the case of Subaltern Public while elaborating the postcolonial perspectives on CSR.

As per the understanding, CSR needs to be changed in terms of its references and more immersive ideas need to be endorsed. Lars Thoger describes about the post-modern remarks regarding the issues related to CSR and presents a different overview of the topic. The responsiveness and responsibility are also interconnected and not just the firms but practices also need to change. Lastly, Patricia Wehane discusses the CSR in comparison to Corporate moral obligation to figure of there is a difference between the 2 and as per the findings companies that extend beyond their jurisdiction should be stopped.



Memorial museums are meant to be about both memory and thinking in the form of historical understanding. They are also aimed at inspiring emotional responses and empathy.

There are three primary functions that memorial museums are created to fulfill. The first is their role as a mechanism of truth-telling about the history and preserving the past; they aim to be houses of history where the past is uncovered, documented, and maintained, and the “truth” about what happened is disclosed to their tourists. The second is their “memorial” function, which is to serve as a place of healing and repair; they are a form of symbolic reparation that seeks to give acknowledgment to the victims and serve as a solemn space of mourning and remembrance in the effort to help heal a community. The final function embodies what is most unique about these museums: they are intended to morally educate visitors to internalize an ethic of “never again.”

Memorial museums consider themselves to be the first warning to the present and the future about the dangers of division and ideology. Their most important goal is to prevent future genocide, human rights abuses, and violence.

There is reason to hope that these museums will actually contribute to a more peaceful and democratic present and future. Memorial museums will doubtless play a role as the politics of the past are renegotiated. However, it’s not clear if this role will be to reinforce the hegemony of the nation and its power structures or to uphold the values of inclusion, tolerance, and democracy that memorial museums are meant to embody and that seem to be currently under attack.


In 2004, the Kigali Genocide Memorial Centre was dedicated to commemorate the tenth anniversary of the Rwandan genocide that killed more than 250,000 around the city of Kigali.

Political legitimacy today depends on coming to terms with the past, and memorial museums are one of the essential mechanisms for legitimating nations or groups in the eyes of the international community. In Rwanda, the political use of memory of the genocide has the capacity to be very troubling, as many people would argue that the current Rwandan governmentdoes not deserve the international political legitimacy that a memorial museum can help to bestow on a regime.

The political and social context of genocide remembrance in Rwanda compromises the Kigali Centre’s ambitious goals of fostering tolerance and reconciliation and working to prevent genocide.

At first glance, the Kigali Centre is troubling because it was designed and conceived by a British organization, implying something of a “colonial” memory project foisted on Rwandans.

The Kigali Centre, rather than self-reflexively facing the past and trying to learn from it, in many ways reinforces the government’s hegemonic narrative of the genocide. Despite the politicization of the past in the Kigali Centre and by the Rwandan government, the “regretful” posture toward the past that the Kagame regime has assumed does indeed appear to legitimize his rule that would otherwise not conform to liberal democratic standards. The past that is presented in the Kigali Centre is not yet past, and so the goals and efforts of preventing future violence, dictatorship, or genocide that all memorial museums embrace remain to be truly tested in the case of Rwanda.


Sodaro, Amy, MEMORIAL MUSEUMS: Promises and Limits

Sodaro, Amy, THE KIGALI GENOCIDE MEMORIAL CENTRE: Building a “Lasting Peace”


The Museo de la Memoria y los Derechos Humanos (Museum of Memory and Human Rights [MMHR]) opened in Chile in 2010 and was influenced by the Holocaust memory. The Museum is intended to remember and educate about the human rights abuses of the brutal military dictatorship of Augusto Pinochet from 1973 to 1990. It is hence both a form of reparation to the victims and a site of education.

As the global “Pinochet effect” following his arrest in London demonstrates, Chile’s struggle to confront its violent past is linked with the broader rise of international human rights in the second half of the twentieth century, which itself is tied to the emergence of memory and coming to terms with the past as a preoccupation for nations.

Since division remains in Chilean society over Pinochet’s rule, the story that the Museum tells is strictly limited in relation to the military dictatorship.To make sense of the past and prevent such violence in the future, the causes and consequences must be explained and understood.

The MMHR is very much a part of what can be seen as a global memory culture though a little limited in its nature. However, through its public, the MMHR seeks to address human rights issues beyond Chile. But the important question remains of whether memory and memorial museums can heal whatever healing potential of memory may exist that often eclipsed by political agendas and expediencies.

In 2014, the National September 11 Memorial Museum opened to the public and made historical framing in itself an essential. Instead of memory complementing the historical narrative, the history in the 9/11 Museum is meant to be made out of individual memories.

Entering the exhibit, the museum experience drastically changes. Photography is allowed in Foundation Hall. As the crush of visitors squeeze their way through a revolving door, they are reminded that no photography is allowed inside the historical exhibit. Instead, apparently, all senses are to be focused on learning the history of 9/11. And while the pavilion, the descent, and Foundation Hall are all characterized by their full scale and massive proportions, suddenly, the Museum feels cramped, claustrophobic, chaotic, and uncomfortable. Thus begins the 9/11 experience. Ultimately, the final room, “Beyond Recovery,” opens with questions about the ongoing effects of 9/11and the continued threat of terrorism. In Memoriam, the walls of the room are lined with photos of the almost three thousand victims of 9/11 and the 1993 World Trade Center attack.

The Museum also has a set of educational and public programs and a sophisticated website intended to reach far beyond the already massive audience of the Museum itself. After the experience of the historical exhibition, it seems that any and all tactics for protecting Americans are critically needed and fully justified. In its minute detail of the destruction and traumatic rendering of the 102 minutes, the Museum’s historical exhibition gives visitors such a forceful emotional experience of 9/11 that they cannot help but come away from the historical exhibition deeply horrified and angry.

While the Museum will find a way to stand up for the values it is meant to promote, the ahistorical narrative created in and by the Museum may help fuel the kinds of dangerous rhetoric that threatens them.


Sodaro, Amy, THE MUSEUM OF MEMORY AND HUMAN RIGHTS: “A Living Museum for Chile’s Memory”

Sodaro, Amy, THE NATIONAL SEPTEMBER 11 MEMORIAL MUSEUM: “To Bear Solemn Witness”


The English speaking people recognize Iris Chang’s The Rape of Nanking to be one of the best books about the Nanking Massacre.  The Massacre took place between 1937-1938 as advancing Japanese troops captured and occupied the Chinese capital. During this, over a hundred thousand Chinese civilians and disarmed soldiers were killed, and widespread instances of rape, looting, arson, and violence occurred. Although criticized in some quarters for inflating the number of civilians killed or for taking liberties in defining the geographical span or time of the Massacre, Chang’s book is most important for having thrust the issue of Nanking into public consciousness beyond China and Japan.

Examining different groups’ interests in remembering and interpreting events like the Nanking Massacre or the atomic bombing of Hiroshima can reveal “conflicting obsessions” in memory-making and ultimately how public debate and historical interpretations are developed. The onus is on readers to think critically beyond the confines of one text and explore issues and ideas in greater depth. It is problematic for historians that many narratives in one book could give a complete or perfect “window” onto the past.

But even casual readers may notice or critique some of the book’s oft-cited problems, such as the intemperate language or clear bias against Japan throughout. The readers’ reactions also reveal several essential details concerning history and memory.

The Rape of Nanking can also be taken as a cautionary lesson for historians and the reading public. Deliberately presenting a false or misleading account of the past is professionally unacceptable for writers and researchers of history. Historians need to be sensitive to the kinds of interpretations they can draw from their sources, be specific with the definitions and methodologies they apply, and be willing to correct errors in their work. Vigilance from the historical community raises awareness of problematic narratives and can help lessen some of the damage.


The centenary year of the Armenian genocide witnessed an escalation in cultural production and both political and academic focus. It is essential to point out how the centenary has challenged the context within which the genocide is approached.

The genocide did not end in itself – it was followed by a denialist project that continues to challenge and undermine the memories of the survivors and the claims of their widespread descendants.

The centenary was a turning point that represented a culmination of the boom in cultural production, alongside an overwhelming validation of the genocide. The energy around these proliferating projects during the centenary year catapulted a merging of history and memory that ended up in a subtle yet sublime shift in the understanding of the Armenian genocide.

For the first time in 2015, 24 April was declared a public holiday in the country, and most political parties and religious leaders spoke out in support of its wider acknowledgment. The commemoration of the centenary in Lebanon reflected the realities of the Armenian community there, their apparent security and longevity, alongside an underlying precariousness that can erupt at any moment. The commemorations and discourse were reflective of the highly politicized sectarian nature of the state and society in Lebanon.

The commemorations were an impetus for many diasporans: to reflect upon questions about who has the responsibility and authority to represent and mediate the collective past and present. Gourevitch (2014) said that “memory can feel like an affliction, and the greater imperative has often been to learn how to forget enough for long enough to live in the present.” The centenary may be seen as a turning point for the Armenian diaspora and also as a celebration of resilience, while also a release from the burden of history.


Ropers, Eric, Debating History and Memory: Examining the Controversy Surrounding Iris Chang’s The Rape of Nankin (2017)

Kasbarian, Sossie, The politics of memory and commemoration: Armenian diasporic reflections on 2015, (2018)


Nationalist movements can be used to study how memory and forgetfulness brought into play as political resources. Recalling the historical events of the sub-continent and the surrounding violence provides evidence for the nationalistic struggles.

The theoretical approaches to analyze nationalist historiographies in the Indian memory include how colonialism legitimized itself, how the “native” experiences were thought of as “letting go,” how nationalist groups refused to forget hurtful memories, and how the melancholia suffered metamorphosed into counter-memory.

Paying attention to the conflicts between Hindus and Sikhs highlights how anticolonial unity worked between the communities. Foucault pushed to study discontinuity and periods of “reversal of forces” to understand history effectively. He also built on Nietzsche’s work and pointed out three means of recounting history, namely antiquarian, monumental, and effective.

However, the forgetting of history might give rise to novel identities instead of preserving the older ones. Here the counter-memory made into normative in the past can lead to a conformist history. Many authors have put forward that history should be normative and effective, and this might not confine the past to the past, but its impact will be felt in the present, like the partition of India and Pakistan. Other examples include Emma Tarlo’s recollection of memories from the “Emergency” in Delhi during 1975-77 and the Gurdwara incident.

While Das has demonstrated that Sikh and Hindu identity reasoning depends on forgetfulness, many studies on counter-memory can help people understand the non-obligatory value of the dominant narrative and aid in removing contradictions between present identities and the past memories.


The street name system in colonial Singapore was founded on the European interpretation of the urbanization framework. Simultaneously there was another system of naming streets that was primarily found in the Asian immigrant localities. A focus on functionality and purpose, as well as the origin, seemed to resonate in the street names.

Regardless of the native systems, official names derived from British places continued to abound. The names of British counties and urban centers inspired road names such as Dorset Road, Norfolk Road, Bristol Road, and Shrewsbury Road.

Although municipal authorities attempted to choose street names recognizing Asian communities where that was deemed appropriate, most municipal street names honored the perceptions of power-holding Europeans rather than those of the residents of specific areas

The contrast between corporate and Asian street names went beyond differences in etymological content and phonetics. The two systems also represented different ways of signifying the landscape. Whereas municipal street names primarily sought to identify the urban landscape with civic notions of appropriateness and ordering, Chinese nomenclature was firmly anchored to local features, symbols, and activities that formed a significant role in daily experience.

Municipal attempts to enhance the acceptability and the usage of official street names among the Asian communities had limited success.

As a process, the naming of places in Singapore was not the simple prerogative of the municipal authorities but was contingent on social dynamics. The authorities had the power to select what was considered appropriate names and to assign them formally to the streets of the city, but the Asian communities determined whether the names took on typical usage. Failure to impose and to enforce the adoption of one uniform system of place-names partly reflected the lack of absolute power for the government and its acceptance of multicultural patterns of behavior.


Legg, Stephen, Sites of Counter-Memory: The Refusal to Forget and the Nationalist Struggle in Colonial Delhi

Yeoh, Brenda, Street Names in Colonial Singapore


A critical analysis of the Saskatchewan Centennial celebrations (2005) and the Québec quatercentenary celebrations (2008) can be done through many different theories and studies which help highlight how the two are connected in terms of its settlers and indigenous peoples in Quebec and Saskatchewan.

The analysis of two main commemorative events, the Centennial Gala in Saskatchewan and Rencontres [Encounters] in Québec, reveal significantly about Canadian celebrations. As Mackey (2002) argues, these commemorative events give an insight into how depoliticization might occur because of White settler’s innocence.

An important point to be noted is the Indigenous forms of counter-commemoration to the celebratory mode of Saskatchewan and Québec commemoration. Since there was strong resistance to the Vancouver Olympics, it is estimated that similar sentiments will be followed in 2017. It has been seen that these spaces reflect quite different connections with the past.

This study raises questions about the chances of a unionin the white settler colonial-national project as to how could make this investment tap into the hurtful feelings of the indigenous people that might be brought about by the same project. To solve the issue, the White settlers ought to take the matter into their own hands and utilize this time to postpone the celebrations of history and channel their endeavors into bridging the gap of opportunities and life chances between the White settlers and the Indigenous people that might lead to a purer celebration in the future.

During the fiftieth anniversary of Toronto’s integration, many celebrated its history with its connection to the British Empire in 1884. The analysis of the speeches of the renowned Daniel Wilson and Samson Green gives an insight into the differing interpretations and schools of thought to commemoration. While one vision emphasis the removal of the area’s past and celebrates the arrival of its modern European future, the other side celebrates the romanticized approach of the previous Indigenous-settler relationship that sidelines the status of Mississauga’s local settlers. The 1884 commemoration marks the shift from the birth of the settlement in 1793 to its integration as a cardinal part of the city. Here the act carried from the Mississaugas in the Toronto Purchase of 1787 is ignored; whereas, the 1834 Act of Incorporation represents Toronto’s modern grounds.

In 2009, the 175th celebration of Toronto’s integration, the representation of the Indigenous people and their past had witnessed a massive change. The 1834 Act of Incorporation energetically began and closed the ceremony and spoke a little as the people from Six Nations were less in representation. Here no one was labeled negatively, and many books acknowledged the deep understanding of the human presence historiographically and such was mentioned on the official website as well. Hence, overall the event was a celebration of diversity.

However, historical memory is constantly changing, particularly in Toronto, that is known to be a city for newcomers, as half its residents are born in foreign lands. In today’s world, Toronto’s Indigenous past is recalled and understood merely on the surface level, and most context remains ignored and unknown.


Cardwell, Lynn and Leroux, Darryl,The settler-colonial imagination: Comparing commemoration in Saskatchewan and in Québec(2019)

Freeman, Victoria, “Toronto Has No History!” Indigeneity, Settler Colonialism, and Historical Memory in Canada’s Largest City(2010)



The public commemorative landscape’s nature is bound to change at some time after any radical change (Forest and Johnson 2002) at times by the laymen or elitists. A toponym named after the late AlexandruMoghioros can be used to demonstrate this issue. Struggles to rename the place have failed to erase the remnant of the socialist era. Some reasons for this include the attached habit, memory, and how the socialist era names are not combated in the regular routine.

As the geographers study habit in relation to this matter in-depth, these situations can be better understood by seeking help from habitual patterns. A perspective from sociocognitive psychology helps understand how these consistent behaviors oppose change only if some factors like context remain the same.  For instance, residents in DrumulTaberei have not opted for the new name for Piat¸aMoghioros as the older version is deeply internalized in habits.

However, it has been recommended that additional research is necessary to reach the root cause as less data is available for places that have a strong direct attachment to the lives of the people. Hence an in-depth approach is needed to understand the particularities and the nitty-gritty of the issue so as to facilitate an appreciation of works that are named after historical or cultural emblems that might lead to an increased understanding of how the urban world helps shape a sort of shared memory.

The Canadian Conservative government from 2009 till 2011 initiated two schemes, the National Holocaust Monument (NHM) and the Memorial to the Victims of Communism (MVC), to reorient Ottawa’s commemorative placings. These monuments replaced the attached sentimental heroism with a counter-memory culture that was largely perceived in the light of German Historikerstreit.

Though these monuments manifest “multidirectional” memory behavioral practices, these are representative of the tedious journey to Canadian nationalism brought about by lengthy discussions related to humanitarian rights. Placed in native lands, though these monuments were imported, but never given away to the Crown by any treaty,

Building upon Theodor Adorno’s argument, presented in his essay ‘The Meaning of Working Through the Past,’ where he points out the unlikelihood of deciphering aspects amidst the rise and bolstering of Fascist ideology, and the connected struggles, it is suggested that without critically analyzing the underlying sentiments Canadians attach to the monuments’ past any effort to forget the past, as indicated by some flexible references to German Vergangenheitsbewältigung, is bound to fail in its endeavor.

It is essential to point out that since the Requests for Qualifications removed the analytical and creative participation in the renewal of the monuments in conjunction with the ignorance demonstrated to the historical attachment to the subtexts of Holocaust and Communism by the bureaucracy in the construction of NHM and MVC, the multidirectional aspect of the monuments becomes questionable when taken in a flexible approach. Although there may be instances where the monuments extract foreign ideals from other sub-concepts, the monuments ought to represent the locally attached sentiment to them rather than sidelining it. For many, the new Canadian Holocaust and Communism memorials are grounded under colonial pressures instead of upholding their native understandings.


Dolgoy, Rebeccaand Elżanowski, Jerzy, Working through the limits of multidirectional memory: Ottawa’s Memorial to the Victims of Communism and National Holocaust Monument(2018)

Light, Duncan and Young, Craig, Habit, Memory, and the Persistence of Socialist-Era Street Names in Postsocialist Bucharest, Romania(2014)


Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Ut elit tellus, luctus nec ullamcorper mattis, pulvinar dapibus leo.

Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Ut elit tellus, luctus nec ullamcorper mattis, pulvinar dapibus leo.

Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Ut elit tellus, luctus nec ullamcorper mattis, pulvinar dapibus leo.



Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Ut elit tellus, luctus nec ullamcorper mattis, pulvinar dapibus leo.


 incident of the general cargo vessel Priscilla
cargo vessel Priscilla


The incident of the general cargo vessel Priscilla took place on 18th July 2018. The vessel got shipwrecked when it hit the ground instead of stopping in water. Investigation revealed that the officer on board was unaware that the ship was drifting away from its actual path two hours before the accident took place. When the mistake got realized, it was too late to change course without leading the vessel directly into danger.

Moreover,The accident took place because of the carelessness of the officer who was busy watching videos on his mobile phone. He was the only one looking over the vessel at the time of the night and yet did not monitor where the ship was headed. The electronic navigation system onboard the vessel was also not set up. He even responded to two radio calls from authorities but did not take them seriously enough. Hence, he wasn’t able to avoid danger.

Background and purpose:

Many such marine accidents have been taking place lately and getting reported by authorities. It raises questions as to why their frequency is increasing. It seems that despite fewer crew compliments, the vessels are being used to exhaustion levels. They are not getting the maintenance they require. Plus, the people on board are also stooping towards carelessness in their attitude while handling the vessels and hence, causing accidents.


This investigation was done by the UK Marine Accident Investigation Branch (MAIB).

Lessons learned:

  1. Monitoring the vessel at all times is crucial. Make sure it is on the right path.
  2. More than one person should be employed at the task of looking out the vessel, especially at night.
  3. Electronic navigation systems should readily be used.
  4. Radio calls from the authorities should not be taken lightly and should be readily looked into to avoid danger.


Coming to the conclusion, to prevent accidents in the future, the owner of the vessel Priscilla has been advised to take the necessary measures to upgrade his ship to the required standards. And also, make sure that appropriate watchkeeping and safety management is done on board.


Crazy Offer!

25% off

on your first order