Motivation is a significant key to running a successful business or organization. A leader is someone who can motivate the members of the team to give their best performance and achieve the desired results and set goals. Gone are the days when leaders were thought to be born with leadership qualities and as “great men.”The goal is to discuss some of the most critical and well-established theories and models of motivation so that all of us can learn some of the characteristics of leaders and strategies they adopt to motivate their teams and always get the best performance.

Maslow’s Perspective of Hierarchy of Needs:


Abraham Maslow (1943)’s Hierarchy of Needs Perspective is one of the oldest and most acclaimed understandings of what motivates people. According to McLeod, Maslow“was interested in human potential, and how we fulfill that potential” (2007, p. 4). He believed that rewards and desires do not motivate people. Instead, they have a hierarchy of five motivational needs. These are: psychological, safety, belonging, self-esteem, and self-actualization (see figure 1). Only when the basic needs, ones towards the bottom of the pyramid are satisfied, is when a person can achieve self-actualization, what he defines as “the person’s desire for self-fulfilment, namely, to the tendency for him to become actualized in what he is potentially” (Maslow, 1943) A true leader would not only work towards seeking self-fulfilment but also encourage others, see their potential and make them realize what they can achieve. Maslow (1970) enlists some qualities of people who go on to achieve self-actualization. These include that they accept themselves and others as they are without changing anything being quick and efficient in thinking and acting, do not have an autocratic attitude and stick to having strong morals. So, this is what a leader must thrive to attain and motivate others to do as well.

Herzberg’sTwo-factor Theory of Motivation:


Frederick Herzberg’s two-factors perspective (1959) is another well-established theory about motivation. This two-dimensional paradigm suggests two factors increase or decrease motivation for work. First, he says are the hygiene factors, which include their organization’s working policy, colleagues’ relation with each other, work environment, among others. He says that these cannot provide long-term motivation. That can only be done by what he lists as the five determiners or satisfiers. These are accomplishments, being recognized for your hard work and effort, the work, level of charge one has, and career prospects. The hygiene factors, which Hersberg also calls the dissatisfiers, can only produce a short-term boost in motivation and job performance. If long-term, sustained productivity and motivation is required, that can only be caused by upgrading the quality of satisfiers. Therefore, even though the work environment should be pleasant, a leader must make sure that members’ relationship with the work they do is of exceptional and maintains to be that way. Moreover, he should make sure that the tasks given provide value to workers, provide them with a sense of responsibility, and always appreciate them for their work instead of taking it for granted.

McGregor’s X and Y Theories:


Douglas McGregor beliefs, as stated in The Human Side of Enterprise (1960) about leadership, motivation and management styles hold considerable significance and can be of great use. His theory X and theory Y propose that the managers’ beliefs significantly shape the way organizations run. Theory X suggests a management style where it is assumed that human beings inherently do not like to work and must therefore be pushed into it and remain under supervision. Added to that, according to this view, the average human being does not like responsibility, is not ambitious and simply prefers security above all. Leaders who hold this view employ autocratic measures and strict direction. However, this view presents a leader’s only aim is to be persuading the people working under him to be submissive, and therefore is not the best approach. Therefore, McGregor proposed the alternate view, theory Y. Theory Y suggests that a leader believes that human beings like responsibility, are inherently ambitious, and committed to work hard towards what they commit, and have learnt to do otherwise only through experience. So, they are not motivated by the threat of punishment but work towards meeting the self-actualization needs. Keeping this view, a leader would see his team members as wanting to work and achieve.

Interestingly, McGregor acknowledged that Theory Y managerial style will not beappropriate in all situations (McGregor, 1967). Leadership is not solely about individualistic characteristics. Instead, it involves several variables such as attitudes and needs ofthe followers, the organisation’s system, and its social, economic and political environment.Therefore, instead of trying to implement Theory Y as it is, a leader should manoeuvre the forces at play and try to create the right environment and conditions for his workers to be motivated and perform their best.

McClelland’s Need Achievement Theory:


David McClelland, in his book The Achieving Society (1961), puts forward his perspective about what he thinks motivate people. McClelland says that individuals learn early on to repeat behaviour that is rewarded. This is how they learn three needs i.e., achievement, affiliation, and power. His wisdom lies in suggesting that every human, regardless of his/her gender, culture, age, has these three motivating factors, one of which works as a dominant motivator. The leader is required to assess what the dominant motivating factor for his team members is. For instance, if a member has a strong need to accomplish challenges, would even take risks to achieve those challenges and goals, likes to receive constructive feedback on his work, are some of the signs that the person is need is achievement. For someone who displays a desire to belong to agroup, wants to please people, likes to collaborate and cooperate with peers, imply that the person’s need is affiliation.Someone who take measures to control and coerce others, does not like to lose an argument,enjoys recognition, etc. show that the person needs power. A smart leader would identify the dominant motivators in his team, and asRybnicek,Bergner, andGutschelhofer(2019) suggest, would assign tasks and set goals according to these needs. People motivated by achievement should be given challenging projects and often allowed the margin to work alone. They should be given honest feedback as they are keen to work on what they lack. Those motivated by affiliation are easy to work with and should be integrated into teams. Those who are driven by the need to attain power like to stand out and have competition. Therefore, it is best to assign goal-oriented projects to them, so they remain motivated. Playing to their strengths, they are usually the best choice for making negotiations. Conclusively, a good leader would keep McClelland’s needs’ achievement theory, assess the dominant motivators in his team members, and assign tasks accordingly. This will ensure that everybody remains motivated and engaged with the work.

Adams’ Equity Theory:


John Stacey Adams proposed the equity theory in 1965to explain job motivation. According to Huseman, Richard, Hatfield, and Miles, equity theory states that “individuals who perceive themselves as either under-rewarded or over-rewarded will experience distress, and this distress leads to an effort to restore equity” (1987). The most crucial factor of this theory is the focus on the interchange i.e. humans give something and have an expectation to receive something in return. What they provide, i.e. the input, which includes their education, skills, experience, hard work, etc. should be equal to the benefit they perceive they have received i.e. the output, which include the salary, intrinsic rewards, benefits, etc. Adams says that “inequity exists for the person whenever he perceives that theratio of his outcomes to inputs and the ratio of others’ outcomes to others’ inputs are unequal”(1965).He also emphasises that “the greater the inequity,the more distress individuals feel, and the harder they will try to restore equity.” They do this by what he calls the “means of inequity reduction.” These include altering the quality of their work, altering inputs and outputs, leave the job or force others to leave. Some may get too disturbed that they would leave the field (Al-zawahreh and Madi, 2012).

So, in order for that to not happen, leaders should make sure that they are just and fair in the treatment of employees. Also, they should be accessible so workers can communicate any grievances they have. If workers feel that they are being mistreated and their work is not valued fairly, they will harbour objections in their heart, which will hamper their performance or may even lead them to quit. Al-zawahreh and Madi’s study show the importance of equitable pay on employees’ job satisfaction and motivation. Hence, a good leader should make sure that the workers’ do not feel their dedication and time are being underpaid, or that they feel they do not receive the same treatment, recognition, and appreciation as others.

Vroom’s Expectancy Theory:


Victor Vroom’s expectancy theory (1964) about job motivation is said to be one of the most realistic ones, as it combines individuals’ aims and organization’s objectives (Harold and Heinz,1988). His theory is built upon three key aspects: expectancy, instrumentality, and valence. Expectancy is the relationship between individuals’ efforts and performance. If he believes that an increase in efforts would lead to a better, exceptional performance, he would be more motivated to put in the effort so that the personal goal of better performance is achieved. Instrumentality is the employees’ belief that better performance will lead to rewards like an increase in pay, added bonuses, etc. This expectation will push the worker to give his best performance. Valence measures the rewards or outcomes for the workers. These may be salary, recognition, prospects of promotions, etc. but they can also be negative such as tiredness and fatigue. However, for the workers to remain motivated, the sum of valence should remain positive. According to Vroom, these are three factors that come into play and motivate the employees to bring their A-game forward. Hence, a leader realises that for the workers to remain motivated, their intrinsic and external motivations should be met. Apart from monetary incentives, a leader gives the margin to perform and excel to his team so that the feeling of achievement they would get can surpass their fatigue and tiredness.

Porter-Lawler Model of Motivation:


Porter-Lawler Model of motivation (1968) expand upon Victor Vroom’s Expectancy Theory. Instead of assessing motivation based only on expectancy, instrumentality and valence, they add more variables to present an even more nuanced and critical explanation of motivation. They state that employees’ recognition of their effort, ability and personal traits play a great role. To assess this,the model introduces effort, motivation, satisfaction and performance as added variables. This model incorporates the nuance that a worker would display increased motivation and better performance when they expect a reward. Hence, it is up to the leader’s wisdom to realize that a monetary incentive is not always the best one to offer. Rather, “performance should be measured systematically and accurately so that rewards are distributed fairly, an important variable in maintaining high motivation” (Iancuand Badea, 2015). Moreover, this model also suggests that individuals may think that they deserve a higher award than they receive.

Figure 2 shows their basic model; the dashed line arrows demonstrate theconnection between employees’ perceived performance and the rewards they think they deserve. So, intrinsic, extrinsic, as well asa perceived reward all contribute to members’ satisfaction and in turn, fuel motivation. A leader should be mindful of all three.


All the theories discussed are well-established and have been empirically tested in workplaces. All of them present a somewhat different approach to what a leader must do. Maslow suggests that a leader should work to attain self-actualization and encourage his team members to the same and that would fuel their motivation; Herzberg states that a real leader ensures that his team members’ relationship between with their work is great and the would be the most crucial motivator; McGregor suggests that a leader should believe that his team members are responsible and committed and try to create a healthy workenvironment for his workers to be motivated; McClelland holds the view a good leader will assess what the dominant motivators of his team members are, and assign tasks accordingly; according to Vroom, members’ expectation for greater reward in return of great performance is what becomes the motivational factor; for Porter and Lawler, a leader should be aware of intrinsic, extrinsic, as well as perceived rewards that the members’ expect and fulfil those. Conclusively, there is no set formula that makes one a great leader. However, he must be accessible, provide detailed feedback, appreciate, be optimistic and supportive. All the qualities he will adopt will be mirrored in his team members and their work.




Adams, J. Stacy. “Inequity in social exchange.” In Advances in experimental social psychology,    vol. 2, pp. 267-299. Academic Press, 1965.

Al-Zawahreh, Abdelghafour, and Faisal Al-Madi. “The utility of equity theory in enhancing         organizational effectiveness.” European journal of economics, finance and             administrative sciences 46, no. 3 (2012): 159-169..

Herzberg, F., Mausner, B., & Snyderman, B. B. (1959). The Motivation to Work (2nd ed.). New   York: John Wiley & Sons.

Huseman, Richard C., John D. Hatfield, and Edward W. Miles. “A new perspective on equity      theory: The equity sensitivity construct.” Academy of management Review 12, no. 2     (1987): 222-234.

Iancu, Dumitru, and Dorel Badea. “Perspectives on Using Theory Porter-Lawler Student Motivation Military.” In International conference KNOWLEDGE-BASED             ORGANIZATION, vol. 21, no. 1, p. 213. 2015.

Koontz Harold and Weihrich Heinz, Management, Ninth Edition, McGraw Hill International       Editions, New York, 1988, p. 419.

Lawler, Edward E. “A correlational-causal analysis of the relationship between expectancy           attitudes and job performance.” Journal of Applied Psychology 52, no. 6p1 (1968): 462.

Maslow, A. H. (1943). A Theory of Human Motivation. Psychological Review, 50(4), 370- 96.

Maslow, A. H. (1970a). Motivation and Personality. New York: Harper & Row.

McClelland, David C. Achieving society. No. 15. Simon and Schuster, 1961.

McGregor, Douglas M. (1967). “The professional manager.”

McGregor, Douglas, and Joel Cutcher-Gershenfeld. (1960). The human side of enterprise. Vol.     21. New York: McGraw-Hill.

McLeod, Saul. (2007):  “Maslow’s hierarchy of needs.” Simply psychology 1:4.

Rybnicek, Robert, Sabine Bergner, and Alfred Gutschelhofer. “How individual needs influence   motivation effects: a neuroscientific study on McClelland’s need theory.” Review of     Managerial Science 13, no. 2 (2019): 443-482.

Vroom, Victor. “Expectancy theory.” Work and motivation (1964).






Influencer marketing has become a leading strategy of advertising online today. Social media is playing an integral role in promoting brand name, image and recognition to name a few. Five to ten years ago, watch brands were following traditional marketing approaches, like use of advertisement through TV, magazines, brochures and pamphlets. With the advent of internet and advanced social media applications, watch brandsthat have taken advantage of this have seena spike in growth. The objective of study investigates that how watch brands have been using influencer marketing on Instagram to dominate the watch market in the past 5 years.The most popular influencer marketing application is Instagram. Celebrities and influencers are core parts of influencer marketing so they approach followers and make fan following for a brand.

Current research study identifies key dimensions of influencer marketing that play significant role for watch brands. Research study has used qualitative method to find significance of watch brands under influencer marketing, for this purpose, some case studies are used, such as, Daniel Wellington, 5th Watches, and Movement Watches. The research has inferred that influencer marketing in terms of better targeting, advertisement and technology has helped watch brands perform excellent in industry. Current study has clarified past myths about traditional marketing by using real life examples from watch industry. Influence of marketing is measured in terms of segmentation and buyers’ decisions. The research proved significance of influencer marketing and how this strategy has helped in boosting the growth patterns of products in the watch space in the past few years. Social media influencing strategy is superior to traditional marketing strategy in terms of targeting customers and boosting growth of hot trends.


Chapter1- Introduction, Background, Objectives

Watch industry is a popular segment of economy and famous brands are focusing on social media channels to influence its marketing (Martikainen, and Pitkänen, 2019). Instagram is one of these social media channelsthat has used its enormous pool of users to accelerate the sales of brand. Influencer marketing is a key marketing practice to reach followers through targeted messages. Social media channels primarilysuch as Facebook and Instagram use this marketing approach to capture people with opinion(Kim and Ko, 2012).

Marketing was introduced in 1954, Whyte used this term to explain how people talk about different products and services. This term explains the product preferences and similar purchase behavior. The word of mouth is integral to explain the behavior of consumer, their interests, and reshaping of attitude and values (Alaimo, K., 2017). It means that trust on informal communication by consumers is increasing while making a purchase.

1.1 Background

Social media trend is accompanied by marketing strategies to influence customers. Influencers are strong unions that is made up of alike minded consumers in social networking platforms (Ge and Gretzel, 2018).Marketing approaches are developed due to expansion of internet and digital media. For instance, today, on social media, such as Instagram, the discussion forums, posted views and instant messaging is common. Due to the changed scope of marketing, the concepts and strategies have accommodated people’s preferences(Anderson, S. and Neville, 2019). The word of mouth has been evolved into electronic for that helps reshaping purchase decisions of consumers. These influencers work through interaction and value. The common factors behind influence are loyalty, notable stature, size of audience and the authority in a community.

1.2 Significance of study

Social media influencer is an independent third party follower that can shape individual’s thinking and perception through tweets, blogs and vlogs (Kim and Ko, 2012).Independent actors are significant to shape the attitude of audience with the coexistence in social media. Influencers offer novel information and persuasive capabilities to develop brand information.

1.3 Scope of research

A kind of social media marketing that engages product advertisement from influencers, i.e. the individuals who are dedicated consumers and provide expert opinion about their niche. Influencer marketing works due to a large number of trusted influencers who recommend others about a product by providing social proof. Instagram is a similar type of social media that is targeting people, started in 2014, and provides a featured page that constitute successful products (Ge and Gretzel, 2018). The expansion of social media has given rise to education, knowledge and product awareness to people so a new trend of influencer marketing is established. Today, social media campaigns are used by famous brands like Starbucks, Microsoft, Virgin America, and Rolex (Approach, M., 2020).

Figure 1 Journey of Influencer Marketing

Use of social media marketing campaigns under influencers is motivated people to learn about this trend and get involved. This study is a motivation about this trend that has intended to explore this scope within watch industry. The study will discuss influencer marketing used by watch brands, its scope and strengths & weaknesses in same market. This section will further analyze influencer and traditional marketing in watch industry.

1.4 Aims and Objectives

This research study intends to investigate that how watch brands have been using influencer marketing on Instagram to dominate the watch market in the past 5 years?

Sub-objectives are to:

  • explorestrengths of influencer marketing
  • examineweaknesses of traditional marketing
  • describe social media channels, influence of marketing and digital world
  • to find out impact of advertising

1.5 Research Questions

The research question of this study is how the use of influencer marketing in the watch market, and why so many brands have been using influencer marketing in the past 5 years.

1.6 Project structure

The study is organized in following manner. The first section is introduction that will detail about influencer marketing, its scope and implications in the watch industry. The second section will discuss theoretical framework, including that how multi-million dollar brands can be built upon using influencer marketing on social media. The third section will be review of literature, mainly constituting research design. The fourth section will discuss different business models applicable in today’s world of marketing. The last section is about recommendations and conclusion.

Chapter 2- Literature Review

2.1 Use of Influencer Marketing by brands

Today, multiple brands are using influencer marketing, as a digital and innovative tool to attract audience and build their perception. The framework of influence is developed on three main pillars that is playing significant role to assess the effect. These pillars are relevance, reach and resonance. The resonance is a measurement of the interaction level or duration that surrounds a topic, content and the conversation (Silvia, 2019). The higher the resonance means more people are involved. The relevance is the graph of interest or the focus of the community that is reflected from individual behavior, in form of linked relationships where information is spread. The measure of affinity, popularity or potential impact is reach (Backaler, J., 2018).

Influencers are people, who develop interest of the audience into a product or service. The advertisement medium is changing and people are now focusing more on social platforms to approach celebrities. This process is also helpful to get customers involvedand make marketing campaigns. Brands focus on influencer marketing to outstrip the other kinds of marketing (Martikainen, and Pitkänen, 2019).

Figure 2 Cost of Influencer Marketing

Instagram is a social media platform and has gained millions of followers in short span oftime, it is used by brands to do influencer marketing. This photo sharing application is being used as a larger influencermarketing platform to accelerate product recognition and enhance brand value. Brands always focus on consumers’ wants and needs so a brand image is significant to build direct relationship of product and people (Backaler, J., 2018). It raises direct voice of influencer and tend to establish it on different social media outlets. Influencer marketing goals are to build reputation of brand and help individuals to stay aware of different activities, thus soliciting individuals’ feedback.

The success of social media influencers in the watch industry has taken a boom, due to engagement of millions of consumers by targeting their needs and preferences. The watch industry is versatile and it has generated huge sales by implementing latest technology tactics with the help of influencer marketing(Ge and Gretzel, 2018).Watch brands use this marketing approach to increase their connection with the customers and to retain them for the long term, this is because they can build a direct relationship with their customers via influencer marketing on Instagram. Literary studies have addressed the question of this paper and the findings are significant to answer objectives.The objectives and purpose of this research projects are fulfilled by incorporating relevant research studies and synthesizing their evidences. Studies discussed that more brands are engaging social media marketing and influencers to accelerate their sales (Brown, D. and Hayes, N., 2008). These brands use influencer marketing to engage audience and to build level of trust because this trust makes consumers take action and show their preferences. They also use marketing to target audiences because it is a way to ignite people to show their favorite product or services (Chevalier, J. and Mayzlin, D., 2003).Main notion of study is to target current marketing strategy which has been answered by literature evidences.

2.2. Strengths and Weaknesses of Influencer Marketing in the Watch Market

Research has shown that influencer marketing is expanding rapidly after 2017 but from 2018 it has become game changer. It is social media-related marketing in which a company, or organization launches its brand or commodity by using social media channels. In Influencer marketing, brands approachpeople who have many followers. Such individuals are called influencers. Influencer marketing is successful in thewatch market and it has been proven to be successful by many brands big and small new and classic brands (Fries, P.J., 2019). The core strengths are trust building, authority, effective reach to the audience and driving of purchase decisions. Due to influencer marketing, customers show their preferences andattract towards watch brands. It also emphasize that influencers are the trend setters for future(Cleave et al., 2016).

Due to influencer marketing, long term relationships of brandis built with audience.The trust building notion applies to each watch brand because it works on strengthening customer relationship. The efficacy to reach target audience is significantly analyzed from the watch brands and its scope. Recent influence of social marketing has stressed the access to generation Z and millennial. Numerous brands invest their capital on the influencer market to promote their brand (Harvey, P., 1998). This campaign is worth the effort in return and shows its incredible results. The influencer provides beneficial brands to followers and the brand gets 60 to 70 % return on investment. Moreover, it provides a sustainable method to build brand awareness, increases conversions, and demonstrative authority to brand.

Figure 3 Benefits of Influencers

The strengthsof influencer marketing are many. It helps to build trust and show authority.When a celebrity or a social media personality shares content for a brand, it creates trust. It provides brand awareness and brand reputation. The brand gets immense reach due to the reach of the influencer and therefore an increase in brand awareness. Influencer sets the trends,everyfollower follows their favorite influencer (Held, F., 2018). Hence, Influencers are responsible for setting trends.User generated contentis important strength. UCG is a key theme in brands like Daniel Wellington, Movement watches and the 5th Watches, and many brands today use influencer marketing to generate UCG because it shows their content as authentic but it also saves them money because their getting free content from influencers.

Ted Baker London and Kenneth Cole are leading brands in watch industry and they have targeted consumers all over the world. Geneva engages social media and uses influencer marketing (Martikainen, and Pitkänen, 2019).For example, Instagram is usingpaid partnershipthat drives brand value. The brand drive is positive for companies that engage influencer marketing and it generates brand awareness (Lerrthaitrakul, W. and Panjakajornsak, V., 2014).This is the core strength of influencer marketing for watch brands that it helpsgetting immense reach and better visibility.

There are also some weaknesses of the influencer marketing for brands.One of the biggest issues with influencer marketing occurs when the wrong influencers are chosen. Many studies describes that identifying right influencers for watch campaigns is significant to drive the sales (Liu, T.-C. and Wu, L.-W., 2009). Although it can take a lot of time and cost a lot money, finding the right influencer is critical for an influencer marketing campaign. Another weakness can be uncertainty of results(Silvia, 2019). If an influencer is hired to promote brand but they fail to produce goodcontent for the brand, this will not help sales because the content will not be engaging enough for their followers.Another drawback to influencer marketing is that some influencers are not really passionate about the brands they work with, and sometimes only work with brands to get paid and people can see through this and it can damage brand reputation, so its really important brands pay attention and only work with influencers that are passionate about their product. Social media channels are significant to accelerate business growth with the help oftargeted audience, its weakness is a defined segmentthat has not shown interest in the product being marketed or poor interest that do not yield significant sales.

2.3 Influencer Marketing and Traditional Marketing in the Watch Industry

Influencer marketing is different from traditional marketing in many forms(Lommatzsch, T., 2018). For instance, influencer marketing captures all the related factors to compile a targeted audience while traditional marketing promotes a productin limited way, such as Swiss Watch industry has used traditional marketing methods in 2011. Today, social media channels are playing an integral role to capturetargeted audience for a brand. Modern marketing is producing fan basedaudience for a product that guarantees success.The end consumer is realized already in every interest and preferences.Influencer marketing has also made it easy to establish brands for new start-upsso required achievement can be guaranteed (Chaffey, Hemphill and Edmundson-Bird, 2018). Influencermarketing offers choice to the customers through assessable channels and to reachthe right medium for effective communication.

In traditional context, ads and banners work notoriously to make an achievement that can disrupt the experience, however, banner blindness prevails that can ignore different other ads (Cleave et al., 2016). It can rise the perception that consumers feel suspicious towards the credibility of an advertisement. Watch brands using traditional media practices such as Omega watch brand before 2015 was using convention methods of advertising, it recovered its market share slowly, when focused on modern marketing practices (Mouth, W., 2002).Traditional marketing in the form of print media, television and radio is only effective to market a product but limited to influence it. More niches are available and working under influencer marketing as compared to traditional.

Traditional marketing is all about old methods of advertisement in which brands were dependent on print media and customers wereinterrupted in their daily lives. The concept in influence marketing is different as it brings forefront of the influential world where people show their interest in the products. Watch brands are developing betterinterest of audience into their products which is carried out through different attractive ways.

Figure 4 How traditional marketing works?

Traditional marketing cannot target young people specifically for example, you cannot put a banner somewhere in the high street and expect to show it to only 18-25 year old males, whereas with influencer marketing you can work with an influencer who has followers in this age range with interests that align with the brands products (Mukerjee, K., 2020). Traditional marketing doesn’t offer the same tracking as influencer marketing does, for example when a watch brand works with an influencer they can provide the influencer with a coupon code specially made for them so when customers redeem the code the brand can then measure its results and see the ROI, whereas with traditional marketing a watch brand is hoping for results with no real way of measuring results.

2.4 Use Of Influencer Marketing By Watch Brands

Should watch brand use modern way of marketing, a common question that is answered as yes. Real life examples like Omega and Swiss watch brands have switched to modern marketing from traditional.Influencer marketing is a unique form, not new for all the brands but it is productive. To target young generation, genZ and millennials, the use of social media advertisement and marketing techniques are integral. The influential marketing should be used by watch brands to increase the fashion sense in audience as well as bring them productivity of time management. Targeting audience in the form of social media influential techniques will add value to the companies and also generate sales (Silvia, 2019).On Instagram, visual content, attractive advertisement and engaging communication allows audience to focus more on products and value brands. The field of marketing is versatile for watch brands because with the fashion sense, audience can approach watch brands.

Figure 5 Brands’ emphasis

Influential marketing is also suitable for watch brands to pursue. For instance, influencers can share their preferences to engage followers, and majority of Instagram users follow celebrities, so the revelation of brand value by celebrities will boost the brand value(Martikainen, and Pitkänen, 2019). Most users rely on Instagram due to its value and brand advertisement. This fact is productive and valuable for watch brands to target media lovers. In addition, Instagram is an effective way to promote trustworthy brand and its authenticity. The paid collaborations are also on the way to influence young people(Chaffey, Hemphill and Edmundson-Bird, 2018). These factors can add valuable experience for watch brands and deliver better performance.

Instagram is a social leader of brands and businesses(Adams, 2019). Multiple brands get benefit from Instagram, due to its outreach, business horizons are expanded, thus allowing customers expand their potential customers’ reach(Wilson and Anderson, 2019). Instagram is a popular platform that has more than 700 million active users per month. Influence of Instagram on brands has changed the whole marketing game. Influencers are accessible, unlike celebrities, so it make easy for brands to get in touch for collaborations. Multiple fashion brands have broken traditional barriers to expand their reach(Cresswell, 2019). Watch companies need specific advertisement to explore potential buyers. It involves window shopping, which is exciting.Advertisingthrough magazines, billboards and TV ads is common practice for watch brands.

YouTube, Instagram, Twitter, and Facebook pay for aproduct to use. Influencer compelsaudience to purchase. Facebook and Instagram send the post, twitter tweets, and YouTube features the video (Martikainen, and Pitkänen, 2019). Influencer marketing, an influencer that motivates the people to act or to influence the followers to contribute to the progress of the brand is called influencer marketing in the watch marketing.With the advent of internet, watch brands realized the advantage of going online. For instance, Twitter and Facebookemploy effective marketing strategies to advertise watches. Instagram is a picture and video social platform that makes effective yet different connections with people as compared to previously mentioned platforms(Wilson and Anderson, 2019). Instagram has potential marketers and millions of followers who observe their favorite products daily. This allows watch brands to come up with latest videos and eye-catching advertisingto influence people.Watch brands use liberal policies to engage followers and do customer conversion. The Instagram followers provide ease to watch brands, such as providing picture of particular watch, its model number, price and sometimes store location(Influencers, 2019).

Multiple Watch brands, like Rado, Daniel Willington and Tiffany are using modern marketing to sell the products. Influencer marketing is a potential practice to reach the influentialpersonality followers through targeted message. This marketing concept is about a solo person as an influencer, who posts pictures and have an opinion. According to aBlogtoWatch findings, influencer marketing is irresistible to watch brands. The watch industry holds a healthy relationship with advertising and marketing. The confident watch companiesproduce compelling messages about their brands and speak to customers. For example, a luxury watch brand Rado is successfully campaigning in China and India using celebrities.Targeting different Chinese is done by focusing their preferences because they are well aware of the product.The watch industry has been witnessed to have a fractured relation with advertising since it is a luxury industry. In this way, brands do not go to consumers but consumers come to brands, being high end brands(Reviews et al., 2019).

70% of teenage YouTube subscribers trusted a common social influencer and attracted to purchase the brand product (Martikainen, and Pitkänen, 2019). 51% of Marketers influencers depend on video content sources may be on Facebook or YouTube. In this strategy, marketers get the best (ROI) return on investment means the company receives instant feedback in the form of profit which they invest in influencers.  This platform provides a source to earn huge profit, for example, a company that invests1$ on to influence the product while earning 6.5$ (Silvia, S. 2019). It’s the latest source to maximize its profit for the marketers and expected rapid progress in this marketing process.A Sweden watch company Daniel Willington is using social influencers after 2011 to create social awareness. Light weight and ultra-thin design allow consumers to get in touch with social media influencers.

Influencer marketing has two types of influencers.

Celebrity Influencer

Well, familiar brands approach celebrities to influence their product.

Micro Influencer

Common persons involved in marketing terms who built their profiles and are known as social media personalities. They have excess in numbers of their followers. A company approaches these micro influencers to use their product and show it to their audience.

2.5 Price-Quality-Strategy Model

The price quality model helps companies to position their products with respect to market and their competitors. They consider price level and competition in this regard so strategy helps review competitors’ framework.

Figure 6 Price Quality Model

Currently, watch industry is searching for fresh eyes that act as a roadmap to reach audiences, who prefer modern watches. Brands rely on influencers to reach new population, so it is a good investment to get involved social media influencers. It is estimated that in 2020,influencer marketing is estimated to reach 10 billion dollars because more brands are harnessing the sponsored content to getprofit (Cresswell, N. 2019). The watch brand Daniel Wellington has built a social strategyby investing £15,000 to make noise about watches(Cresswell, 2019). This strategy is playing a leading role for the brand to acquire a leading brand status in Europe. The key steps of this process are, sending free watches to Instagram’smicroinfluencers, they post photos on social profile using hashtags, and influencers get a unique room code to offer discounts. This way brands are spurring social users to get involved in regular competition campaigns(Influencers, 2019).

Influencer marketing is rampant due to paid opinion and selling luxury goods. Social media demonstrates the unscrupulous marketing danger because it is an age when brands work on ambitions(Silvia, S. 2019). The most significant part of influencer marketing is to change the public relations, in order to manage stories. The watch makers are eager to show positive sentiment to stakeholders, thus focus on marketing avenues and advertising. Instagram is virtually unregulated place, where paid opinion matter(Reviews et al., 2019). This range of entities that work collectively and offer unlabeled marketing contentis referred as influencers. In the Swiss watch industry, luxury watch media is a common concept, and media today informs educated audience about high end timepieces by complicating the product categories(Wilson and Anderson, 2019). Digital media is a style influencer regarding watch industry because virtual friends share information about products and engage followers to know about luxury watches(Adams, 2019).


Chapter-3 Methodology/ Research Plan

This chapter will discuss the research methodology and design of this study. It will elaborate the kind of research chosen for this study that suits the method and research planning. Research plan is explained as under:

3.1 Research philosophy

The research philosophy used for this study is ontology epistemology. It is about the philosophy of research pursued in qualitative aspects. The research study focuses on ontology Epistemology in terms of reality for different entities. For instance, in this research study, qualitative aspects of watch brands will be discussed with specific attention to influencer marketing. This kind of philosophy explains about the reality categories of product. The explanation of valid knowledge under broader theories is discussed to explore the direction of research (Robertson, 2008). The ontology explains about the interpretation of a specific concepts, such as influencer marketing, that is used in current research study.

The epistemology discusses about valid knowledge in light of information that is accessible. The ontology elaborates about the reality and how it is easy to understand the existence. Current research study has usedinfluencer marketing approachfor the watch brands.It provides that in reality, the products exists that need effective marketing approach to target customers. This research approach will discuss the key techniques and methods used to conduct study. For instance, the strategy plan or design for this study is qualitative (Goertz & Mahoney, 2012). On the theoretical grounds, the philosophical stance will be explained.

3.2 Research approach

The research approach for current study is inductive approach. The inductive approach is inductive reasoning, in which research proceeds after getting some observation of theoretical data. In this research study, the inductive approach will be about getting in touch with an issue, which is influencer marketing for watch brands, and its impact will be seen through social media. It moves from a specific to a general issue, which is influencer marketing and its impact on watch brands. The deductive method of research is to get involved with the social theories and test it with data (Klauer & Phye, 2008). This kind of research moves from general to a specificissue. The current research study stands with the inductive approach because it will move from a specific to general issue.

3.3 Research methodology

The methodology of this research is qualitative and this approach is chosen to elaborate more on secondary sources, peer reviewed journal articles and academicresources. Qualitative research is a significantmethod for the research study in which meaning, concepts and description is carried out with the help of peer reviewed scholarly articles (Klauer & Phye, 2008). A theoretical framework makes the foundations of the qualitative research. This research study is qualitative and will provide in depth analysis and understanding of different theoretical concepts, on the basis of past studies. This kind of analysis is helpful to create openness and encourage people to expand their ideas and responses about different topics. Qualitative analysis add valuable information to research study and explains theoretical evidences.

3.5 Data collection

The data collection is from secondary sources. In the qualitative research studies, data is collected from past studies, documents and focus groups. This way, theoretical information will be gathered that will make it easy to find out central concepts. Secondary sources used for this study are coming from secondary sources, journal articles, case studies and academic research papers.

Secondary source provide a valuableanalysis of existing research studies because scholars have added their viewpoints and conducted empirical research on them (Goertz & Mahoney, 2012). These studies provide an insights about systematicevidences, key factors and validity of data.

3.6 Data analysis

Data analysis in qualitative research defines different theoretical models, foundations, description of terminologies and observations (Robertson, 2008). After discussing different research studies, and scholarly viewpoints, the data will be analyzed in consistent form to find out the answer to research question. Data analysis will give rise to specific theories and structure of data that is adequate to discuss influencer marketing approaches for watch brands.this paper is using qualitative approach in which case studies will be analyzed.

3.7 Reliability / validity

Validity and reliability of data is to find out the internal consistency of gathered evidence. It is a process that guarantees authenticity of data and that there are no loopholes and all the research evidences found are valid. The reliability of study focuses on its generalizability, for examples, research documents, past studies, empirical research, case studies, watch market reports and social media findings will be used to discuss this study. This data will show validity, if gathered documents are from reputable resources (Shaha, 2004).

3.8 Ethics consideration

Key ethical considerations will be focused while completing this research study. These ethical considerations are about integrity & honesty, carefulness while estimating data, openness while discussing, objectivity, and use of authentic & credible sources to gather valuable information (Klauer & Phye, 2008).

Chapter 4-Analysis and Findings

The qualitative study has an objective to discuss how watch brands have been using influencer marketing on Instagram to dominate the watch market in the past five years. The methodology has used some case studies to discuss the influence of marketing on watch brands. Some case studies used for this research are some latest brands like Daniel Wellington, 5th Watches, Movement Watches, etc. a comparison is made of these new brands with those that arise in the past 5-10 years under the influencer marketing approach. The process of using influencer marketing and traditional marketing for the analysis of watch brands is significant in understanding the role of marketing.

4.1 Data Analysis

With the help of case studies, the marketing aspect, and its significance for the watch industry is estimated. For this research, three case studies of watch brands are used. These case studies are Daniel Wellington, 5th Watches, and Movement Watches.

Daniel Wellington is a Swedish watchmaker, it has successfully worked on hundreds of influencer marketing campaigns and acquired a competitive position. It has adopted an influencer marketing strategy, rather than going for traditional marketing campaigns to increase its success ratio (Adams, 2019). Filip Tysander was inspired from a simple strap of Rolex watch (an Englishman was wearing), and wanted to setup own brand. At start, as seed capital, he invested $US15,000. From 2013 to 2015, brand reported 4700% growth rate. In 2014, they produced one million timepieces per year, in comparison to Rolex that took 111 years to attain this success (Anderson, S. and Neville, 2019).

The revenue of Daniel Wellington in 2015 was $220 million, and it used Instagrammers’ power to convert a $15000 worth company into a successful brand only in 4 years. In the fashion world, Daniel Wellington has strategically leveraged modern marketing approaches and user-generated content to convert it into a favorable identity and engage millions of consumers.  The approach of Daniel Wellington was to develop an attractive story to engage customers and later worked on the idea of classic backpack concepts like James Bond. The brand derived consumer’s action by working on coupons, hashtags, and using influencer created content. Instagram influencer’s actions and the hashtag campaign about this brand has generated more than 800K videos and photos.  The brand accountis grown from 850K to 2.1 million, the profit rate increased to 214% in only one year.

5th Watches is a leading watch brand in the industry and acquired phenomenal success due to modern marketing tactics. By focusing on strong brand aesthetics, 5th watches worked on a unique business model to sell products, and the social media presence enabled it to engage more and more people. Its influencers on Instagram have done an exceptional jobby creating content, sharing stories, images, and videos to promote brand values (Marketing, 2017). The good marketing tactics not only resonated with the brand value but also portrayed products in different lifestyles across the world. Fifth watches brand sells online with the help of travel influencers to spread the effect of travel and tourism and high profile bloggers to show different perspectives. The brand is famous on Instagram, and due to marketing campaigns, its influencers are massively engaged in bringing more customers (Kix, 2019).5th watches offer Ronda movement and these quartz watches are making good influence by using influence marketing. This global brand has put so much on marketing and influence that its development and distribution centers are spread worldwide. In no time, this brand has earned the trust and admiration of experts.

Movement Watches is another up and coming watch brand in the same price point as Daniel Wellington and 5th Watches that was founded in 2014. The scope of influencer marketing has increased the success of brands due to the usage of content and messaging. The brand campaign on an average hold 47,000 people as followers, and they created 73 posts. This specific campaign produced a potential reach of 3.4 million. This influencer campaign of movement watches provides the tendency of modern marketing with sponsored posts. In a case, Liza Herland, an influencer, invited its followers to get a custom code for a 10-15% discount on movement watch purchase. It is a common way to get track conversion rates. Movement watches have rationally used its influencers from different walks of life to discover a new selling path (Glucksman, 2017). The case study provides that marketing, in its essence, is a key criterion of engagement and understanding of different brands’ products and their quality. The marketing campaign by Movement watches has found to have a high level of engagement, so engaging more people and getting their likes is a success (Naas, R., 2018). This opportunity expanded and leveraged to huge influencers.

The structure of marketing campaigns by these watch brands provides insights to get more and more followers who are engaged with other people. The influencer campaign coordinators are of the view that fashion brands provide minimalist products at affordable prices. These watch brands are successful and running as hot brands in the watch industry, thus proving the significance of the latest marketing campaigns. The success of positioning and implementation of brand value illustrates the role of influencers approach and their level of targeting people (Satell, 2014). The coordination activities and effective communication transforms the value of traditional marketing. Most of the cases have provided that the ideal candidate for this campaign has a broader understanding of modern marketing tactics, so the passion for building networking and relationship matters (rschl, M. and Steinberg, L., 2017).

The watch industry has entered the realm of influencer marketing. These approaches are significantly linked with follower’s strategies, interests, and preferences. The active role of followers under a media marketing campaign provides the significance of understanding that they acquire from influencers.  These case studies yielded that influencers are engaged in supporting the partnership, building new and innovative relationships, and interactions. These elements work significantly in the realm of modern marketing since they collaborate with internal marketing efforts. In some cases, it is found out that content strategy works enormously, such as for Denial Willington. Influencer marketing is a key concept linked in the watch industry today because all the influencers are guided to get efficient customer acquisition and partnership by adapting core marketing principles. The role of interaction and power of communication matters most in these cases (Renard, D., 2013).

For watch brands, influencer marketing is critical to consider, and other significant aspects related to it are effective communication, understanding of fashion brand’s value, role-playing activities, and evolving environments. The social media wizard is a role-playing platform for the organized campaigns because it contributes in influencer marketing that serves as a long going network to bring more followers (Perspect, M., 2018). The case study knowledge and findings discussed the scope of marketing for the watch industry and currently prevailed trends (Kix, 2019). The findings suggest that internal marketing plays a crucial role in customer acquisition, making a central space and building & cultivating a relationship for the digital space. Moreover, it also elaborates that the core marketing principles are quite important to work for followers and be adept. The other values associated with this kind of marketing are highly organized, strategic scope, gregarious, and detail-oriented. Representation of a brand to large people needs knowledge of fashion, music gaming, and other niches’ knowledge to target more people and to attract them with their respective interests.

4.2 Watch Market in the past 5 years

The past five years show a glimpse of consumer transformation in decision making, particularly when considered in terms of consumer fashion. The realm of marketing has started influencing every sector and every industry (Vyatkina, O.L., 2020). This much fame and fashion-oriented products were not developed past years ago, but a focus was made on traditional approaches. From 2017-21, the aspect of modern marketing is considered to be a boom due to the role of influencer marketing, newly designed social media platforms, and to focus on consumer decision making power (Glucksman, 2017). Prior studies highlight that the boom in marketing is due to the aspirations of millennials. The manufacturing of designer watches needed a modern platform to showcase new tendencies and features of a modern product. Movado group bought Movement Watches in 2018and offered a strong expansion for millennial brand. This transaction holds an initial $100 million payment, and two payments of $100 million (Naas, R., 2018). This acquisition was for the best interest of millennial basebecause digital expansion has given MVMT access to the global networking (Perspect, M., 2018).All of this was not absent but primitive five years ago. Since 2015, the impact of horological products from all over the world was down. Some exporting countries of watches like Hong Kong faced a decline in unit terms and value from 2014 to 2016.

The decline in the watch industry was apparent at the global level, and it impacted the global economy (Zhou, W. and Duan, W., 2013). In addition, luxury watch market confronted a sluggish global economy, where Chinese demand was decreased. Switzerland experts reported that the peak falling trend in 2014 was due to traditional marketing approaches or price-conscious customers that derived price level down. Low and quartz watches also faced intensified competition a decade ago in China. Middle range watches faced abounding opportunities with good value and quality products, in accordance with fashion and personality. Since the early 80s, the weakest position for the watch industry was 2017. The timepiece industry confronted turmoil due to the collapse of several global economies. The watch market faced a two-year slump, and the dip in the sale was spared later with a number of factors.

The slump in the watch market was faced in most of the economies, yet industry executives remained optimistic for the high-end growth of the watch industry. It was a low-end market for the first six months of 2013; for instance, quartz watches volume declined by 6%, but mechanical watches faced growth in volume by 12% (Satell, 2014). The factor contributed to the level of price on average. The mechanical watches by that time period represented 77% of exports and 27% volume. In addition, mechanical watches were ten times expensive than quartz watches in 2012. From 2012-15, the market segmentation was carried out on these two types of products. The quartz segment was divided into digital and analog, while analog watches were a fashion symbol, and digital watches were popular in the emerging economies.

The marketing aspect was not broader, and the segmentation was carried out by specialist retailers, internet retailing, and departmental stores. The global watch market five years ago only considered innovative services and pricing strategies to acquire intense growth in the market. Only a few leading players rule the market on the basis of a portfolio, product differentiation, and pricing. To know the growth of a product, demand, and supply act as leading forces. Smart wearable watches faced an increase in demand due to product differentiation by major companies. The traditional watches were not fit for seamless connectivity and to work in this digitalized world. The innovation in digital watches in terms of health monitoring, personalized experience, and seamless connectivity allowed people to focus on some key connectivity features. Smart wearable watches acquire growth over the traditional watch market, so the potential growth was anticipated in the traditional watch market.

Smartwatches helped inculcate the wearing watch habits in young people. Online to offline strategy in e-commerce was a key factor developed after 2015. Offline purchases influenced the experience of consumers at various digital channels. Buyer behavior changes suggested that effective marketing strategies can be the potential to enter into cut-throat competition for the watch market. The effective sale was started determined by online marketing strategies (Glucksman, 2017). These feature-driven emerging technologies under specified functions, quality improvement, and environmental protection models. Watch companies’ developed new watchmaking technologies by including precision and new material to meet functional and aesthetic requirements, such as surface coatings. Consumers faced increased use of social media and marketing campaigns. The watch market started attracting the young generation to count as future potential customers, due to their interest in digital watches. Informed decision making and product features enable young consumers to be more aware of watch market dynamics.

4.3 Influence of Marketing in Watch Brands

In the last few years, social media marketing has played a major role in promoting watch brands. Smartwatches bolstered the environment of marketing by acting as the game-changer. Smartwatches created a division in watch specialist, which obviously has some positive and negative points. Due to the increased prevalence of social media platforms, such as Facebook, YouTube, Instagram, Twitter, and LinkedIn, people involved with products and brand companies (Watches, 2017). The increased involvement of people with these products allowed companies to cater to consumers’ feedback and views. Consumers rapidly made purchase decisions due to ease of using social media applications and better connectivity.

Consumers found it easy to get in touch with all the brands of their choices and get discounts and coupons. The product personalization, communication, and product designs offered substantial help to consumers to make choices and get flexible purchase. They faced more and better interactions with suppliers and product manufacturers by campaigns. The innovation of social media campaigns is an advanced aspect of traditional marketing that changed the entire game. Marketing got ease through mobile applications because it is always available whenever customer want and need.  The brand-customer relationship is driven through modern marketing campaigns. Facebook and Instagram are now marketing through advertisements to target customers. Only sending a message can help customers get their favorite products.

The brand-customer relationship on Instagram yielded transparency and allowed the business to flourish at an optimum level. The personalized data-driven marketing is friendlier today and has developed numerous ways for watch market. Brands keep targeting new and more targeted customers by segmentation and by targeting customers via their interests which is very easy to do via social media marketing because of the vast data points offered by social media platforms such as Instagram. Deloitte reported that 60 percent of customers today are using digital or online channels to make purchases and reveal their interests. Instagram is using key influencers to drive sales of watches with the help of unique content, photos, and videos. The influence of influencer marketing on the watch market is impeccable. It is unbeatable in a sensethat luxury watch industry foresees trends on social media to design its innovative campaigns.

4.4 Impact of traditional and the new age of marketing online

Traditional marketing is an old form of advertisement that encompasses engagement through radio, TV, and print media. The oldest form of marketing is replaced by digital marketing today due to the influence of social media. Old or traditional concepts are ancient in sending a message to customers, tracking their interests, and pursuing them to buy the product. Print, broadcast, telephone, and daily mail are some tools of traditional marketing that was used for marketing a product (Watches, 2017). Marketing messages through telephone marketing was also a common way that is changed in the modern age. Printed material such as brochures, postcards, and letters are replaced by social media applications where everything is digital and shown in an impressive way of 3D. Both forms are different in terms of engaging consumers and persuading them to buy since modern media utilizes effective approaches to transform decision making of consumers. The impact of traditional marketing is replaced with a modern style of marketing due to social media influencers.

There are positives and negatives for both traditional and modern marketing. For example, traditional marketing methods are good in terms of using newspapers, brochures, and email broadcasting. Traditional methods only worked for people connected to TV, radio and newspapers, they spread limited influence. These methods are beneficial for when working on a small scale but not accurate to measure customers’ demand and quantify potential people. The modern marketing has captured audience from every walk of life, such as multiple groups, communities, and ethnicities.  Modern marketing engages people through influencer marketing campaigns but disadvantageous in terms of sharp memory of the internet since it does not care for consumer privacy. The case studies have highlighted the potential of modern style of marketing and its benefits for watch market.

Chapter 5- Conclusion

The current research study discussed the influence ofinfluencer marketing on the watch market in the past five years. The research question of this study was how watch brands are using influencer marketing to dominate the industry in the past five years. The objective of this study was to investigate the social media channels and the role of influencer marketing in the digital world. The focus was maintained concerning advertising in the watch market and how watch brands have acquired a central position due to the influencer marketing approach. The focus of the study was to explore the nature of influencer marketing techniques employed by the watch brands. This study has answered the research question and fulfilled objective.Research indicated that influencer marketing has changed the brand influence over audience and their decision buying habits are changed. All the results found from this discussion are relevant to the objectives and research questions. Results of study are in consensus with (Kim, A. and Ko, E.2012), about brand awareness, (Glucksman, M., 2017) discussed about influencermarketingstrengths, (Silvia, S. 2019) social media effect on millennials, (Sadler, R. and Kyeremeh, E. 2016), brand influence that capture audience (Chaffey, D., Hemphill, T. and Edmundson-Bird, D. 2018) digital business perform stronger role to promote branding.

Today, this scope is increasing, and emerging brands in the past five years have becomethe hottest brands in the industry, such as Denial Willington, Movement watches. There is an underlying ideology related to the act of influencer endorsements. At the point when an industry expert or a social media performer or a celebrity shares any content regarding a brand, it creates immediate credibility of such brand or organization, understandable and straightforward. The plan is, if any organization can hire a genuine personality to recognize and notice its brand, it develops an opinion that the brand is a market leader and a reliable company, based on the sentiment and endorsement provided by the social media influencer. The acknowledgment is much progressively viable in niche marketing when an expert in your industry promotes your content. Credibility created right now considerably accelerates the period in which brands can establish and build up authority and trust with purchasers.

As discussed above, marketing by an influencer can expand your positioning and reach significantly in the online market. Social media users can get more information about your products, your history, and your services. Influencers can make a powerful contribution to brand recognition, which is one of the most significant benefits of social media marketing. To maximize the strategy of influence, it is essential to create an attractive and reliable content that enhances the social media appearance of the celebrity as well, to ensure the benefits for both the parties. Celebrities are mainly the motivation behind new movements or trends. They often propose new brands, ideas, and products, etc. Thus being noticed as a unique fashion style is one of many advantages of influencer promotion. Aligning the celebrity with the product, which moves the stick in the trend market, proves the consumers that the company is a leader in innovation in the circle.

The significance of this particular advantage cannot be overstated. Compatible personalities present the content to the specific social media users who are already following their profile. There are no additional costs required to find or test your audience, as the celebrity already acquired followers on social media for themselves. Furthermore, celebrities who promote your products increase sales. Users are looking to celebrities for advice more and more on which brands to buy. According to research, around 40 percent of people said that they purchase products or services after social media campaigns by celebrities. And these numbers are gradually increasing as eminence of social media has risen. All watch brands have one fundamental objective which is to increase its sales and brand equity. Influencer marketing can support in achieving both because it can expose the brand to its targeted audience in the millions.

The analysis conducted in this research study involved multiple branding activities and the use of their tactics to attract an audience. With the help of three pillars, reach, relevancy, and resonance, the audience is targeted, and a focus on products determines their level of interaction. The individual behavior towards influence made by the marketing approach is examined under theoretical evidence. Influencer marketing is a driver to get customers the latest updates and information about their favorite products. Research evidence made it clear that Instagram is a great social media application that has accelerated product recognition and enhanced brand value. The current study has addressed the key strengths and weaknesses of influencer marketing regarding watch brands. Currently, influencer marketing is a rapidly expanding strategy that has an enormous reach to the audience regarding consumer buying decisions.

The younger audience has no more interest in television because digital and social media is getting prominence day by day in the and more youthful generation has increasingly contributed and favored to its popularity. That is why celebrity marketing is now a mandatory source for reaching Gen Z’ers and Millennials.  It brings great value to the brands by attracting consumers through digital media marketing. By celebrity marketing, and access to prospective vision with the personalities is increased that they couldn’t reach as fast with the other marketing channels. Especially in this case where a celebrity, they use, has a good number of followers on social media or blog in the particular industry the client operates.

A recent study on social media marketing showed that 37 percent considered blogs are the best platforms for influential marketing. Facebook is second with 25 percent of social media marketing tools, followed by many other social platforms like Twitter, Instagram, and YouTube. There are different types of content used by celebrities that vary from your rational thinking as well. Fresh and unique content can attract more consumers’ attention and maybe get persons who turn out to be desensitized to the company’s message to show interest.

You may even find some new innovative ideas to use in the content for your blogs. A research done by Digital Luxury Group presents that 40% of Google search results for mechanical and branded watch comes from forums and blogs. Not to be surprised, blogger spread is a usual practice for many brands. TAG Heuer, Omega, IWC, Patek Philippe, and Vacheron Constantin use it more often and work in many different ways: from distribution of samples of brand content to visits of the manufacturing sites, invitations to heritage or VIP functions, and publicity to exclusive opportunities.

Conclusion is consistent with the analysis and it significantly addresses research objective and study. The current study has used evidence regarding the influence of social media for watch brands and how it has worked significantly to build brand trust and equity. The case studies used in this research highlighted the notion of influencer marketing that how this strategy helped boosting the growth patterns of products in only a few years. Social media influencing strategy by Kenneth Cole and Ted Baker are leading brands of watch industry that illustrated that Instagram is playing an instrumental role for companies to promote products.

5.1 Recommendations

For watch industry, influencer marketing is working significantly due to global customer base and it has engaged them through multiple styles of posting, videos, and sharing images.  It is recommended that the arrangement should procure a real character to perceive and see its image, as it builds up a supposition that the brand is a market head and a dependable organization, in light of the assessment and underwriting gave by the online influencer. It is also recommended that believability should be right and impressive to accelerate the period wherein brands can set up and develop authority and trust with buyers.It is seen when an industry master or an online life entertainer or a superstar shares any substance in regards to a brand, it makes quick validity of such brand or association, justifiable and clear. The affirmation should be logical in practical in specialty advertising when a specialist in your industry advances your substance.

Though few bloggers are genuinely impactful, less than one-third of digital bloggers are remained from a year to another, even as 90% of discussions and genuine impact in digital marketing are driven by only 3% of personalities. Multiple famous brands started the trend of hiring social media influencers, setting the marketing campaigns direction and their digital media accounts, and have begun to co-create the products. Maurice Lacroix stormed the social media channels of the biggest football fans around the globe by co-designing a special edition timepiece collection featuring FC Barcelona players and fans. This social media campaign was carried out by the Digital Luxury Group that created a lot of attention all over the world. Omega started to develop a new watch with the collaboration of Buzz Aldrin; Aldrin was one of the two astronauts from the ever 1st moon mission of 1969. They named it “Mars Watch.” Aldrin attended the Rio Olympics as part of the Omega family. He comprehensively promoted the brand on Twitter to his one million-plus followers.The journey to be the hottest watch brand today has ensured that influencer marketing was used as a pivotal approach to target people.

5.2 Limitations

Case studies of Daniel Wallington, 5th watches, and movement watch brands made it clear that how significantly these watch brand has acquired a central position in the watch industry only in five years. Thelimitations are the small number of case studies, use of qualitative analysis and the limitation to only watch industry to know the consumer buying decisions.The discussion of this study provides that theoretical evidence about modern styles of marketing and traditional marketing work differently to capture audience. The study has limitation about only focusing on the watch industry to know marketing game which has surpassed all the traditional marketing records by directly involving customers in visually attracting campaigns as well as advertising on billboards and magazines. This research study is significant in terms of explaining marketing activities, discussing key tactics to strengthen the customer base by influencer marketing, and the rapid expansion of watch brands.


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Analyze the social Media Essay example and dissertation writing



Chapter 1. Introduction

Generally, hotels are complex buildings, when it comes to maintenance. It undertakes use of various spaces that are scheduled for visitors, health clubs, retail store, swimming pool or guest rooms. The maintenance needs a functional engineering system to accommodate the visitors throughout the year (Bruns-Smith, 2015). It needs competent staff to work, maintain and build operation services with the help of contractors. The hospitality industry is important for its effectiveness while maintenance practices can directly affect the food, quality and hotel services, so there would be a direct influence on the impression of hotel. Development of an appropriate maintenance strategy is essential to keep the system sustainable and offer better accommodation (Nik-Mat, Kamaruzzaman & Pitt, 2011). Most hotel rooms provide better revenue than its cost, so the maintenance management practices impact customer satisfaction (Chiang, Li, Zhou, Wong & Lam, 2015).

Maintenance is the key to offer conducive built environment to guests. In hospitality building, the maintenance offer distinctive process of renovation and fulfill customers expectations. Proper maintenance management practices in a five star hotel are essential to maintain hotel’s efficacy for following reasons. To maintain the invested capital on hotel and to enhance the valuable returns, maintenance management practices help increasing security and safety of guests as well as employees. It helps ensure the building reliability about all the services and assets that customer need. This process is related to increase the market share by satisfying impending guests (Prud’homme & Raymond, 2013). It is suitable and related to the market trends and activities because latest technology implementation is essential in the hospitality industry.

The implementation of management practices regarding maintenance needs to build corporate image, architectural and historical values so that hotel appearance always shines. This process is helpful to enhance the operational efficiency and stability of all facilities. The energy efficiency is necessarily installed into hotel operations, in order to conserve energy. The need for maintenance management practices implies to mitigate any natural disasters’ consequences i.e. hurricanes, and earthquakes (Chiang, Li, Zhou, Wong & Lam, 2015).  Moreover, government always issue some regulatory policies regarding hospitality management business, such as health and safety regulation or disability act, so these practices conform to the government policies. In order to ensure, operational readiness, all the equipments should be up to date to meet any emergency situation. The maintenance practices work to increase the lifecycle of assets and property and they increase minimum deteriorations.

In most of the organizations, maintenance activities have been given very less importance and there is a lack of concern estimated that implies under resourcing maintenance, thereby, reduce performance of the hotel (Bruns-Smith, 2015). The maintenance performance has faced criticism in literature because there is less work done on analyzing the efficacy of organizations regarding hospitality industry. The insufficient proactive strategies for maintenance result into wastage of manpower and investment. For instance, the maintenance personnel are always aligned to focus on the technical responsibilities as compared to financial, social, managerial or legal. There is a need to focus on quantifiable measures to measure the performance and related standards. The lack of proper maintenance objectives always act as barrier in improving the efficacy of hotel management. The hospitality facilities always need better alignment and improved focus to offer quality services and to maintain brand image of five star hotel. Operators also need to improve the brand image by fulfilling customers’ expectations and maintaining revenue targets (Raguseo, Neirotti & Paolucci, 2017). The hotel buildings are much more dynamic than other industrial or residential buildings, so there should be proper installment of equipment and maintenance activities. This research paper is developed to fill the gap of literature in aforementioned reasons regarding maintenance management practices in the hotel industry. The rationale for the study is to highlight the significance of maintenance management practices in hotel industry, particularly in five star hotels.

Less research and increased concerns about hotel management industry is a significant burden on management planners and hotel owners. Due to improper maintenance skills and management practices, hotels are facing neglect. More and improved practices are needed in hospitality industry to prevent buildings from potential hazards. The significance of maintenance management practices in hospitality sector can be seen from the important nature of operations. In business dictionary, the term ‘maintenance’ refers to the activities necessary to restore and keep equipments or machine, to get specified operable circumstances. This process is significant to get maximum use of equipments and installed machinery because it involves preventive and corrective maintenance. Building maintenance management involves a role of key operations and technical activities that manage and govern the use of buildings. Maintenance is a broad term that ensures building functioning and maintenance through its design, construction and renovation.

Problem of Study

The problem of this study is presented in form of questions discussed below;

  1. What are the significant maintenance management practices required for efficiency of five star hotels?

It is important to know about the maintenance managers that how they should identify the significance of efficiency of hotels? And what are the key hurdles that maintenance managers face when implementing these maintenance management practices?

Study Aim and Objectives

The current study is designed under following objectives:

  • To identify the key management maintenance practices required for the efficiency of five star hotels.

The sub objectives of the paper are to assess the importance of these practices by managers’ view point, to develop the maintenance management practices model for hotel efficiency, and to evaluate the key barriers in maintenance management practices of hotel efficiency.

The basic purpose of hotel management and maintenance is to keep the structure balances, retained and work on the required state of readiness. This definition allows for the better understanding of efficiency with a minimum breakdown. The hospitality operations are assisted by engineering activities, so that key responsibilities of organizations are taken into account.

This section discussed introduction of research paper, its objectives and problem statement. The next section will discuss literature review. It will consider construction building maintenance and efficiency related to engineering practices, and key theories regarding efficiency of hotels under hospitality management. The scope of literature review will be extensive by undertaking different scholarly viewpoints regarding hospitality industry. In the next section, research methodology and results will be discussed. In the end, recommendations and conclusion will be discussed.

Chapter 2. Literature Review

Key Management Maintenance Practices

The single most important success criteria in the hotel business are effective and efficient operations, be it concentrated in a separate area or the overall organization. Operations staff are required to maintain a high degree of ethics and service standard as they are at the front end of delivering what a hotel promised to offer to its guests. Hotel’s operation staff can make or break guests’ expectations and satisfaction levels. Judy A. Siguaw and Cathy A. Enz (1999) conducted a thorough study and analyzed managerial commitments and approaches required to make the hotel operations a pleasant, amiable, and memorable experience for the guests.

In this study, the writers selected a group of hotels as “The best practice champions for their operational initiative(Bruns-Smith, 2015).” It was observed critically as what contributed to their success formula for transformation from a loss-making entity to a profitable venture and from a less profitable hotel to a marvelously success story. It was felt that some of the champions concentrated on a particular segment of operation to make it worthwhile and performance-oriented, while others focused on entire business operations of the organization and made radical changes to identify flaws and took corrective actions. Based on the management tools and maintenance practices, the writers divided the entire best practices champions into four groups. The first group consists of AIMS, Bristol Hotels & Resorts, and Days Inn Altoonaetc, who believed in a holistic turnaround in improving the operations. The second group, i.e., Good NiteInn, Grand Theme Hotels, and the hotel Bel-Air used management initiatives that concentrate on refining the effectiveness of the care and cleaning functions. Thirdly, it was the group of Marriott U.S. and Newark Gateway Hilton, which stresses the improvement area of check-in issues. The fourth and last group was those entities who believed in applying and keeping high-quality standards. It was composed of four Seasons & Regent Hotels, Preferred Hotels & Resorts Worldwide, and Residence Inn (Chan, 2008).

The management practices of first group hotels were based on the assumption that by using effective management techniques, even loss-making entities can become profitable. AIMS and Sai Luxury Hotels proved themselves as turnaround agents. They used several measures like loan waiver, grace period, and attractive financing terms to make it to their advantages. Other members of this group focused on having competent human resources, adopting novel marketing gimmicks, and tight budgeting with desired results in mind.

Good Nite Inn developed a keen interest in reducing guest complaints volume by exclusively focusing on management and housekeeping chores. They believed in maintaining a high code of accountability and cost reduction by taking practical and innovative techniques. Another strategy used by other entities of this group is swift response time (Chiang, Li, Zhou, Wong & Lam, 2015). Whenever an issue or problem was detected, the engineering department promptly took corrective measures before even a guest raised any concern.

Five-star hotels in the third group concentrated in reducing check-in hassles of the guests by completing their formalities while en route on the way to the hotel. The best practice champions in the fourth group are those who kept an eye in maintaining and upgrading their quality standards with an emphasis on straight watching.

On the whole, what matters and counts is to have some predetermined goals and objectives in mind. Secondly, it is necessary to involve everyone as system improvement is not a core task of any single individual. Instead, it is a collected or shared responsivity of all the team players from janitorial staff to the level of CEO. All the strategies for quality improvement should be time-bound and result in improving customer satisfaction while keeping associated costs under control. An important lesson to learn from this whole study is that hotels cannot remain inert. To retain repeat customers is undoubtedly the best mantra for success, every hotel management student should learn by heart.

In another article, “Five Star Crisis Management — Examples of Best Practice from the Hotel Industry,” the writer Outi Nininen (2013) discussed crisis management in the backdrop of today’s uncertain and uneven business environment. No business is secured from the crisis or unfavorable scenarios, and hotel business is no exception. The writer made a particular reference to the tourism industry and apprised that many attributes made the tourism industry more risk-prone. Firstly, it is a massive industry with high potentials. Secondly, it depends on a host of other sectors like hoteling and thirdly it is related to peoples’ movements. To estimate the crisis occurring in the hotel industry, the writer conducted a thorough investigation through detailed interviews, and its findings were evaluated. The chances of happenings of an emergency or unfavorable scenario are directly proportional to the quantum of business growth and size of the hotel in the event of underutilized or ill-utilized the resources (Chan, 2008). When a hotel or chain of hotels made a sleeping arrangement of thousands of its guests, something abominable is expected to happen (de Leeuw & van den Berg, 2011). One significant contributor to the chances of crisis is guests to the property. Ideally, staff members should be trained to deal with a wide range of guests originating from different nationalities, races, colors, and religions. However, not all hotels have this kind of facility. Any toward a situation can be controlled by adequately applying marketing mix concepts and taking care of positioning, rates, and physical evidence. It may be helpful for eliminating those segments of guests who are not sensitive towards their social responsibilities.

The nature of the crisis faced by hotel premises may be internal and external. The internal crisis refers to the technical disruption, power shutdown, or severe injury or death of a guest, while external crisis means cancellation of a booking of a mega event due to political or economic issues (Mansour Ghazi, 2016). In summary, it is advocated by the writer through his detailed research that crisis in hotel industry can be managed if not eliminated by increasing the level of preparedness for crisis scenarios, minimizing cost effect during an emergency, making the best use of local advice and having good communication rapport with the guest and using latest technology to ensure guests’ security and safety (Nazari & Abd Rahman, 2018).

Operational Management Practices

Mansour Ghazi (2016) discussed the hotel maintenance management practices in five-star hotels of Egypt. The author worked to find out the barriers that come at the front while implementing operational practices by management. The objective of the study was to find out the safety and security methods adopted by management to accomplish critical operations. This issue is essential to investigate so that the availability of all assets can be ensured. To conduct better management operations, a significant proactive strategy of maintenance is required. The maintenance personnel is responsible for managing technical responsibilities and for considering parameters needed for maintaining the quality of operations.

The study investigated that any lack of services or objectives can undermine the brand image of the restaurant. In the hospitality industry, the scope of maintenance management is highly aligned with operational performance. The hospitality facilities undertake renovation and maintenance costs due to the frequency of public exposure. Therefore, sophisticated practices are to be monitored. This study adopted a quantitative method to identify the critical role of managerial practices by inducting 160 respondents via questionnaire. The results provided that insufficient funds for operation performance, lack of skilled employees, and inefficiency of methods are critical barriers in the hospitality industry that hinder the achievement of five-star hotels. The study has offered guidance to choose better construction and maintenance practices under specific strategies.

De Leeuw & van den Berg (2011) analyzed the operation management practices in the hospitality industry. The companies focusing on performance management usually measure their progress to manage it on a regular basis. There is different literature analyzed by this study to examine the link between performance improvement and management by monitoring the behavior of employees. The significance of managerial personnel can be seen from their behavior that impacts organizational goals. The study is useful to focus on this implicit assumption, and it is investigated how management performance practices can improve the individual’s performance.

The operational performance variable is used to find out the relationship between shop-floor behavior, performance practices, and improvement. Authors have undertaken independent clusters related to operator behavior, such as motivation. A ‘focus on improvement’ is also taken to identify performance management practices. It is found out that 17 out of 20 practices of management exist in prior literature, so there is a positive relation of performance improvement and performance management practices in the hospitality sector. The authors have given recommendations to encourage managers to focus on change in attitude and improve the skills of employees.

Prud’homme & Raymond (2013) examined that the hospitality industry has been facing a negative influence on sustainable development practices. Due to less focus on healthy management practices and maintenance activities on hotels, a negative impact on the hospitality industry is seen. This study has focused on the antecedents of customers’ satisfaction in relation to sustainable practices. The study undertook customer satisfaction in accordance with the size of the hotel and ownership style. The research is quantitative and used eleven hotels and 473 guests in Quebec, Canada. The role of sustainable practices, under operation management to develop hotel is significant to engage customers into good coordination. The study found it positively related to customer satisfaction because the hospitality industry focuses more on helping guests by fulfilling their expectations. Sustainable development is a universal concept and applicable to all the hospitality industries where significant concepts are serving society and the economy. According to the world commission on the environment, sustainable development is all about fulfilling the needs of the population by offering competent output. The role of active, sustainable management is to produce a workable solution for maintaining the efficiency of hotels. It undertakes excessive economic and social benefits, thereby reducing any negative impacts. This idea is discussed under the study to help managers stay oriented towards sustainable management practices.

Raguseo, Neirotti & Paolucci (2017) illustrated the need for the economic value of hotels that are created by the hospitality industry. The concept of infomediaries and review aggregators is presented by the authors to focus on the research-based view of sectors. The objective of this study was to undertake essential practices of management operations in the hotel industry that can boost efficiency. To accomplish the goal, authors have gathered the data of 62,865 travel advisors regarding the value of hotels to know about reviews. The panel dataset consisting of 355 hotels from 2004-14, was built. The quantitative study examined the fixed regression effects of models to find out the sale revenue of hotels as well as their operational profitability. The study has found out that the economic value of hotels is related to the reviews of tourists and online reputation by aggregators. Hotels are expected to show high maintenance efficiency on the basis of operational excellence. The trip advisors suggest the value of hotels to tourists on the basis of excellent customer satisfaction and economic value. This aspect generated high bargaining power of five-star hotels, and they capture value in the customers’ perceptions. The study has discussed the significance of five-star hotels and its relationship with tourism.

Bruns-Smith (2015) worked on the sustainable practices and importance of the hospitality industry in relation to customer satisfaction. The central notion discussed by the author relates to the operational management practices for five start hotels. The study undertook 100 resorts for examination situated in the US. The hotel customers’ survey consisting of 120,000, was gathered that suggested how customers are willing to participate in sustainable development practices. This program mainly undertakes green operation. It is also found out that some hotels offer loyalty points, so they generate greater wellbeing, and the guests are more inclined to work with such hotels. The study has explored the relationship between sustainable programs by hotels and customers’ willingness to participate as a business feature. The authors found out that sustainability programs are quite significant for management operations so that maintenance practices can be maintained. The authors discussed that environmental sustainability provokes customers’ satisfaction as they are more prone to work for the green environment. At the same time, the hotel can monitor costs’ benefit analysis to streamline its operating managerial practices. The critical practices under sustainable development are linked to water, energy, and waste reduction. The utility costs of hotels, i.e., 60-70%, provide right criteria to revisit the sustainability practices by industry.

Chan (2008) analyzed the role of the interrelationship of maintenance costs and strategies adopted by five-star hotels. The scope of the study was broad by undertaking different variables related to sustainability, such as resource allocation, outsourcing strategy, and maintenance strategy. The cost and benchmark analysis in the hotel industry was the key objective of the author as there is a lack of relevant literature. The maintenance cost mainly undertakes distribution costs, operating costs, and renovation costs. There are different outsourcing implications that hotel face. The research focused on better efficiency of maintenance practices by management by increasing the scope of its operations. The research methodology used in this study is quantitative and manly related to Hong Kong hotels. The data variables undertook a number of guestrooms, payroll per room, and maintenance cost per room. Questionnaires were distributed to different classes hotels, naming, three stars to 5 stars. Different variables related to a different class of hotel have provided the scope of managerial operation practices. The study has found out that in-house skilled labor is essential to compete with the daily work requirements. The maintenance personnel should be trained to focus on quality endeavors in the hotel. Moreover, outsourcing can yield some expertise.

Chiang, Li, Zhou, Wong & Lam (2015) discussed an article about sustainable building maintenance practices. The objective of the study was to identify critical issues five-star hotels and residential buildings are facing regarding maintenance. It is essential to focus on crucial maintenance practices under a managerial perspective so that repair and renovation can be taken into account. The cost, labor inputs, and carbon emissions are considered key constraints that destroy the quality of constructed buildings. The authors focused on critical materials that can harm building material and focused on the need for the right labor to fix the issue. The nature of management operation is critical to discuss the maintenance schedule and activities. The authors mentioned green technologies that can play fruitful in five-star hotel maintenance and also preserve buildings from a socioeconomic perspective and help the physical environment in Hong Kong.

Nik-Mat, Kamaruzzaman & Pitt (2011) worked on a paper to discuss the facilities management aspect of hotels. The objective of the study was to find out the effectiveness of the hospitality industry when propr managerial operations are developed. The performance measurement system is discussed in this study to focus on maintenance delivery. This system in Malaysia was discussed under five main office building of hotels. The study used a theoretical approach to work about performance maintenance management system. It is found out that maintenance management practices in hotel buildings prove fruitful when implemented wisely, and care is taken.

Chapter 3. Research Methodology

Research Aim

The particular aspect of this study is to identify the maintenance management practices in five-star hotels.

Research Objective

The research objective is to identify the critical management maintenance practices required for the efficiency of five-star hotels. To make the context-specific five-star hotels in Bangkok will be taken for the study. The research is essential to assess the importance of these practices by managers’ viewpoint. The purpose of the study will be investigated by evaluating the critical barriers in maintenance management practices of hotel efficiency.

Research Approach and Design

This research study is explanatory. With the help of qualitative methods, the study will provide an exploratory perspective by undertaking different people’s viewpoints, such as hotel managers and operators. The research will focus on concepts and theories to present a review of the data.

Data collection instrument

The research study is outlined in accordance with Kumar (2012) to design methodology, on the basis of collected data and analysis. Kumar has discussed essential methods to contextualize findings related to the inquiry field and selecting samples. The questionnaires developed are on the basis of the procedure identified by Kumar to investigate the hospitality industry under a systematic approach (Kumar, 2012). The data collection instrument comprises of three parts:

The first part of data collection is about the significance of maintenance management practices in five-star hotels of Bangkok. The viewpoint will be taken from maintenance managers. Six dimensions of these practices will be asked from respondents, and the Likert scale will be used in terms most important 1(high) to least important 1(least).

The second part of the research study is to find out the barriers acting for poor implementation of maintenance management practices, and a viewpoint of managers will be included. The significance of these barriers will be monitored under the Likert scale used in terms most important 1(high) to the least essential 1(least).

The third part will be about questions like demographics and characteristics of the participants in the study sample. Respected participants will be provided a cover letter explaining survey purpose, instructions, date, and general information about the study.

Reliability of Questionnaire

The questionnaire intended for this research study will be monitored for its validity and reliability under different concepts:

The validity of the research process can be tested in terms of content validity and construct validity. Content validity is carried out by analyzing various literary studies in the field of management practices. The selection of variables is carried out after observing various related studies as a benchmark to understand the specific elements to include in the questionnaire (Desai & Patel, 2011). This helped bring out a final form of questionnaire to apply in the study.

The construct validity is about determining significance under correlational analysis and factor analysis. The correlational study offers a multivariate technique under the concept of analysis. It helps to define correlation and internal consistency of the variables used in the questionnaire.  The variables will be assessed to monitor their role in maintenance management practices (Kumar, 2012).

The reliability of the measures indicates the extent of bias, and if these variables are free from bias, it is estimated that consistency has prevailed. The answers of respondents can show consistency, which is measured by Cronbach’s coefficient alpha. It is an adequate index to measure inter-item consistency.

The hypothesis of the study

The study proposes maintenance management efficiency practices in five-star hotels; its hypothesis is as follows:

H0 = There is no relationship between maintenance management practices in a hotel and improving the efficiency of maintenance (H0 : µ˂ 3; p˃0.05).

H1 = There is a relationship between maintenance management practices in a hotel and improving the efficiency of maintenance (H1 : µ ≥ 3; p ≤ 0.05).

Sampling Plan

The study is qualitative and will use questionnaires to get data. The objectives and hypotheses of this study are descriptive and offer analytical concepts in an exploratory way. The research has an exploratory aspect of interviews with managers and operators in five-star hotels of Bangkok. The study has adopted a deductive approach since it has developed a theory and then a hypothesis and designing of a research study. The data consistency will prove that the hypothesis is accepted, but if data is not consistent with the hypothesis, it will be rejected.

The key approaches used for the data collection are discussed under:

Desk Survey: The method desk survey is about the investigation of different related data with the help of prior studies. The literature review is an essential part of research as it sets the pace of survey instrument development and questionnaire (Desai & Patel, 2011). The study has used secondary sources of information, journal articles, and books under the subject of the study.

Field Survey:

The process is about taking into account information from a personal perspective. The fieldwork is a practical approach used for the study as a problem-solving method. To accomplish research objectives, a survey questionnaire is designed as a primary method to investigate participants about maintenance management practices and potential barriers (Hananto, 2016). The use of surveys within a short span of time is a complex process, but they are a powerful tool to enhance the consistency of observation and sampling.

The combination of the data collection method is helpful in acquiring in-depth insight into the reliability of the study. This mixed-method approach also allows for a better understanding of key variables and allows researchers to address complicated research questions.

The targeted population for this study is the maintenance managers in Bangkok five star hotels. The total sample size for the study was 180 participants included maintenance managers and hotel operators in Bangkok. For the purpose of analysis, five main high standard five-star hotels in Bangkok are chosen. These are The Okura Prestige Bangkok, Avani Riverside Hotel, Eastin Grand Hotel Sathorn, Siam Kempinski Hotel, and The Peninsula Bangkok. Out of 180 respondents, 122 questionnaires were found completed, and satisfactory, rests were not appropriate to include in the study. After further analysis, 113 questionnaires were found complete, and nine were excluded, so the response rate was 70%. Some respondents refuse to provide answers and made issues.

Out of five hotels, 100 hotel operators and 80 maintenance managers were approached. Upon analysis, 113 final completed questionnaires provided an equal ratio of both kinds of respondents. Each hotel was approached by the surveyor to get a sample, and in case of no availability of manager, the high-rank officer was concerned. The surveyor provided a questionnaire to staff to fill it and return at their ease, and later, questionnaires were collected. To get a proper response rate, a cover letter was provided explaining objective, sponsored by faculty of hospitality and university name. The letter also provided that it is issued under superior authority to get the main findings from hotel industry professionals. The hotel staff was ensured by the confidentiality of their information. They were also appreciated for participation in research.

The informant was senior management because they play a key role in maintenance management practices. This aspect was also significant to consider as it is directly related to the culture of organization and leadership. Senior-level managers and chief executives are important to investigate to analyze the nature of change and management efficiency in elite hotels (Lin & Yang, 2014).

The hotel market is comprised of different levels of customers, first are the corporate guests who book hotels for business meetings and conferences and mainly use hotels in weekdays, i.e., from Monday to Thursday (Qi, Li, Zhu & Shi, 2017). The second type of customer is the local guests who enjoy their leisure time and want to go to hotels for enjoyment. The hospitality market is affected due to technical factors and societal factors. There is also a huge influence of macroeconomic indicators on the hospitality industry.  The new trends at the national and international levels are also quite significant to address because hotel managers and operators carefully include all the factors affecting the revenue of the hotel industry (Lin & Yang, 2014). These reasons discussed that it is important to focus on stakeholders in the hotel market, as their percentage matters a lot. The hotel maintenance concept undertakes a thorough review of five-star hotels and the relationship of hotel operators with the economy (Desai & Patel, 2011).

Ethical Assurance

Confidentiality and privacy are key concepts when it comes to developing a research study on the basis of data collection. The informed consent was practiced in this analysis. The participants got a cover letter explaining the nature and focus of the study along with a consent form as they were not forced to participate. The form also stressed that this participation is voluntary and that they are taking part in productive activity. The respondents were also advised about data collection and its privacy that will only be used for research purposes. The assurance that no anticipation of risks is present is provided to all the participants. This research study intended for confidentiality and ethical relationship building with the participants.

Data Analysis

The dependent variable of the study is poor implantation of maintenance management practices, and independent variables of the study are the management team, management plan, communication, and training. These independent variables are also key influential barriers that hinder the performance of the hotel industry.

The questionnaire survey was analyzed using the statistical package of social sciences (SPSS). All the collected data were entered into SPSS to conduct analysis out of questionnaires. The principle tools of statistics to analyze the questionnaire data are t-test and descriptive statistics. The variables’ significance was tested with the help of a t-test at critical value 3. The maintenance management practices were ranked under three conditions. The first is rank by P. Value; for instance, if the variables have less P-value, they will have high importance and another way round. The second is by the arithmetic value of the samples so that if variables have a high average value than arithmetic value, the variables have greater importance. The third is the standard deviation, which means if the elements have a less standard deviation, they have significant value and high importance.

The interpretation of the results will be carried out at a 5% significance level. For instance, if the p≤0:05 is a significant value, p≤0:01 will be a high level of significance.

Key Variables

The study has employed vital variables which are defined as under:

Maintenance management is an act or combination of administrative or technical actions to provide acceptable standards of work and ensure functioning.

The maintenance management practices are specific tactics adopted to streamline the efficiency of hotel operations (Desai & Patel, 2011). These management practices are technical, local, legal, social, and financial processes that can enhance the lifecycle of building or property. These processes also help to lessen the deterioration effects of such breakdowns (Hananto, 2016).

Maintenance barriers are the key challenges and hurdles that maintenance managers face while managing maintenance practices.

Maintenance efficiency is to keep align the elements required to maintain the effectiveness of whole maintenance practices and management so that the hotel can operate at a high level of efficiency (Lin & Yang, 2014). It also ensures minimal breakdowns and low consumption of energy.

Six Dimensions of Questionnaire

These dimensions are the variables used to analyze the collected data. The dimensions are:

  • Maintenance management team
  • Maintenance management plan
  • Training for maintenance
  • Maintenance assessment and identification
  • Maintenance monitoring activities
  • Maintenance communication & knowledge sharing

Some of the questions included in the questionnaire are open-ended, and some are close-ended. Two survey is designed, one for maintenance managers and one for hotel operators.

The SPSS is used to analyze the data collected from questionnaires under two main aspects, t-test statistics, and descriptive statistics. In one sample t-test, six dimensions are analyzed under mean and T values and given in the table below:

Maintenance Management Team

Maintenance Management Team Mean (4.26) t-valueb (8.23***) Person Correlation (0.80)
responsible team for maintenance work 4.42 8.59 0.72
maintenance manager can be helpful for maintaining efficiency 4.24 7.65 0.65
organized administrative structure is helpful for managing maintenance 4.25 7.85 0.55
regular meetings about maintenance management team help organization 4.21 7.43 0.67
specialized outsource contactors do maintenance work 4.22 7.54 0.56
skilled technicians, neat appearance and good behavior good points for organization 4.23 7.58 0.70
  • b= degree of freedom = (112)
  • significance 0.05 equal 1.59, degree of freedom = (111), (p ≤ 0.05; **p ≤ 0.01)

Maintenance Management Plan

Maintenance Management Plan Mean (4.41) t-valueb (8.65***) Person Correlation (0.82)
maintenance management plan can affect standard procedures and policy 4.46 8.76 0.75
execution of maintenance management plan needs approval from authorities 4.43 8.63 0.76
maintenance department is involved in making maintenance related plans 4.35 8.14 0.71
maintenance experts are involved in design and pre construction stage 4.37 8.25 0.71
maintenance policy updated regularly 4.42 8.54 0.71
any annual budget reserves are for maintenance plans and employees are informed about such planning 4.44 8.65 0.78
  • b= degree of freedom = (112)
  • significance 0.05 equal 1.59, degree of freedom = (111), (p ≤ 0.05; **p ≤ 0.01)

Training for maintenance

Training for maintenance Mean (3.81) t-valueb (7.45***) Person Correlation (0.72)
Maintenance training like seminars, workshops and drills are conducted on regular basis to learn new technology and improve staff skills 3.92 7.11 0.69
Housekeeping staff is trained to streamline delivery 3.74 5.91 0.54
new staff members are trained when join 3.70 5.48 0.52
Suppliers and manufacturers show good commitment to offer trainings sessions 3.88 7.06 0.61
  • b= degree of freedom = (112)
  • significance 0.05 equal 1.59, degree of freedom = (111), (p ≤ 0.05; **p ≤ 0.01)

Maintenance assessment and identification

Training for maintenance Mean (3.48) t-valueb (6.15***) Person Correlation (0.69)
means of reporting faults and issues 3.50 4.54 0.53
potential maintenance problems impact management and brainstorm employees 3.45 4.42 0.61
key material, its virtualization, and need of skilled labor, funding source, cost and implementation 3.41 4.22 0.52
specific methods are employed to measure maintenance performance, post occupancy evaluation, and follow up actions 3.52 4.83 0.61
employees respond to maintenance practices such as feedback or complaint forms 3.50 4.78 0.60
  • b= degree of freedom = (112)
  • significance 0.05 equal 1.59, degree of freedom = (111), (p ≤ 0.05; **p ≤ 0.01)

Maintenance monitoring activities

Maintenance monitoring activities Mean (3.80) t-valueb (6.71***) Person Correlation (0.78)
daily monitoring activities occur, such as start up chillers and closing, meter readings record etc. 3.80 6.51 0.59
immediate actions about maintenance activities occur like to recover adverse consequences 3.79 6.25 0.58
scheduled and unscheduled activities occur 3.79 6.12 0.66
  • b= degree of freedom = (112)
  • significance 0.05 equal 1.59, degree of freedom = (111), (p ≤ 0.05; **p ≤ 0.01)

Maintenance communication & knowledge sharing

Maintenance communication & knowledge sharing Mean (3.74) t-valueb (6.42 ***) Person Correlation (0.79)
Computerized maintenance systems are organized 3.84 6.88 0.69
Presence of well equipped command centre for maintenance 3.82 6.76 0.63
Presence of toll free helpline for employees and guests 3.80 6.42 0.62
Good maintenance and organization of workers to take responsibility 3.80 6.36 0.60
Good maintenance of facilities, agreements and buildings 3.65 5.19 0.51
  • b= degree of freedom = (112)
  • significance 0.05 equal 1.59, degree of freedom = (111), (p ≤ 0.05; **p ≤ 0.01)

The above-presented tables discuss the mean value, t-test, and Pearson correlation value conducted with the help of SPSS. The degree of freedom is 112 because 113 questionnaire results are used as they were marked complete. The six dimensions of the questionnaire were analyzed under SPSS, as per maintenance concepts defined earlier.

Demographic Profiling

Total questionnaires distributed =180

Completed questionnaires = 122

Filtered questionnaires on the basis of complete information =113

The demographic aspects are designed on the basis of knowledge, practice, and experience in the relevant field. All the participants from five 5-star hotels of Bangkok were found as males. The Okura Prestige Bangkok, Avani Riverside Hotel, Eastin Grand Hotel Sathorn, Siam Kempinski Hotel, and The Peninsula Bangkok are the designated hotels to interview the participants. These five star hotels are superior luxury in providing valuable services to respectable clients, corporate guests and other visitors. Most of the people prefer five star hotels over others, in terms of better service, professional environment, ease of facilitation and better infrastructure. These hotels in Bangkok also welcome to huge clientele of leisure and tourism, therefore an inclusion of maintenance management efficiency is critical to discuss from hotel industry viewpoint that would offer understanding of key atmosphere.

On average, 30 participants from each hotel responded and 22 were involved. All of these were males and mostly related to the maintenance department. 80% of respondents were from the maintenance department and acting as managers, while 15% were assistant managers. The senior maintenance supervisors were 5%.

The demographic profile indicates their education, background, employment history record, and ethnicity. Most of these participants have 6-9 years of work experience in a similar field. This situation made it easy to investigate key terminologies and potential performance of maintenance management practices that can contribute to efficiency. The more experienced professionals are also likely to perform with confidence. It is also essential to consider that hiring experienced technical staff is difficult because of their demand in the industry. Still, hotel training management provides some training skills at the start. However, essential academic qualification is necessary for such management personnel.

The qualification level of the respondents shows that 40% of people with more than eight years of experience have masters in their fields while rest have diplomas and bachelor degrees. The staff evaluation and motivation programs are a part of these hotels so that employee’s maintenance’ skills can be improved. The large numbers of employees and managers have the suitable qualifications to participate in maintenance management practices of five-star hotels.

Hotel Operators’ Questionnaire

The hotel operators were investigated about maintenance management practices because it is identified as a challenge for operators to focus on the control measures that can affect the efficiency of five-star hotels. For five hotels used in this research study, two hotel operators from each hotel were inquired about their experiences. The critical responses conducted were about their nature of management and hotel ownership. Owners and operators are different bodies working under the hotel industry.

In some cases, a hotel operator is the owner of the hotel, while some hotels employ separate operators for managing daily issues of hotel and maintenance activities. In these hotels, three hotels were managed by hotel owners as operators, while two hotels were under separate operator’s expertise of management. These operators were inquired about their experiences and maintenance management practices, such as equipment, plant, building, and inventories. The functioning of hotel operators includes excellent communication, value, and priority of tasks. The hotel owned businesses are more concerned and productive as compared to assigning a second person as an operator. The operational functions a hotel operator involves are maintenance, security, and purchase to manage daily work-related activities. The respondents were asked about their daily performance and work practices. 80% of respondents replied that they feel it clearly necessary that fixtures and maintenance are crucial to look after on a weekly basis. In contrast, 20% of the respondents were not aware of the need for regular maintenance management practices. Similarly, 80% of respondents were of the view that training staff is necessary to help them get mindful of maintenance, quality assurance, and safety measures, and this practice should be conducted once in a month.

Limitations of the Study

The research study is extensive and takes into account some key aspects of maintenance management practices. However, some limitations exist that are important to discuss. To identify the critical management maintenance practices in five-star hotels in Bangkok, five hotels are taken. The first limitation is the limitation of the selected area, which is Bangkok. For instance, only five-star hotels in Bangkok are considered to analyze the scope of maintenance practices and efficiency.

The second limitation is the population sample, which only revolves around maintenance managers, assistance maintenance managers, and hotel operators. It could be possible that making this criterion wide, some more information and facts could be attained. Now, these findings cannot be generalized on the basis of the selected population, and a broader view of other people cannot be included.

The third limitation is the particular aspect of the discussed maintenance practices asked from the respondents. These maintenance practices only represent a part of activities, while global maintenance management practices may include many other possible measures that are not included here. A wide variety of methods likely exist in the hotel industry that may contribute to increasing the efficiency of hotel management practices. The structural dimensions are more specific and extensive that defines related measures and scope of maintenance efficiency in five-star hotels.

Another limitation can be the bias of the researcher that can hinder the productivity of results. There is the future scope for research to focus on these limitations and get more accurate findings.

Chapter 4. Results and Analysis

Results and Discussion

The current research study is designed by focusing on the null hypothesis that there is no relationship between maintenance management practices in a hotel and improving the efficiency of maintenance, and the alternative hypothesis as there is a relationship between maintenance management practices in a hotel and improving the efficiency of maintenance.

The sample size was 180 participants included maintenance managers and hotel operators in Bangkok and five central high standard five-star hotels in Bangkok were selected, i.e., the Okura Prestige Bangkok, Avani Riverside Hotel, Eastin Grand Hotel Sathorn, Siam Kempinski Hotel, and The Peninsula Bangkok. Out of 180 respondents, 113 questionnaires were found complete; the response rate was 70%. Out of five hotels, 100 hotel operators and 80 maintenance managers were approached.

The study analyzed six main dimensions of data pertaining to the maintenance efficiency in five-star hotels. These are maintenance management team, maintenance management plan, training for maintenance, maintenance assessment and identification, maintenance monitoring activities, and maintenance communication & knowledge sharing. The acquired statistics for each dimension is explained below.

In Table 3.1, the reported questionnaire results about the maintenance management team were analyzed. The estimated mean value is (4.26) while t-statistics is calculated as 8.23. The t-test is measured at (p ≤ 0.05; **p ≤ 0.01). The degree of freedom is 112. For the first dimension, six practices related to maintenance were recorded from the questionnaire. These practices included responsible teamwork, the efficacy of maintenance manager, organized administrative structure, regular meetings about the maintenance management team, specialized outsource contactors, skilled technicians, neat appearance, and good behavior.

Table 3.2 discusses the maintenance management plan, with a mean value of 4.41, and the t value is 8.65. This dimension is tested and recorded six primary practices from questionnaire results, such as a maintenance plan that can affect standard procedures and policy, the plan needs approval from authorities, maintenance-related plans, design and pre-construction stage planning, updated policy for maintenance and annual budget reserves.

Table 3.3 portrays the third dimension (training for maintenance) out of six planned for the study, and its mean value is 3.81, and the t value is 7.45. This dimension has been estimated on the basis of four practices, such as training like seminars, workshops, and drills, the staff is trained to streamline delivery, new staff members are trained when joining and ethical commitment to offering training sessions by suppliers.

Table 3.4 is about maintenance assessment and identification that holds 3.48 mean value and 6.15 t value. It is maintained on the basis of five critical practices that are essential in maintenance management. These practices are reporting faults and issues, potential maintenance problems impact management and brainstorm employees, virtualization, and need of skilled labor, funding source, cost and implementation, post-occupancy evaluation, and follow up actions and maintenance practices such as feedback or complaint forms. All these maintenance practices are seemed as helpful in improving the efficiency of maintenance management in five-star hotels.

Table 3.5 is about maintenance monitoring activities that show the mean value of 3.80, and the t value is 6.71. This dimension of research is measured on the basis of three main events that can impact an organization. These are vital activities such as start-up chillers and closing, meter readings record, etc., immediate actions about maintenance activities occur like to recover adverse consequences, and scheduled and unscheduled activities.

The last table 3.6 discuses the role of maintenance communication & knowledge sharing in the maintenance department of a five-star hotel. These practices also show the value of an organized administration and the significance of the right managerial staff. Its mean value is 3.74, and the t value is 6.42. The five core practices included from questionnaire results are computerized maintenance systems, the well-equipped command center for maintenance, toll-free helpline for employees and guests, organization of workers for responsibility and facilities, agreements, and building’s handling.

Role of Maintenance Practices in Enhancing Efficiency

The tables have sown that mean score is significant to analyze because, from all these practices, the score varies from a high value (4.46) to a low value (3.41), whereas its possible range can be 1.0(very unimportant)-5.0 (very important). These maintenance practices have shown a different tendency of applicability in organizations. The most important meaning is observed for the mean value higher than 4.20 on a 1-5 scale. Most importantly, these practices are about the maintenance management team and plan that perform significantly in any star hotel. The result indicates that managers mostly use these practices to improve maintenance. It can also be considered that managers find these practices crucial to implement so that it becomes the priority of management to implement, and there is always more attention is paid to these maintenance practices to improve the level of efficiency.

The practices with a mean value higher than 3.40 but less or equal to 4.20 indicate that these are essential practices. These measures fall in the categories of maintenance training, knowledge sharing and communication, identification and assessment, and maintenance monitoring. It can also be stated that hotel managers focus on these measures in a meaningful way and consider them as a top priority for hotel efficiency. Moreover, the hotel managers perceive maintenance measures significant for the boosting ability and that these practices should not be disregarded to manage hotel maintenance. Therefore, it is safe to say that hotel operators have to focus on considerations for reliable measures regarding maintenance and always focus on improving these practices.

This estimation provides that means for all the maintenance practices vary from 4.46 to 3.41, i.e., highest to the lowest, which is higher than three, so it becomes a neutral level. This estimation is at 0.000 value of significance that is less than 0.05 levels. The result indicates that all the maintenance practices intended for the five-star hotels in Bangkok are significant, which can maintain efficiency. The descending order of ranking is also substantial at the six dimensions because they have a positive impact on improving the efficiency of hotel management practices. These mean values for six dimensions are discussed above. This result indicates that two aspects, the maintenance team, and management plan, have a high value of mean while other practices have comparatively low values of the mean.

Overall, it can be stated that the mean of all six dimension practices moves from high to low value that is higher than 0.000 value of significance. The results of respondents provide that these practices are significant when calculated for the t-test at 112 degrees of freedom (n-1). It can also be argued that hotels somehow practice management practices of maintenance, and they prioritize it often. This prioritization is significant to select the best strategy for the long term efficiency of hotels. The goal of hotel management is to opt for the best maintenance practices that can help maintain building assets.

In the research methodology, the third factor was to estimate the barriers that can bring up poor practices of maintenance management. The obstacles in effective maintenance management practices are found out to be:

  • Misuse of facilities
  • Poor attitude of the user
  • Natural deterioration of assets
  • Inadequate funding to maintain
  • Cost of maintenance is high
  • Inflation and other macroeconomic indicators
  • Lack of skilled labor force and maintenance personnel
  • Lack of materials of other inventory systems
  • The reluctance of hotel owner

These barriers are estimated on the basis of their mean value; for instance, the value ranges from 3.40 to 4.20, highlighting the fact that internal hotel resources and lack of adequate assets can effectively contribute to maintenance barriers. The shortage of skilled labor force is an essential factor in maintaining daily inventories and services. The deterioration of hotel equipment with age and time is necessary to consider. The managers focus on maintenance costs, and the rising cost of inflation is an essential factor in maintaining efficiency. It is also important to note that the top priority of hotel managers is their guests and users, and it should be followed in a rational way to upgrade equipment. The result indicates that hotel managers and operators should work extra to avoid potential barriers in maintenance management practices to prevent a decline in efficiency.

The average importance of all mean values from highest to lowest indicates the necessity of maintenance management practices. The significance level prevails for the different management practices in the five-star hotels. According to the respondents, the level of significance of these barriers is crucial to decrease the negative impact of deterioration. The result also shows that the percentage of answers is higher for essential practices than the percentage of responses for less critical.

In the case of hypothesis testing, the person correlation coefficient is also calculated, as shown in all the tables, along with the mean value and t-test. This value indicates how data values are correlated to the dependent variables. The correlation coefficient is between in number from 0.78 to 0.51 for all the maintenance efficiency practices at 0.000 levels, which is less than 0.05. This information gives the idea that all six dimensions of study are positive and statistically significant when estimated for their relationship. This level is from 0.82 to 0.69 at 0.000 level of significance. This correlation level for all the maintenance management practices is statistically significant at p ≤ 0.05, which is 0.05. This information provides that the null hypothesis which states as there is no relationship between maintenance management practices in a hotel and improving the efficiency of maintenance is rejected and the alternate hypothesis which proposes as there is a relationship between maintenance management practices in a hotel and improving the efficiency of maintenance is accepted.

According to this finding, our research study successfully defines the significance of maintenance management practices in five-star hotels of Bangkok. The maintenance practices used in the questionnaire to get the opinion of maintenance managers and hotel staff identify that these practices are consistent in the hotel industry and continuously work to improve the efficiency of management. The level of consistency prevalent in these practices depicts the behavior of management. Moreover, these practices have shown that how managers can face challenges in an industry where most of the issues occur internally. The challenging circumstances can be effectively managed when maintenance management takes responsibility and effectively accomplish all the duties. By investigating these practices, it is helpful to control and identify critical challenges that management confronts. It is safe to say that management should pay more attention to the issues prevailing at an intimate level, and manage efficiency level.

The allocation of resources is especially a significant matter of concern for management, in order to achieve high profit. The correlation result by the Person coefficient has shown a statistically significant value at 0.05 significance levels. If the p-value is less than 5% of significance level, it indicates a statistically significant and positive result. The same is true for all Person correlation coefficient values for the aforementioned barriers, so these barriers are statistically significant. From the maintenance managers’ point of view, the level of consistency is essential to cope up with the maintenance efficiency in the hotel industry (Iqbal, 2016). Bangkok has an immense attraction for tourists and visitors; its hotel industry has more significant scope to focus on maintenance practices in order to improve efficiency (J. Turner, 2013). The values so far have shown positive results, with the rejection of the null hypothesis and the following statement that there is a positive and significant relationship between maintenance management practices in a hotel and improving the efficiency of maintenance. This aspect highlights that management should get not only rid of critical barriers hindering the performance of the hotel but also take corrective measures to avoid them in the future.

The results provide justification for the efficiency of hotel management; when required raw material, resources, skilled labor force, and technology is used while barriers decline the scope of competence. The findings have implied that future improvement in the efforts and resources can positively impact the hotel industry in the long term, so maintenance management should align their efforts to cater to a skilled workforce, and affordable resources should be allocated (J. Turner, 2013).

Discussion of Demographic Profiling

The demographic profile, in general, illustrates the age, income, education, employment, and work experience of respondents. Since this research study aims at finding efficiency due to maintenance management practices, it has explored five-star hotels in Bangkok. The hoteling industry and maintenance management departments tend to employ males more than females. In addition, at managerial posts in maintenance departments, male workers are found to be larger than males. The respondents investigated in this research study are also males, i.e., five hotels in Bangkok. The work experience of these managers is significant in highlighting the necessity of maintenance in five-star hotels.

The result indicates that working experience in this field is quite necessary to handle the long term profitability of five-star hotels (Lai, 2016). The skilled workers in maintenance can quickly identify critical challenges and needs of the guests. The building management team offer skills to manage inventory, wear and tear, and technical equipment. The skilled professionals also fulfill the deficiency of academically qualified personnel. It becomes the responsibility of the employer to provide adequate training to new employees in case they are not competent to accomplish their duties. These training activities include motivational programs, staff evaluation, and technology upgrading techniques.

The demographic profile shows that employees need maintenance based training, and employers should focus on this perspective so that the best employees can be attained. The academic qualification of these respondents states that most of them have a graduation, while some possess diplomas to manage technical jobs. Their expertise in this field has enabled them to wok well and consider as skilled staff. 67% of respondents fulfilled maintenance job requirements while which is positively associated with their job experience. The hotels should not only focus on qualifications and expertise but the analytical skills that management should hold in order to run five-star hotels. This aspect also indicates that hotel management mainly needs technical skills, and they should evaluate technical skills while hiring staff. The modern maintenance managers also have to possess significant technical knowledge about the hospitality industry, hotel industry, and tourism. The contemporary maintenance manager also relies on a knowledge base regarding construction, building equipment, and its deterioration (Lai, 2016).

Significance of Hotel Operators

Hotel owners and operators are a significant part of the organization because they deal with all the central matters, including maintenance management (Lai & Yik, 2008). The contractual responsibility for maintenance is related to the plan, implementation, and financing. The maintenance regarding the physical building of the hotel and furnishing is also maintained by hotel operators.

The responsibilities owed by hotel operators are discussed in the survey in the form of a questionnaire. The investigation has shown that physical building maintenance is attributable to hotel owners because it relates to maintaining the environment stable and visitor friendly. The operators interviewed for this study shared their perception of maintenance management practices. According to them, there is an essential need for daily work performance that can streamline long term profitability (Le, Pearce & Smith, 2018). The majority of respondents’ interviewed as hotel operators discussed their opinions about hotel operations, for instance, how they manage site and equipment, furnishing, and inventories.

The perception of hotel owners regarding maintenance management practices provided that owners are more concerned about their hotel management. However, in some cases, where separate hotel operators were placed to take care of maintenance management, the communication level, priority, and business value was less concerned. The hotel owners, who were operating hotel maintenance by themselves, tend to be more concerned about the managerial practices and value. The operational functions counted as professional and most important by hotel operators were the purchase of equipment, security, and maintenance (Lai & Yik, 2008). Another critical point mentioned by hotel operators was the safety measures and quality assurance that should be monitored in a hotel at least once a month.

More critical factors near hotel operators were maintenance of quality, guest protocols, visitors’ satisfaction, and responsibility of employees. The repair programs, repair and renewal programs, and allocation to maintain equipment are core functions carried out by hotel operators. The survey depicted that a consistent workflow of the hotel is attributable to the maintenance management team because successful projects generate income for future projects. The hotels also need financial maintenance and renewal plans on the basis of its nature and functioning (Le, Pearce & Smith, 2018). All these responsibilities are owed by the hotel operators.

The operational functions at the hotel are managed effectively, only when the maintenance management team is professional(Yip, 2005). The questionnaire provided that the operational security of the hotel is provided by external outsourcers. This outsourcing constitutes housekeeping and accounting. In addition, the promotion and advertisement are carried out by in house departments. Mostly operators discussed that the operational functions are outsourced when there is a separate operator hired for the five-star hotels.

The management services provided by five-star hotels tend to undertake the ore responsibility of serving and entertaining the guests. The five-star hotels are responsible for the service management and ensuring safety for all the staff. Functioning helps protect integrity for the organization and space management (Le, Pearce & Smith, 2018). The hotel operators also discussed main functions and critical fixtures of maintenance, including heating, cooling, ceiling, sewage facilities, and furniture. Moreover, the procurement and other functioning are accomplished by external vendors so that all the things move smoothly(Yip, 2005). The maintenance departments are also interlinked with third party specialists that can promote the role of maintenance managers. The scope of the maintenance department is extended to make the system environment-friendly because more energy efficiency procedures are useful to develop the stability of buildings. There are many other innovative ways that maintenance management considers, in order to stay functional and responsible.

Why Maintenance is Necessary

The results and analysis of questionnaires indicated that maintenance has a crucial role in developing the efficiency of five-star hotels. The selected hotels for this study are five-star hotels located in Bangkok, which is a prime location for the tourism, hospitality, and hotel industry. The hotel image can be developed in a productive form when its maintenance is valid, and it is functional. Restoration of a state into a specific form and developing necessary functions are a core responsibility of the management team (Le, Pearce & Smith, 2018).

The questionnaire’s reflection on the significance of maintenance management practices can be seen from several factors. These factors include health and safety, consumption of energy, influential business activities, expectations of guests, environmental impact, the policy of the hotel, and maintenance resources such as raw material and labor force. The maintenance management practices are significantly controlled by the outsource contractors, technicians, and a combination of both (Yip, 2005). The role of maintenance management practices in a specific context can be seen from their level of significance because this study has discussed several vital values that prevail in the hotels and promote the efficiency of the hotel management system (Yip, 2005).

The hotel operator has to see so many hats in the in house management while it has to overcome key barriers such as poor maintenance, lack of competencies, and rising costs of raw materials (Le, Pearce & Smith, 2018). The discussion about maintenance management practices has offered a core idea about organizations’ discipline and management performance. The results of the study identified that maintenance management is significant for hotels in many forms. It increases competition and helps hotels keep running in the same flow because the maintenance management team should be professional enough to keep pace with modern technical equipments and social trends.

The survey results provide that maintenance management efficiency is significantly related to the hotel industry standards as it involves guests and visitors from all walks of life. Operational competence is developed when there is an increase in productivity. The four-star to five-star hotel standard is maintained only on the basis of maintenance management. The effective service not only complies with the market standards but also with the latest technology. The role of maintenance management practices is central to accelerate the efficiency of all the departments. The discussion highlights that user’s attitudes and misuse of facilities can be significant problems as hurdles for the hotel. If there is a lack of funding for maintenance activities, the situation can be harmful to the productivity and brand reputation of the hotel.

The maintenance management barriers are the hurdles that arise from the internal environment of the hotel and need a proper solution. For instance, the lack of funding should be compensated for sponsorship so that adequate facilities and utilization of technology can be guaranteed. The deficiency of raw material should also be addressed because it is the only way to provide standardized services. The skilled personnel is a core part of the maintenance team as it offers developmental opportunities and maintains competencies for the organization.

Chapter- 5 Conclusions and Recommendations

The objective of this study was to find out the significance of maintenance management practices in the hotel industry. The research conducted an analysis in the context of the hotel industry in Bangkok. The five-star hotels were undertaken to know the role of maintenance management practices. The study identified key trends and strategies implemented in five-star hotels to find out the efficiency of management.  It was intended to find out changes in the maintenance activities such as fixtures etc. due to emerging technological scope (Ndegwa, (Ph.D.) & Buluma, 2016).

The results have shown that maintenance management practices are attributable to the management, and it is the responsibility of the owner to focus on building structure. The operator handles all the fixtures and equipment regarding the environmental situation and to encompass the necessities in the hospitality industry (Hauw Sen, Wan Mahmood & Dolah, 2017).  The responsibilities that owner owe are employee’s opinion, interest, and related practices (Bieser & Menzel, 2019). The study has revealed that maintenance management practices are significant to affect the efficacy of five-star hotels. The questionnaires investigated maintenance managers and associate managers about their duties, key responsibilities, and practices that they consider are significant.

The results of the study have clarified that maintenance practices play an integral role in a five-star hotel. For instance, the implementation of a better structure, design elements, and electrical fixture effectively develop the structure of the hotel and embrace guests with pleasure (Cigolini, Fedele, Garetti & Macchi, 2008). It is also found out that the strategic value of this maintenance is massive for the hotel industry. The maintenance practices are not new but embedded activities due to the emergence of technology trends. Different techniques should be applied by management to save costs and accelerate the teamwork practice, and this kind of judgment is carried out by questionnaire results.  The study has presented a scope to develop recommendations that play essential role in future research.


Future research can undertake any generalized behavior about the hospitality industry, but the focus on maintenance management practices is essential to maintain. The improvement in technology is expanded, and it has been increasingly implemented into five star hotel managerial practices (Hauw Sen, Wan Mahmood & Dolah, 2017). Some core points for recommendations are:

  • The maintenance management should have to do tactical planning regarding facility
  • Facility forecasting regarding maintenance and budgeting is essential to streamline the funds
  • The maintenance management department has to focus on procurements, equipment maintenance, and external facility services
  • The construction, relocation and renovation points are considered as a key to accelerating business
  • Health security, safety, and environmental protection are vital points to follow for management
  • The planning regarding space and management should be regarded as by hotel operators (Mjema, 2002)
  • The building operations and maintenance should have complied with the latest technology
  • Telecommunication, code compliance and business services such as catering and transportation need effective monitoring
  • The maintenance management aspect is worth mentioning the issues in the hospitality industry. For managers seeking to improve the hotel operations, it is essential to stay connected to the goals and design of the target (SIGUAW & ENZ, 1999).
  • The involvement of more managers is essential to implement the design plan and understand it regarding cost control activities and budgeting decisions.
  • The comprehensive approach and development of strategic quality for a hotel are necessary for the five-star hotels because it will guarantee environmental consciousness.
  • The discussion has provided that integrated management services that leverage technological embedded systems to support decisions are required to get success
  • The cost optimization and safety control methods, in addition to resource planning, are to be introduced as tools of maintenance (JAWilligers, 2018).
  • On the basis of inferences drawn from questionnaires and literature, the maintenance management barriers are found out. These barriers are significant to hinder the performance of five-star hotels as they act as hurdles to involve customer satisfaction (SIGUAW & ENZ, 1999).

With the improvement of technology, these features of maintenance should be improved that can validate these findings in the future. This research can be extended to different categories of hotels, such as three and four-star hotels. Maintenance management practices are crucial to efficiency because they involve various aspects of operations. The security and safety measures in five-star hotels, leisure aspect, business aspect, male and female staff, and technology application are some different measures that play a significant role in maintaining efficiency (Bieser & Menzel, 2019). The research study has shown the maintenance level in the hotel, on the basis of views from management and operations. The planning maintenance, corrective actions, and scheduling are core points highlighted by the respondents. There is a need for measuring this performance in terms of efficiency by investigating time and quality (Cigolini, Fedele, Garetti & Macchi, 2008). These measurements in management are not only crucial to improve the quality but also service of the hotel by meeting cost parameters. The measurement of management maintenance is necessary to sustain vital operational activities in five-star hotels of Bangkok.


The study investigates maintenance management practices in five star hotels in Bangkok. The viewpoints of maintenance managers are discussed in the survey highlighting the efficiency of team management and responsibilities. The barriers that hinder the ability of maintenance in hotels are also identified by the study, particularly in five-star hotels of Bangkok. The significance of these practices was tested by using a t-test on the critical value of 3. The results provided that means for all maintenance management practices move from 4.46 to 3.41, which is the highest level to the lowest. The value greater than 3 indicates that the significance level is attained, and all the maintenance management practices discussed by respondents are specific to improve the efficiency in five-star hotels. The value of Person correlation is significant and positive at 0.05 significance levels. Therefore the null hypothesis is rejected. The acceptance of the alternative hypothesis has suggested that all the maintenance based managerial practices need importance by operational staff.

The critical barriers found from the study analysis are the misuse of operational facilities, poor attitude of the user or visitors, natural deterioration of assets that is due to inadequate funding to maintain the building, high cost of maintenance, macroeconomic indicators, and inflation. Lack of skilled labor force and maintenance personnel contribute to decreasing the efficiency level in hotels. Moreover, the lack of materials and inventory and less interest in hotel operator sometimes helps high in reducing the maintenance services. The study is significant to contribute to the existing knowledge as it has presented some essential maintenance practices that can prove fruitful for five-star hotels in Bangkok.

The results are significant and can be seen from different factors such as health and safety, consumption of energy, influential business activities, expectations of guests, and the environmental impact. Furthermore, the policy of the hotel and maintenance resources such as raw material and the labor force is required in an adequate amount to sustain these practices. The study can enable hotel owners and managers, in the long run, to determine which methods can be more useful to implement. The perceived effectiveness will provide a unique way to understand and manage hotel operations. The study will endeavor the focused operational tactics to investigate key barriers that work in poor implementation of maintenance management.

The management services provided by five-star hotels are exemplary and can be improved if maintenance managers work with efficiency. This efficiency caters to remove the operational barriers and implement a robust approach under these maintenance management practices. The literature and guidance are significant to consider as the contribution of five-star hotels because the maintenance activities address essential variables standard in every setting. The results of this study provide a valuable analysis regarding maintenance management activities and their significance. For instance, maintenance communication and knowledge sharing are related to technology, and its associated practices are about computer involvement, maintenance in the organization regarding equipment, employee satisfaction, and visitors. The maintenance monitoring activities included actions to prevent any hazardous consequences, scheduling and machinery observation regarding chillers, and others.

A key point highlighted in the maintenance management practices is about training for maintenance workers because it identified all the core issues required to address when efficiency is intended. Training is essential for new workers working in maintenance department because it has proven results to improve the efficiency while generating customer satisfaction and excellence in service environment. The professional managers have discussed the need for training for new staff and related employees to improve virtualization, complete the demand for labor and employees. Besides, in maintenance management practices, the critical involvement of staff is essential for scheduling equipment and other routine activities. The results of this study have provided strong recommendations for the development of efficient maintenance management strategies. The hotel operators suggested the rapid changes in the hotel industry through building construction and other latest technological advancements. Overall, the study serves as an impetus for enhancing the maintenance efficiency in five-star hotels in general and Bangkok in particular.



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Nazari, N., & Abd Rahman, A. (2018). Influence of Critical Success Factors (CSFs) Adoption on the Customer Satisfaction among Small- and Medium-Sized Hotels (SMHs) in Malaysia. Journal Of Hotel And Business Management07(01). doi: 10.4172/2169-0286.1000177

Niininen, O. (2013). Five Star Crisis Management — Examples of Best Practice from the Hotel Industry. INTECH, 145-150.

Nik-Mat, N., Kamaruzzaman, S., & Pitt, M. (2011). Assessing The Maintenance Aspect of Facilities Management through a Performance Measurement System: A Malaysian Case Study. Procedia Engineering20, 329-338. doi: 10.1016/j.proeng.2011.11.174

Prud’homme, B., & Raymond, L. (2013). Sustainable development practices in the hospitality industry: An empirical study of their impact on customer satisfaction and intentions. International Journal Of Hospitality Management34, 116-126. doi: 10.1016/j.ijhm.2013.03.003

Qi, M., Li, X., Zhu, E., & Shi, Y. (2017). Evaluation of perceived indoor environmental quality of five-star hotels in China: An application of online review analysis. Building And Environment111, 1-9. doi: 10.1016/j.buildenv.2016.09.027

Raguseo, E., Neirotti, P., & Paolucci, E. (2017). How small hotels can drive value their way in infomediation. The case of ‘Italian hotels vs. OTAs and TripAdvisor’. Information & Management54(6), 745-756. doi: 10.1016/

Shaw, G., Bailey, A., & Williams, A. (2011). Aspects of service-dominant logic and its implications for tourism management: Examples from the hotel industry. Tourism Management32(2), 207-214. doi: 10.1016/j.tourman.2010.05.020

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Tag-Eldeen, A., Barakat, M., & Dar, H. (2017). Investigating the impact of workplace bullying on employees’ morale, performance and turnover intentions in five-star Egyptian hotel operations. Tourism And Travelling1(1), 4-14. doi: 10.21511/tt.1(1).2017.01

Iqbal, U. (2016). Financial Performance in Daily Hotel and Business Management. Journal Of Hotel & Business Management05(02). doi: 10.4172/2169-0286.1000e113

  1. Turner, M. (2013). Hotel Management Contracts: a Particularly Rich Research Context. Journal Of Hotel & Business Management03(01). doi: 10.4172/2169-0286.1000e107

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Yip, P. (2005). On the Maintenance Costs and Exit Costs of the Peg in Hong Kong. Review Of Pacific Basin Financial Markets And Policies08(03), 377-403. doi: 10.1142/s021909150500049x







  • Maintenance management team
  1. Is it important to have a responsible team for maintenance work?
  2. How a maintenance manager can be helpful for maintaining efficiency?
  3. Can regular meetings about maintenance management team help organization?
  4. Is it important to use specialized outsource contactors to do maintenance work?
  5. How an organized administrative structure is helpful for managing maintenance?
  6. Are skilled technicians, neat appearance and good behavior good points for organization?
  • Maintenance management plan
  1. How a maintenance management plan can affect standard procedures and policy?
  2. Do execution of maintenance management plan needs approval from authorities?
  3. Do maintenance department is involved in making maintenance related plans?
  4. How maintenance experts are involved in design and pre construction stage?
  5. Is maintenance policy updated regularly?
  6. Are there any annual budget reserves for maintenance plans and are employees informed about such planning?
  • Training for maintenance
  1. Maintenance training like seminars, workshops and drills are conducted on regular basis to learn new technology and improve staff skills?
  2. Housekeeping staff is trained to streamline delivery regarding bulb fixture, changing batteries and lock and others?
  3. Are new staff members trained when join?
  4. Suppliers and manufacturers show good commitment to offer trainings sessions?
  • Maintenance assessment and identification
  1. What are quick means of reporting faults and issues?
  2. How potential maintenance problems impact management and brainstorm employees?
  3. What specific methods are employed to measure maintenance performance, post occupancy evaluation, and follow up actions?
  4. Define and identify key material, its virtualization, and need of skilled labor, funding source, cost and implementation?
  5. How employees respond to maintenance practices such as feedback or complaint forms?
  • Maintenance monitoring activities
  1. How daily monitoring activities occur, such as start up chillers and closing, meter readings record etc.
  2. Are immediate actions about maintenance activities occur like to recover adverse consequences?
  3. How scheduled and unscheduled activities occur?
  • Maintenance communication & knowledge sharing
  1. Computerized maintenance systems are organized?
  2. Yes
  3. No
  4. Presence of well equipped command centre for maintenance
  5. Yes
  6. No
  7. Presence of toll free helpline for employees and guests
  8. Yes
  9. No
  10. Good maintenance and organization of workers to take responsibility
  11. Yes
  12. No
  13. Good maintenance of facilities, agreements and buildings
  14. Yes
  15. No

Hotel Operators’ Questionnaire

The hotel operators will be investigated about maintenance management practices because it is identified as a challenge for operators to focus on the control measures.

  1. Nature of management and ownership of your hotel?
  2. Hotel owned
  3. Operator is not owner
  4. Length of contractual arrangement between operator and owner (if operator is not owner)
  5. Who is responsible for maintenance practices, see following

Owner                      Operator

  1. Site of hotel
  2. Equipment and plant
  3. Building
  4. Inventories and furnishing
  5. Characterization of owner and operator on below areas:

1 2 3 4 5

1 ranging to Poor 2, for fair 3 for well 4 for very well and 5 for extremely well

  • Risk taking for business
  • communication
  • opinion and interest
  • values and priority
  1. Which of these activities as operational functions are outsourced as hotel operator?
  • Maintenance
  • security
  • accounting
  • promotion
  • purchase
  1. How often the fixtures in hotel facility should be monitored, as a hotel operator?
  • weekly
  • bi-weekly
  • daily
  • three times in a week
  1. How often training of a staff is needed in terms of quality assurance, maintenance and safety:
  • Once in a month
  • Twice in a year
  • Annually


Innovative management approach towards improvement of employees’ performance at work


The organizational performance is achieved with innovative methods under the improved Human Resource department. Better resources yield productivity and engage employees. The innovative workplace provides new opportunities and highlights the productive ventures in the market. Employees’ performance is attributable to the prevailed practices in organization, systematic handling, and innovative technological frameworks. Innovation in management processes influences the overall performance of the organization. Though it is a complex process, it attains improved productivity by motivating the workforce. Public organizations always work to implement better methods of productivity and innovation in the workplace. The broader aim includes the quality of products and services to generate positive outcomes. The change is always specific for programming, HR management, and problem identification in an organization. The human resource department uses innovative technology in recruiting and training employees.  The same notion is analyzed in this research study. Innovative organization psychology drives organizational performance. The current research study aims at discussing innovative techniques employed by human resources to replace traditional ones, hence attain organizational performance.  The hypothesis of the study is to find out the role of performance management through commitment and encouragement to achieve the objectives of the organization. The null hypothesis states the relationship between motivation and technological advancement. The study used a qualitative approach to understand the relation of innovation and organiztiaon. A significant relationship is found between motivation and technological advancement, while innovation is also positively related to the performance of the organization.

Chapter 1- Introduction

Over time, the dynamic, competitive environment of market places shifted the human resource managements’ approach from traditional to the innovative one. Human resources and capabilities considered as the strength of the firms’ competitive advantage in the market and regarded as the asset. The efficient human resource in an organization contributes significantly tothe high competitive advantage a firm would have in the marketplace. From the project managers’ perspective due to the significant role of the human aspect of a project, considering the individuals’ potentials enables them to get closer to success.[1]As such, the study on methods to improve the employees’ performance at work has been addressed from different perspectives by academia so far. Through the lens of work and organizational psychology, individuals well-being and performance at work are the multidimensional concepts that cannot be described through a singular dimension. The innovative psychological approach requires a movement from the narrow concentration on the negative feelings to the positive psychology, which introduces a more balanced-account of well-being and performance at work. HumanResource Management (HRM) has been evolved by the contribution of work psychology to come up with the new mechanisms which bring about the achievement of organization’s performance by improving the individual’s performance and increasing their engagement. The classic approach towards employees’ performance was based on the passive role of the employee;however; the new perspective concentrated on the active partof employees at deciding on the organizational, societal and managerial initiatives. The innovative organizational psychology put their efforts on explaining the existence of a link between the improvement of employees’ performance, which directly leads to the advancement of an organization’s performance as well.[2] Related to the innovative and the new psychology of work is also exploring the influence of technology on the return, and feeling of individuals at work. By the emergence of modern workplace technologies, a new question has been raised, for instance, how robots behave as a member of a team, how social media may affect the performance of individuals within a company, or how new technologies may influence the role of human resources. These concerns engaged numerous scientists, the practitioners, the managers, the students, the HR managers, the project managers to work on the socio-technical management system. Technology affects the three aspects related to employees’ performance; those affecting dimensions are their motivation, functioning, and well-being. An organizational psychologist argues under the socio-technical management perspective that how even a simple technological intervention can negatively or positively affect people’s satisfaction, productivity, and well-being.[3] This study intends to look into specific innovative themes that are worth considering to explain the future direction of human resource management.

Research Question

The question this study is going to address is how new phenomena like new technologies and innovative organization psychology approach make the traditional human resource management perspective to move away? And how the emergence of new sciences like talent management might contribute to exploring the relationship between the individuals’ performance at work and the organization performance.


New performance management mindset encourages motivation and commitment to achieve organizations’ objectives, alongside with this, according to positive psychology movement, we believe that organizations might go further to produce more innovative outcomes rather than the traditional ones.    

Chapter 2- Literature review

Evelin Priscila Trindade et al. (2014) addressed the relation between individual well-being and performance at work. The authors take into account organizational psychology. As a starting point, they look into the development that the concepts have had over the past decades. They believed that the field of work and organizational psychology and the study of individual well-being and performance is indeed a highly dynamic research area. As a conclusion, they explain how the work-related well-being influences overall life well-being or can be considered as general well-being in life that contributes to the survival and resourcefulness of the individual. Thomas A Wright & Russell Cropanzano (2000), discussed the concept of psychological well-being and job satisfaction as predictors of job performance, they first discussed the tradition perspective concerning the link between the happiness and the job satisfaction, they believed that as long as job satisfaction is limited to one’s job, it does not include the aspect of individuals’ life outside of work, the fact is as authors claimed the psychological well-being in which the happiness considered in a broader sense rather than job satisfaction would refer to employees’ life in general. Michael D Coovert& Lori Foster Thompson (2014), researched on the influence the new technologies might positively or negatively have on the worker’s motivation, functioning, and well-being. Ethical debates have always been a center of attention concerning the maximization of person-job fit through the scientific selection and placement techniques, by the advancement of the new technologies the workers not only might benefit from technologies to learn new knowledge and skills but also to gain new abilities. One aspect of the recent era as an innovative technological epoch is social media and the new communication method between workers through social media and how would be the effect in general. Nik Chmiel, F Fraccaroli& Magnus Sverke (2017) moved away from the traditional approach towards the workplace and discussed the modern and up to date work and or organizations mindset relied on psychology rather than management center stage, what they are examining in their book is how managers, coworkers behave and organizations function. From their perspective, it is important to study the contemporary organizational life and search for the answers to the concerns concerning how people think, and behave when they are doing their jobs. Their method is based on the science-based, and systemic research, by taking into account the evidence relating to working conditions and organizational function. Nicole Renee Baptise(2007), discusses on existing work of HRM and advance the arguments for establishing the linkage between HRM practices, employee wellbeing at work and performance in the public sector. The author works on improving individual and organizational results through enhanced efficiency and productivity. As a starting point, we will first look into the concept of performance at work, and then we will examine different factors that are used to measure the workers’ performance. In the second part, we will discuss the impact of technology inthe workplace. Meanwhile, we are explaining the efforts of well-known firms that are considered as successful cases that improved the performance of their employees at work.

Performance at Work

Performance at work has been defined as “the work-related activities expected of an employee and how well those activities were executed.”[4] Measurement of performance has always been debated, some authors believe that the measures are not objective and it depends on the purpose behind the analysis, and the factors are not necessarily externally defined, as such, they argue that the concept of performance needs to be operationalized first. What has made the job even more confusing is that the idea has heavily related to the cultural differences, and recognizing the socio-political contexts in which the performance is considering. According to management literature, there are five reasons for measurement of performance. (1) sometimes organization wants to analyze that how they get to the point that they are at present, it enables them to forecast the parameter values used in the decision analysis model, and their reward system for the future. (2) The need to understand the present status sometimes requires that the firms measure their potentials for more ambitious achievement for the future. (3) Then they will flowingly sketch a plan towards their objective that they want to achieve. They define where they want to go, and what are their targets. (4) After identifying the goals, it is time to measures the tools to reach them, the question of how a firm is going to get there. The tests enable them to manage the budgeting, and to plan their activities, and then to maintain their continuous improvements. (5) the last reason behind the measurement of performance at work is evaluating how an organization knows that they got there. To address each reason, in each stage, the measures must be created for different users and different Causes. For managers, the purpose would be for the learning and self-improving, for supervisor, the causes are for integration of internal measures to achieve the overall organizational achievements, they also consider the tests to monitor how activities are moving forward by workers, last but not least for adjusting the internal reward system. For all other actors in the organization, it is about having a sense of belonging and continuous improvement.[5] A performing business is the achievement of the targets set by managing the organization. However, as mentioned before performance is not a such a concept can be defined objectively, most of the authors started from the conceptual definition, as such, performance for them is about the capability and future. However, when we were talking about the measures, it was all about the data related to the past to evaluate the future. There is a contradiction here, at one hand the data are accumulated about the history and then turned to information when decision-making models use them, and on the other hand, information based on the past data is only enjoyable as long as it helps the management committee to forecast the future, and plan for the improvement of the firm. If we believe that performance is about the future, then to enjoy the performance management, we need first to explore what causes production. Based on the traditional definition of performance is accounting, performance is all about the amount of net income. Or in other words, the difference between sales and costs, however, the point is that sale itself is the result of different elements of performance like customer satisfaction, quality, delivery, innovativeness, flexibility, and costs. Costs per se also arethe result of processes concerning the knowledge of markets, social relations, the relation between different actors, etc. Therefore, performance might be defined in any of this level. Conceiving the fundamental processes of performance would be the stepping stone to determine the measures that lead to actions. Based on this understanding then we can come to the new definition of performance that is all the effort to utilize the potentials and manage well the levels in any stage of a process to attain the objectives of an organization considering the constraints and the situation.[6]

Employees Engagement

The concept of employee engagement has attracted authors’ attention over the last years in performance literature. It has been claimed that employee engagement is a key to n organization’s success and competitiveness. It is claimed that engagement is significant for the firms to face challenges they are facing, as such, employee’sinvolvement has been considered as an element to gain a competitive advantage for firms in marketplaces. Researches have shown that those firms that have at least 25% of their employees’ engagement, they have a higher return on assets, profitability, and the value of the shareholders are higher. Surprisingly, notwithstanding the considerable advantage of engagement, today,commitment is on the decline. For example, half of America employees in their workplace are not engaged; this phenomenon is called “engagement gap” that costs almost loss of 300$ billion a year in terms of the firm’s productivity.[7] Considering the significant effect of employees’ engagement to an organization, the efforts have been dedicated to finding a solution to promote the employee’s engagement. Besides the organizational purposes, the employee’s commitment has both psychological and behavioral effects as well. From the psychological perspective,participation would bring energy, enthusiasm to a workplace for employees. Engaged employees feel a connection to the works; a term has been coned concerning this concept which is “the harnessing of organizational members’ selves to the work role”; in such engagement, individuals are expressing themselves physically, emotionally. Through the process of engagement, not workers are having high levels of energy; they define themselves and recognize their identity in their works. In other words, engagement can be defined as the psychological, physical, and emotional presence of an employee at the workplace. When workers are wholly present at work, they are more attentive, enthusiastic, integrated, and connected to their roles. However, there is not still an agreement on the concept of engagement and the necessity of research on it. It has been criticized that there is not a clear distinction between engagement and other concepts, like job satisfaction. Like the concept of performance at work, participation also is difficult to define or measure. Some theories have been developed so far to propose a framework to enhance the workers’ engagement. Looking into the fundamentals of employee’s engagement, psychological meaningfulness, psychological safety, and mental conditions are essential concepts to strengthen engagement. Psychological meaningfulness will be achieved when individuals feel that they are useful, worthy. Psychological safety is about the secure feeling of being in a role without fear of damage to stats, or career. Psychological availability links to the physical, emotional availability of workers in their role. Consequently, the three concepts of meaningfulness, safety, and accessibility were significantly linked to the idea of engagement.[8]


One of the essential factors in deciding organizational success is wellbeing at work. Healthy employees are playing an important role in the efficiency and profitability of a firm. All businesses try hard to be in a healthy decent condition, and if their employees are not in an acceptable state of health and wellbeing, this is unlikely that such employees contribute to the success of the organization. Due to the importance of the wellbeing of employees, a lot of researches have been dedicated to making clear the relation between HRM[9] practices, employee wellbeing, and performance relationship. Despite the importance of the employee’s wellbeing at work, there is still little evidence that attention has been paid to the link between employee wellbeing and performance in the public sector. Wellbeing at work has defined as “overall sense of the happiness, physical and mental health of the workforce,” related to this is also the concept of job-related wellbeing that is, “individual’s feelings about themselves about their job.” Job-related wellbeing refers to people’s satisfaction with their jobs in terms of the payment, the relation among colleagues, relationship with managers and supervisors, and also is related to the overall condition of workplace including job security, training, and last but not least, it is about the nature of the work. Most of the authors believe that the concept of well-being at work is an indicator of showing the physical and mental health of the workforce. Accordingly, well-being is related to the condition of working in a stress-free and safe environment. An exciting work environment which is rewarding, stimulating, and enjoyable contribution to the well-being of workers at work. A lot of research has been done concerning people’s sense of wellbeing or distress from economics, sociology, and psychological perspective. To assist the employees with their wellbeing at work, employers thrive on making an environment for employees to flourish and use their full potentials for the benefit of themselves and organization as well.[10]

Well-Being Measurement

In many studies, well-being is measured by the relationship between HRM and happiness. A positive correlation has been found between high-performance, and commitment work systems, and organizational performance. Work systems also have been indicated as an element of satisfaction and organizational performance. In terms of the relationship between HRM and happiness or organizational achievement, although some studies show a positive association between HR practices, happiness, and organizational performance, most of the studies found a non-significant connection between happiness and organizational performance. Besides happiness well-being, there is also relationship well-being. By relationship well-being, we mean relationships between employees, a few studies establish positive relationships between these two elements. The prominent result of such studies shows that high-performance work practices or helpful employment are linked with trust, a generally pleasant atmosphere at work. Overall conclusion in terms of the relationship between HRM with different aspects of employees, well-being shows a positive correlation. Health-related well-being, there is also some research studies conducted so far to explain a health-related component. Data show a negative relationship between HRM and health-related well-being. Surprisingly, while studies show the positive association between healthy workplace and reduced stress, there is no critical link between health-related well-being and organizational performance.[11]

The Organizational Health Framework

The organizational health framework is a theory based on the fact of how key individual and organizational elements interact to determine employee well-being and corporate performance. Unfavorable work experiences or “stressors” are expected to cause employees’ pressure, which is a manifestation of negative psychological responses to stress. According to research studies that have been conducted so far, pleasant work experiences, positive emotional responses, have been shown to influence individual well-being outcomes. Adverse or unpleasant work experience does not necessarily result in stress. However, there is a possibility that people’s perception of unpleasant experiences caused by lack of positive work. Besides such results, there are also some debates that employees’ stress is their problem rather than a corporate issue, but stress researchers proved that there is a link between occupational stress and organizational performance outcomes. One aspect of the study is what is the indicators of occupational stress, corporate climate, organizational climate, positive and negative work experiences. The correlation of the elements is shown below.[12] According to the organizational health approach, it is not enough if occupational well-being being examined itself, professional well being must be study in connection with the outcomes that might affect the corporate performance. The organizational health framework above shows that there is a relationship between the individual and corporate features on the one hand, and occupational well-being and organizational performance on the other side. According to this theory, occupational wellbeing includes both emotional and cognitive elements. The emotional components are morale and distress. The cognitive component is related to job satisfaction and employees’ judgments about their levels f satisfaction with their work. From a theoretical perspective, the cognitive dimension of individual wellbeing more strongly has an impact on judgment-related outcomes in the workplace, for example as the decision to quit the job, while the emotional parts are linked to emotive-related behaviors such as organizational withdrawal, harassment, unwise behaviors. According to quality of life research studies, two emotional factors – distress and morale, make direct contributions to overall employee wellbeing. However, based on this model, employees characteristics are the prominent determinant of individual distress. Corporate atmosphere is also the strongest element of individual morale. Stress management intervention that focuses on teaching employees how to cope with their stress is a method which has been neglected from the corporate management point of view.[13]

Psychological well-Being (PWB)

Impact of PWB on Individuals

Well-being compasses three-part: physical, social, and psychological well-being (PWB). PWB is the essential facet of well-being; work has a direct impact on PSW, rather than physical or social aspects of well-being. PWB is much similar to other terms that are regarding the positive mental states, including happiness or satisfaction. Thriving people are those who are standing in a good state of psychological well-being; which means they have control over their stresses and are successful in keepinga positive attitude, the other factor is physical well-being, which is linked to the amount of exercise, sleeping, eating and drinking habits; the last indicator of growing individuals is the status of their social well-being, which is regarding how their social network is supporting. Although the concept of PWB is close to the satisfaction, the idea of “job satisfaction” or “motivation” is not quite the same as PWB. Job satisfaction is about how satisfied a person is with their roles or job; job satisfaction is a factor to measure the PWB; however, there are some cases that an employee might be delighted with his career, but feel frustrated with his or her relationship with their colleagues, or the quality of the management and supervision. The same goes with the concept of “motivation” as well, an employee might be very energized and motivated about his or her job, because they feel that what they are doing is essential, and they do not want to let people down, however, for some reasons like lack of resources or unreasonable workload they might feel frustrated. Research studies have also illustrated that the higher levels of PWB are linked to higher levels of remuneration, more successful marriage and friendships and better health, and last, but not least it is also connected to the better work performance. The first question that comes to minds is whether PWB is the reason for bringing happiness or feeling of joy cause PWB. In order to find the answer there are a lot of cross-sectional studies that have been done, and the most of them produce the same conclusion: the greater general feeling of happiness is connected to the better results on the life factors; for instance, people with higher PWB come out of better in three primary life domains (work, relationships, and health). In the relationship between health and PWB, the question is how people with higher PWB live or behave to protect themselves against illness. Some efforts like not to smoke, doing exercises, take care of sleeping habits are all the measures that one can tackle to get closer to the higher PWB. In addition to this is the link between the higher PWB and life success, as some authors have discussed so far, higher PWB is associated with a set of behaviors and psychological processes that are associated with success.[14]

Grounds of PWB

It has always been debating what factors will influence the levels of PWB? Most of the scientists believe that is the mixture of both genetics and environment. The genetic will affect PWB through the characteristics of each person. Our genes help to determine our personalities, and our characters account for the level of PWB. Personality partly is inherited which has an impact on the level of PWB, some personality factors including openness, conscientiousness, extroversion, agreeableness, neuroticism are linked with PWB, but among these factors, stability, and extraversion[15] and agreeableness[16] are more connected to having a higher PWB. Some scientists (Alexander Weiss 2008) started a series of research studies on 973 pairs of twins and focused on the link between genetic factors and PWB. The result of research has illustrated that all the resolution of changes based on genetics in PWB were justified by the variation in characteristic elements. In other words, our gens would affect our personality, and our nature would affect out PWB. If we believe that PWB is entirely determined by personality, then it means that other factors like daily experiences and events have no impact on PWB, and the inherited factors determine the PWB. However, such an interpretation is not alright personality affect out PWB partly. Other factors related to what we are doing or how the environment is also affecting the PWB. Among all the environmental factors, work is one worth considering. Work is crucial for almost everyone, unemployed individuals are facing the lower level of PWB, and as soon as they find a new job, the level of their PWB is moving back toward the point which is called “set point,”which is the average level of PWB. There is a reciprocal relationship between work and PWB, work is essential for work, and work is important for PWB. Being jobless would have the upsetting and negative consequences for people, and also some work is unhealthy and cause damage to the level of PWB. However, in general working is suitable for people and it has been illustrated that it will create mental balance, and would prevent depression. Having income give people the bargaining power to have access to goods, and services they need, which bring them both the essentials and the pleasure of life. Besides the financial aspect of working, a good job provides more than economic reward; it would give motivation to individuals, give them purposes, and also make their lives disciplined. These are the other two essential factors of PWB ­­— a sense of purpose and meaning. Interaction with other people at work is one of the factors account for their well-being. Consequently, people with higher PWB are better employees and would bring more top benefits to their firms as well.[17]

Impact of PSW on Organization

All the facts explained earlier was about the level of PSW for individuals, and as a result, it has been described that higher PWB is about the life success, better health, better relationships with others, and now in the following section, we will explain how PWB contributes to the performance of an organization. Research studies have shown the links between the various aspects of the psychological climate in an organization and productivity. Over time some specific factors have taken into account to examine different aspects of company climate to see how productive a firm is. The said factors are supervisory support, concern for employee welfare, skill development, effort, innovation and flexibility, quality, performance feedback, and formalization. Case study of manufacturing industry shows that they benefit from the well-being of their employees. The point is based on the industry the whole scenario would be different. People who work in service industries are facing different kinds of challenges. In other words, in any position that employees are dealing with customers, they might encounter the customers who are irritated or angry, sometimes employees to satisfy the customers’ needs have to do taskswhich are outside of the scope of their regular job. Such kind of behavior considered as good “organizational citizenship.” There are some examples that a simple problem in the workplace took a long time to be fixed, and business ‘leaders might never link such issues to the well-being of their members. According to studies, customer satisfaction and service quality have also been shown to be linked to employee well-being. Among different factors like productivity, customer satisfaction, patient care, and service quality and PWB, it is perhaps not that much surprising that PWB has highly linked with the efficiency and outcomes for organizations. And also, research studies show that PWB is directly correlated with a performance at work. Based on the studies, there is a direct relationship between the positive psychological well-being and productivity, an increase of one point on the PPWB scale shows an increase in productivity as well. In addition to this, the study of 8000 separate business units in 36 companies shows that there is a significant relationship between well-being scores on an employee survey and business unit level outcomes, such as customer satisfaction, productivity, profitability. Besides that, there is also a link between PWB and employee engagement. There is an immense amount of research offering support for the idea that organizations in which employees PWB is higher will get better results. In other words, a higher level of PWB iswholly linked to the essential organizational benefits. However, the main question here is how such a relationship works? A study conducted in the UK across 15 different organizations ranging from pubic to private ones, a version of a well-being survey has been offered. Besides the links between PWB and important organizational outcomes, research of this kind has also looked into the impact that key workplace factors have on the psychological health and well-being state of a company. This kind of studies brightens the path for us to conceive what workplace factors accurately might drive levels of PWB. And consequently for sure is answering the question that a high level of PWB leads to better outcomes for organizations. Through the research conducted, researchers develop a clear idea of the factors in the workplace that have an impact on PWB. The first factor is the demands placed on people at work. When employees are facing extortionate demands, PWB gets likely damaged. However, contrary to this is not right; in other words, lower demands do not necessarily mean the higher levels of PWB. For instance, in the situation that a person must go to work, but he or she has nothing to do at work. At first glance, it might be assumed that it is so pleasant for employees; however, the majority of workers won’t stay at such a work for a long time, and they prefer to work in a firm could feel useful. And this is the point we mentioned earlier, demands of work make the individuals feel worthwhile and useful. Meeting the reasonable needs at work give the feeling of satisfaction to employees. As such, the relationship between PWB and work demand is not always straightforward. It is not indeed a case that reducing work demands will necessarily lead to lower PWB. And also, organizations will not achieve good results by increasing their demands on employees. As a result, it can be claimed that reducing demands does not automatically improve PWB, and organizations also will not achieve good results by continually increasing demands on people. When the pressure is low, performance will not be at its maximum. As the pressure increases, performance increases as well, but then when the pressure goes further to an unreasonable level, affect the level of performance adversely.[18] Within the global markets, the key drivers include price as well as profitability and operational excellence. These ingredients contribute towards better profitability of the company. Operational excellence, according to Pot, can be achieved through autonomous teams as well as selecting the right person for the right job. Pot provides the example of IKEA, a company that specializes in furniture and home products, that is capable of deploying its human resources in such a way that it maximizes employee performance. IKEA staff holds a short meeting of all the departments in which they discuss what should be done and how specific improvements can be carried out. The range of spectacular processes, as well as products offered by the company, involves taking suggestions from employees, stakeholders, management, suppliers, etc. which enables them to combine innovation with inclusivity (Pot, 2011). Pot then gives the example of Philips, where innovation within the workplace was provided through the development of smart working space and by economizing on decreasing the number of offices and maximizing on the current office space, which was previously under-utilized. Cox, on the other hand, points out that to improve workplace performance, participatory innovation is required within the workplace (Cox, 2012). Participatory innovation happens to be a view contradictory to the contemporary technocratic and traditional view of innovation as it drives experts to specific departments such as the Research and Development department. Furthermore, the concept of employee-driven innovation also happens to be connected coherently with the role of employees as mediators, innovators, as well as facilitators with the three subcategories being employee, steered innovation, employee-driven change and employee inclusive innovation (Cox, 2012). Rout states that there happens to be a paradigm shift when it comes to employee engagement precisely in the case of the millennial workforce as it cannot be treated like the generation Y or baby boomer generation because the millennial workforce, which is the workforce born in the 1990s happen to be more psychologically driven, having their approach to productivity which means that different employee engagement programs need to be established. In a survey collected by Rout, it was found that about 79% of the millennial workforce today would like to work with a company that is socially responsible and has its independent identity (Rout, 2017). Osmani states that traditionally performance of an organization is measured using financial indicators which include growth rate as well as earnings, however, when it comes to non-financial elements, employee performance happens to be the most important indicator, and the factors which contribute towards it include turnover rates, job satisfaction, quality as well as productivity. Thus to obtain a competitive edge, companies need to enhance employee performance through innovation. Innovation can be garnered when employees provide ideas for services as well as the product as it leads to better competitiveness and increases efficiencies (Osmani, 2015).Innovation for employee performance is necessary because it improves the effectiveness of work as well as the administrative process, which means that innovation increases the timeliness of the output as well as the attendance of employees on the job. Thus to incorporate innovation within the performance management approach, the managers need to acquaint themselves with innovation management (Osmani, 2015). Innovation management refers to the introduction of new aspects of developing the business one way or the other. Ortt describes innovation management as the organization as well as governance of the innovation processes. Research and development can be considered as a broader term for innovation management. However, research and development management uses a specific approach that Is compatible with innovation management (Ortt, 2008). To improve employee performance, there are particular tools and techniques of innovation management which can be incorporated such as creating innovation strategies, ideas, and creativity, selection portfolio management, implementation management as well as human resource management. Long-term goals, as well as decision making, is done by top managers who happen to be responsible for making strategic decisions. However, the management innovation approach has been deemed as being a significant factor when it comes to sustaining the businesses in changing markets. Senior managers are now opting for various innovative strategies to enhance employee performance to maintain a competitive edge (Yu, 2018). It is also necessary that innovative behavior is incorporated within the workplace so that sustainable development can be obtained. Research by Yu finds that when the employees trust the company they work for, they perceive that the external environment is safe and that they can take risks for the progression of the organization (Yu, 2018). Arslan argues that there happen to be rapid changes within the global market and demands of the employees are changing which is why there is a growing need for innovation management practices as managers have to make decisions in the rapidly changing complex environment which is why it is better to improve and monitor employee performance through innovative management approach (Arslan, 2011). Furthermore, performance measurement, as well as performance management, happen to be two different concepts and should not be confused when using an innovative management approach because performance management is what the managers process and analyze when the information has been developed for measurement. This means that performance management involves using data that has already been measured. Quality management systems can thus be used for perusing innovative management practices as they ensure that employee performance is up to the mark (Arslan, 2011). Eagar provides insight into what the future of employee performance management is going to be like and states that the next decade is going to be different and will require more innovation for global executives and markets to recognize. Thus to stay in the game, companies should adopt five primary decentralized innovation resources such as new technology-induced business venturing and development. This means that there will be efforts in the future to seek top-notch business development, which means that companies should focus on deploying employees in new business areas (Eagar, 2017). Eagar also states that the innovation process management approach is also going to one of the top-notch trends in employee performance management in the future as the companies will require to find different ways they can manage the innovative process. This means that the new methods must be according to the creative management approach, which will enable the proper application of innovation holistically. New dimensions of change, such as frugal innovation as well as an innovative management approach, can enable a company to forge a global innovation network (Eagar, 2017). Another concept that will change the scope of employee performance is the orchestration of decentralized competence centers. This is because Eagar is of the view that companies should invest in innovation management and become more global by decentralizing their competence centers (Eagar, 2017). More investments in research and development can help develop this idea. Thu companies that want to excel in innovation management need to keep a close eye on emerging hotspots such as proactive business innovation, high speed/low-risk innovation, integrated innovation, and customer-based innovation (Eagar, 2017). Sánchez states that it is necessary to link strategic adaptation to innovation management practices because innovation, which is a specific set of activities that provide a competitive advantage, provides an increased understanding of the capability of the company to the employees. Thus innovation can be directly connected with strategic adaption (Sánchez, 2011). Sánchez also instructs that companies should develop an innovation audit model that can help in organizational innovation management as well as good practices for determining the innovation capabilities of a firm. The concept of an innovative management approach happens to guide the employees in the right direction of the development of their profession as it helps them to identify the main barriers which hinder the plana and progression of the employees from working. This approach is concerned with setting different procedures for the employees, which they must achieve to gain better feedback on their work. Most of the innovative work is done on the ‘manager’s part for the benefit of the employee as well as the company (Sánchez, 2011). Boukis asserts that there happen to be managerial uncertainty in the market as managing innovations tend to differ from different routine tasks that managers are accustomed to. This means that the everyday tasks which the managers have to complete cannot be compared to those that involve innovative strategies such as unstructured tasks, autonomy, and creative thinking tasks, which are different entirely from stable and standardization tasks (Boukis, 2015). Thus there can be material uncertainties, which means that creative and innovative practices are required to measure and manage employee performance. Managerial uncertainty includes difficulties and fluctuations in staffing the project team, changes in resource deployment, difficulty in maintaining administrative integrity, and co-operation with other departments (Boukis, 2015). Therefore, an innovative management approach must be used when dealing with managing employee performance. Lendel points out that innovation management approach processes happen to be entirely up to date when it comes to discussion and recent literature. Recently, innovation has been taken as an essential technique for enhancing the performance of employees. Companies are not involved anymore in developing their innovative management approach and thus base their strategy on opinions from partners, customers as well as employees (Lendel, 2015). Thus companies are now collecting necessary support, insights, and much-needed information by obtaining knowledge from employees and exploring market opportunities. There has been increasing implementation as well as the adoption of workplace innovation practices, which the top management in companies has used for deploying the best human talent as well as organizing work-related processes in such a way that there is better performance as well as good work (Karanika, 2017). There should be culture orientation within the workplace to provide ample opportunities for the staff members to participate. Karanika states that workplace innovation psychologists need to influence the innovative management approach. In order to do that, they must surpass the human resource management domain and become acquainted with production systems design (Karanika, 2017). Thus workplace innovation psychologists must understand the relationship between job tasks as well as operational systems and how these job activities can relate to different issues within human resource departments. This way, by surpassing the domain of human resource management, innovative organizational psychologists will be able to partake in both improving the quality of the working life of employees as well as enhancing the performance (Karanika, 2017). It is thus imperative to broaden the horizon of innovative management approach from the immediate issues such as individual health, job design, human resource management issues to organizational strategy and innovation in marketing, production systems, design, and IT systems (Karanika, 2017). The strategies that focus on open approaches towards innovation have reached the executive agendas, according to Burcharth, and many companies tend to struggle with their implementation these days (Burcharth, 2017). This is because many innovative approaches tend to present persistent managerial issues. Once a company commits towards collaboration in the form of an innovative management approach or “open innovation,” a wide range of practices such as commercialization and knowledge acquisition can into place. These practices have become widely popular and are now recognized as a way to achieve innovative performance (Burcharth, 2017). The overall expectation of managers when it comes to an innovative management approach in terms of performance outcomes is that there should be an accelerated internal development on maximizing profits through innovation. This method will facilitate open access to competencies, knowledge as well as resources that will enable the companies to better realize the strategic potential and monetary gain of innovation processes (Burcharth, 2017).The main secret to obtaining top-notch profits as well as prosperity, according to Burcharth, in today’s business, the environment is only through improvement in management systems and innovation. It is also necessary to prepare organizations where open innovation is reimbursed in the management processes. This can be done by building a relationship between employee autonomy as well as openness. Organizations should keep in mind that in case of collaboration with external customers such as suppliers, firms need to give autonomy to employees and make certain compromises for engaging the employees (Burcharth, 2017). Arsalan emphasizes on the need for innovative management practices as he states that there has been a rapid change in electronic commerce as well as the private sector in which customers demand better services. Innovative management practices such as performance management and strategic planning happen to make the entire process transparent and engage the employees (Arslan, 2011).Furthermore, in order to sustain an innovative management approach for enhancing employee performance, organizations must develop a top-notch strategic plan for innovation. This is because the management of the innovative approach for employee performance within the organization poses a challenge, which is often faced by the managers of the company. Factors such as lack of innovative activities, inefficient planning, etc. tend to cause an absence of unified procedure, which causes a lack of transparency (Lendel, 2015). Implementing innovative approach for management processes happens to be challenging for the managers because of lack of expertise on innovation, variation in the motivation of employees, lack of adequate information, failure to secure innovative knowledge and information, issues with security of the innovation process, the problem with measurement of employee performance, etc. There are also numerous factors that contribute towards the failure of management of the innovative procedures, which first includes lack of support by the employees as well as measly participation by the upper-level management, which causes indifference (Lendel, 2015).An organization should develop mechanisms for the management of innovation as Sánchez, anticipates the need for different kinds of capabilities for sustaining technological innovation such as advanced manufacturing capability, product development, process innovation as well as organizational flexibility. Thus for the implementation of an innovative management approach, the innovation strategy must include creation as well as alignment of the creative vision with that of organizational goals (Sánchez, 2011). The business environment, according to Sørensen, is often challenged as well as fragmented by the project-based structures, which include opting for the lowest cost and high result (Sørensen, 2013). This approach often leads to a low level of innovation on behalf of management as well as the employees (Birchall, 2011). Innovation is thus no longer considered a particular task by the research and development departments, and more than 70% of every innovative approach today is derived by increments and incentives. It is thus essential to note what motivates employees to innovate when it comes to an innovative management approach for employee performance. Innovation is not just required as a requirement just for research and development employees but is considered as an experience and approach for day-to-day practice. Hence, the employees must always be aware of innovative management techniques and should contribute towards keeping the working processes top notch. The employees should be motivated to indulge in innovative practices on day to day basis and must address operational challenges through an innovative mindset (Sørensen, 2013). Research by Sørensen revealed that human resource management and job design could have a profound effect on the adoption of an innovative approach by employees. Sørensen found that there is some indication that employees consider human resource management as being associated with commitment and ownership regarding work issues. In contrast, employees tend to consider innovative management approaches as contributing to a higher degree of motivation. Thus the research by Sørensen reveals that human resource practices tend to have a rather positive impact specifically on innovation because a combined innovation strategy that values input of the employees as well as strengthens the innovation performance is better than traditional human resource management practices (Sørensen, 2013). This means that the routine tasks which the managers have to complete cannot be compared to those that involve innovative strategies such as unstructured tasks, autonomy and creative thinking tasks which are different entirely from stable and standardization task. The involvement of employees in an innovative management approach can be encouraged to different organizational levels, such as the promotion of employee innovation by the line manager or by senior managers. Employees happen to contribute towards the innovation process in enumerative ways, and management controlled innovative behavior can result in the development of innovative approaches, new products, better business routines, and penetration into new markets through an innovative approach. Employee innovative behavior is thus characterized by entrepreneurial as well as proactive characteristics (Sørensen, 2013). Islami states that if the management wants the employees to perform high and be satisfied at the same time, it is necessary that the employees should have an idea as to what is expected from them and what constitutes a high performance (Islami, 2018). Management by Objectives (MBO) method, as a method for measuring performance as well as ensuring performance appraisal, can be done for enhancing employee effectiveness. Management by objectives happens to be a process that is not completed in a moment but takes gradual steps. There happen to be four steps that are incorporated within the Management by Objective method in which first there is goal setting, which is accompanied by action planning in which the actions which the management will take for ensuring that the employees are performing up to the standards will be taken. The third is self-control preceded by periodic reviews in which three processes are involved, namely, object formulation, execution process, as well as performance feedback (Islami, 2018). Ntanons states that the application of Management by Objectives method was made for the first time in General Motors in the USA, which was done under the supervision of Peter Drucker in 1954. The result of the application of this method indicated that the satisfaction level of employees enhanced. Thus this method can be applied in factories as well as firms such as hospitals, small and medium enterprises, schools, etc. (Ntanos, 2012). Peter Drucker first applied this method for performance appraisal of the employees and stated that during the application of such a system, a hindrance is encountered by the management because of the existing traditional system of administration (Ntanos, 2012). The employees must be aware that their supervisors are there to help them and should know about their goals. There should be a continuous feedback system that the manager can use to determine the performance of the employees (Ntanos, 2012). Merwe states that psychometric tests tend to contribute towards better placement as well as the efficiency of selection when it comes to occupational decisions such as classifying human resources. From line manager to filing clerk, there is scarcely any job for which psychometric evaluation can not be used. Merwe states that job assignment, termination, promotion, as well as hiring, can be aided through psychometric tests (Merwe, 2002). The case of psychometric tests happens to contribute towards placement as well as the efficiency of selection within the industry. Merwe mentions that psychometric tests are handled well with sensitivity as well as insight; they tend to be rather useful in predicting the behavior of the employees (Merwe, 2002). Management control systems tend to provide insights that are useful for managers in aiding them in performing jobs as well as in assisting the organizations in developing and maintaining behavioral patterns that are viable (Otley, 2013). There are two main aspects in which management control systems help, such as operational control as well as administrative control. This is because the administrative or managerial control provided with the help of insights and information into the employees, helps the management develop KPIs or key performance indicators that aid in operational control (Otley, 2013). The Balanced Scorecard Approach, which was developed by the Harvard Business School in the early 1990s, happens to be a multi-dimensional approach for measuring employee performance, which happens to be linked with the organizational strategy. Otley states that financial measures should be associated with employee performance, which means that employees will be more motivated to do work if economic benefits are aligned. With the increase in information technology, the share of content done through manual labor has also decreased manually. This means that the nature of work for the employees has been becoming rather cognitive and having soft skills like creative problem-solving. Decision making etc. happen to be the aspects that increase employee performance. Along with soft skills like cognitive thinking, people management has gained momentum when it comes to achieving high performance by the employees. Karanika states that technological tools, as well as automation, can automate the repetitive tasks for achieving the desired outcome. This has generated knowledge workers and information workplaces where different technologies can be easily used. In an organization, the use of technologies as a form of driving force happens to be used for augmenting the efficiency of the services as provided to the customers or clients of the company (Karanika, 2017).The use of technological tools can reduce costs as well as aid in the distribution of information, which results in a competitive edge of the company. Achieving employee performance as well as engagement on a higher level, especially for a changing workforce, is imperative, and this can only be achieved, according to Jha.through tools such as Gamification, Thumbs-up, gthanks, etc. Jha states that the workforce today, especially the new workforce comprising of the Millenials, happens to have a close affinity with technological tools, which means that tools that enhance productivity can prove beneficial (Jha, 2018). For a workforce driven by technology, it is engaged in the workforce means to have ample growth opportunities for not only professional growth but also for personal development. When it comes to what the organizations want, achieving the right level of engagement means that employees should be incorporating their passion, enthusiasm, as well as intelligence when it comes to working. There are more than thirty human resource practitioners that Jha interviewed for his research through face to face interviews. During the interview sessions, Jha came to realize that there are some common views that have been expressed by the HR professionals who have incorporated different technological tools. The research indicated that the new technology-oriented workforce happens to be career-oriented and seeks developmental opportunities. A technological tool that can engage, measure, and increase the performance of career-oriented individuals happens to be “My Career,” which highlights the career path of the employee as well as highlights the developments and performance of the employee aligned together. In case the employees require immediate feedback, the best tool happens to be “Thumbs-up,” which formulates a transparent, instant, and interesting way for managers to transfer feedback to the employees. Another tool happens to be “gThanks,” which has been implemented at Google, and the employees have publically recognized this tool to create an atmosphere of trust within the organization at Google. One tool highlighted by Jha happens to be“Gamification” which adds features that resembling games such as achievement badges, leaderboards, challenges, quests, etc. which make the employees track their performance easier and feel like they have achieved a higher reward when they receive bonuses through badges (Jha, 2018). This is also a form of performance assessment, which creates a form of joyful experience for the employees. Gamification has can also be implemented by the training and development department to make the entire learning experience for beginners easier and more engaging. The new workforce also happens to seek self-importance within their work, which means that they look for more opportunities within the workplace, which creates a sense of belonging. This can be achieved through the Gamification tool. A dashboard can also be created by the top management online, where the workforce shares their views as well as opportunities for growth. Thus a dashboard must be designed specifically for the workforce so that they can vocalize their concerns or their ideas online. This employee dashboard will create a form of self-reflection platform where the significance of the roles of each employee will be indicated. Furthermore, a fun work environment is always good for keeping employees engaged and for increasing their performance, which is why Jha states that companies such as Microsoft, as well as Google, tend to promote engagement of the employees by creating and channelizing tools that create fun factors within the workplace. Moreover, job roles should be aligned with the business needs, and progression should be a shared vision across the company where each employee channelizes his or her abilities. This should be reflected through performance appraisal, feedback, and technological tools such as dashboards, Thumbs-up, etc. (Jha, 2018). Furthermore, performance solutions such as ADP software, which happens to align the corporate goals with that of the employees, can be best for tracking the annual meetings between supervisors as well as employees and keeping the objectives and goals aligned. This software can also be used for getting the most out of a performance review and also for formulating different goals for individual employees. Human resource managers can provide technological tools for tracking the staff of the company all year through feedback forms, note-taking, as well as through payroll and performance solutions such as ADP. This software reduces the performance review cycles, aligns the goals as well as objectives of the employees with that of the organization, keeps the payroll and benefits as well as rewards for the performance simple through analyzing the reward to current performance ration which the management decides (Jha, 2018). Benefits management platform can also enable the administrator to learn of the needs of the employees and manage the vacation time, retirement plans, company compensation policies, health insurance as well as paid time off accordingly. Thus a benefits management service can benefit the organization as it helps the managers to understand the needs of the employees and monitor their performance. Spangenberg, on the other hand, provides a rather alternative view to management by objectives and states that this measurement method has not objectively met with the expectations of the companies engaged in competition on a global level (Spangenberg, 1994). For example, the company, Beer, and associates at Corning Glass were disappointed by the Management by objectives program and developed different management solutions that combine the strength of the Management by objectives program and added the accountability of employee development in the framework. This resulted in a performance management system that can now be used as a measure to enhance the performance of the employees and for measuring their performance. Thus a performance management system, as defined by Spangenberg, provides a link between the employee performance appraisal as well as the strategic planning of the company (Spangenberg, 1994). Spangenberg provides an example of the use of a performance management system for performance appraisal in the Electrical company plc in the UK. A longitudinal evaluation of the wholesale company shows that the performance management system used within the company changed according to the audit capabilities as well as the evolutionary capabilities. The initial measurement system used by the company was implemented to meet the needs of the employees in the early 1990s. At that time, there were fewer employees of the company, which meant that there were fewer branches, which means that managers could easily reflect on different measures as well as dedicate the existing resources with responsibility for making sure that measures were taken against explicit criteria. During the early 2000s, Electrical Private Limited Company had to enhance its market share as well as branch coverage, which meant that it needed to hire more employees as well as enhance its branches. Thus the performance management system also changed to cater to the changing needs of the employees as well as bonus and performance measurement systems. This resulted in a new performance management system, which is known as the balanced scorecard.  The Balanced Scorecard system emphasizes non-financial as well as financial measures, which must be part of the information system for the employees. The Balanced Scorecard system translates the different business unit’s strategies as well as the different missions of each branch into different measures as well as objectives. Moreover, the criteria, as well as different measures, are not only balanced through internal measures like innovation, learning, growth, business process, but also through external measures such as customers and shareholders. The Balanced Scorecard system tends to emphasize and uses different measures to inform as well as communicate with different employees about the drivers of the future as well as current success.One major strength of the Balanced Scorecard system as a performance appraisal system is that it focuses most on linking the performance measures along with the unit strategy of the business. Another framework which Simmons discusses regarding the Balanced Scorecard system is associated with the management of strategy, which is known as the strategic framework meant for action (Simmons, 2003). There are four specific processes that include clarifying as well as translating the strategy as well as vision. It also involves linking as well as communicating the strategic objectives and measures. Furthermore, planning, setting the targets as well as aligning strategic initiatives is also important. Balanced Scorecard system also involves enhancing strategic learning and feedback. Many companies worldwide have adopted this system, such as Rexam Custom Europe, Cigna property and assurances, Rexam plc USA, as well as Skandia (Simmons, 2003). In terms of the case of Electric Private Limited Company, during the 2000s, the competition between the different branches enhanced, which meant that sub-optimal behavior was on the rise. The company changed its performance measurement strategy by identifying the need for replacing the bonus as well as performance appraisal systems which meant that the company-wide balanced scorecard was implemented as it balanced the measurement of the performance with the profitability of the company while keeping the focus on the employee satisfaction, skills as well as customer service (Kennerley, 2003). The changed measurement system, which was introduced within Electrical plc, enabled the organization to incorporate a new performance-driven culture within the organization. As a result, the branches provided greater focus to the employees and enhanced inter-branch co-operation along with information sharing. This aided the branch in focusing on the issues which were of immense importance to the company as a whole and were in sync with the company (Kennerley, 2003). Kennerley points out that the changes which Electrical Private Limited Company implemented in their performance measurement system demonstrated the enlightening importance of how the measurement system should remain aligned with the strategy as well as the environment. The performance measurement system, which was first implemented, was static because it was not aligned well. Still, the system applied the second time prompted the realization that the management should align the objectives and goals of the organization with that of the employee’s performance (Kennerley, 2003). The 360 feedback system is also one performance measurement system appreciated and trusted by the managers as well as employees. Many of the organizations tend to have adequate performance appraisal systems already in place that usually operate on an annual basis. However, the traditional performance appraisal system happens to have major criticisms because of the use of measures that are difficult for assessing and rating. To make assessment easier, the 360-degree feedback performance appraisal system provides competency-based assessment for measuring performance for the systematic collection as well as feedback of performance data regarding an individual or a team. When it comes to the traditional performance appraisal system, it tends to be a top-down process in which managers, as well as superiors, evaluate their subordinates. 360-degree feedback, on the other hand, builds on the feedback of regular or traditional performance appraisal, and it is evident that in such kind of performance appraisals, a wide range of individuals are involved as this system is more credible as well as fair. The 360-degree feedback’s main objective is to generate self-awareness for the employees as well as to deliver the objectives of career development as well as counseling (Mukhopadhyay, 2006). The 360-degree approach happens to co-ordinate well with employees that are good with self-assessment as it associates more with intuition and self-analysis of the employees. Many firms happen to be involved with 360-degree feedback performance appraisal depending on the level of acceptance at the workplace. Kennerley suggests that peer evaluations also happen to be an appropriate way of evaluating employee performance, especially when it comes to developmental purposes (Kennerley, 2003). However, it is necessary that peer evaluations are done sincerely and for job retention, such as the rating of records as well as promotions. Peer input can also be highly effective when it comes to awards as well as recognition. Peer evaluators happen to have a difference of opinion when it comes to keeping the reviews anonymous, so general feelings of discontent are not created among the colleagues. It is advised that the raters should be kept confidential for ensuring that feedback is done honestly, which means that teams should be matured enough to a point (Kennerley, 2003). The main disadvantage of using peer evaluations for employee performance happens to be that it is incredibly time-consuming (Kennerley, 2003). Depending on the culture of the company, it is extremely important to know that peer ratings happen to have the potential for generating tension and feelings of contempt among peers. Peer evaluation can also cause discord and breakdown cooperation among the employees. Voirin states that individual performance within the workplace happens to be often defined as being a single indicator of global competitive strength with a set of different associated criteria that reflects an individual’s professional success. The criteria mostly used for measuring employee performance happen to be sales, quality of services, quality of goods, productivity, and direction of the employee (Voirin, 2012). Furthermore, performance support systems can also be used as performance support as well as training tools for workers to keep them engaged within the performance task at hand. The performance support system tends to improve the productivity for the worker by not only providing access for integrated information but also to on the job training, advice as well as learning experience (Mendonça, 2010). The main aspect in which the performance support system happens to be to deliver ample of knowledge to the end uses specifically when it is needed for completing a process as well as a task. This means that during a performance situation, there are a lot of changes that take place that requires learning as well as adaptation to the task. When an employee is presented with a problem within the changing work environment, he or she might not clearly understand the problem. This is why a performance support system is needed for channelizing observational learning as well as training intervention for improving task performance (Mendonça, 2010). The performance support system provides improved productivity for the workers as it is associated with a two-fold system that users having the knowledge and skills can complete a task and has the performance support system, which provides the users with knowledge regarding each and every task. However, Mendonça also points out that a performance support system should provide the user with the right kind of knowledge needed for completing a task. Managers must also be aware of the underlying reality that this kind of systems tends to have a huge amount of content such as procedural information, training segments, insights, diagnostic knowledge, system information as well as problem-solving insights that have solutions for different problems in certain situations (Mendonça, 2010). The performance support systems are designed to provide performance as well as training support to employees while they perform tasks. According to Mendonça, a performance support system enhances worker productivity through job access to insights, integrated learning experience, and advice (Mendonça, 2010). There is a two-fold premise involved with a performance support system; one that the users need to have knowledge competencies regarding the task, and two have specific knowledge about how to perform the task. Learning environments are of immense importance when it comes to the adaptation of workers to the performance support system. Blended learning environments, accompanied by performance support systems, provide an efficient as well as the less costly method for measuring the performance of employees, especially during the performance of complex tasks (Mendonça, 2010). Striteska states that the main focus of the models related to performance measurement has been on financial elements throughout the 1980s. By the early 1990s, numerous studies indicated that financial data is not an accurate enough measure for performance, especially in the new economy (Striteska, 2012). There is a rise of an increasingly complex market where companies compete with each other for better resources and where financial reports are not considered a major indicator of shareholder value. Shareholder value in sustainable terms in now being driven through non-financial factors, which include employee satisfaction, customer loyalty, organization’s innovation, and internal processes. As pointed out by Striteska, shareholder value is now defined and driven through non-financial elements such as employee satisfaction, employee performance, innovation within the organization, and customer loyalty (Striteska, 2012). It is imperative to point out that performance management and performance measurement are not two same nations as the literature present on performance measurement is rather extravagant and detailed as compared to performance management (Striteska, 2012). The most widely accepted systems for performance measurement include Balance Scorecard and the Business Excellence Model. The Business Excellence Model provides a structured approach for improvement opportunities by translating the strategy of the company into specific tasks, targets, and goals. There is a structured approach provided by Balance Scorecard as well, which, in contrast with the traditional techniques such as Performance Measurement Pyramid, reflects the non-financial factors (Striteska, 2012). The Balanced Scorecard approach aids the organizations in developing top-notch performance measurement systems, which is not dependent on financial factors. There are three functions that the Balance Scorecard fulfills; the method of measurement, the strategic management system, and the communication tool (Striteska, 2012). Fixed targets are chosen for channelizing the organizational strategy into financial as well as non-financial performance indicators. By introducing Balanced Scorecard within the organization, the strategic actions, goals, signs, etc. become part of the perspective of each employee. The EFQM Excellence Model for performance measurement was designed back in the 1990s and was introduced to the European Foundation for Quality Management. The EFQM Excellence Model provides eight main concepts for performance measurement: people development, innovation and change, leadership, partnership development, result-oriented, customer focus, continuous learning, and consistency of purpose (Striteska, 2012). The performance measurement system based on the EFQM Excellence Model enables the activities related to strategy, leadership, people, policy, and resources as well as processes. There are four perspectives involved in the Balanced Scorecard approach. The first perspective is the financial perspective in which the emphasis if on measuring the long term objectives proportional to the profitability of the goals. The internal business process perspective has a significant impact on the satisfaction level of the customers and aids the organization in achieving financial objectives. The learning and innovation perspective involves training the employees and cultivating productive corporate culture related to the self-improvement of the employees (Farooq, 2014 ). Performance pyramid is another tool used for determining the employee performance through non-financial as well as financial performance measures. A performance pyramid links the strategy of an organization with that of its operations. There are a total of four levels of objectives within the performance pyramid. On the left side, there is external effectiveness, while on the right-side internal efficiency is measured. Voirin states that the performance of individuals within the workplace is the single indicator of professional success within the workplace, and attainment of objectives set by the management is considered as a measure of job performance. Other factors of measuring performance include the quality of goods and services, sales, productivity, etc. Efficient performance is often considered as a “black box” that is solely focused on achieving the right results (Voirin, 2012). The multifactor job performance models have a distinction between contextual as well as task performance, which attracts substantial attention to research. There have been many researchers who have also sought to measure work performance through the nature of work, such as teamwork, empowerment practices, customer-oriented, and project management (Voirin, 2012). Adaptive performance model centers upon the ability of an individual to adapt to changing circumstances and dynamic work conditions. Employees who demonstrate adaptivity to changing environments by adjusting their routines, behaviors, and keeping right work-life balance along with it score high on the adaptive performance model. Voirin states that other researchers highlight the significance of a different variety of behaviors that tend to be rather adaptive on a scale ranging from new events to work situations. Pulakos was the first one to propose an adaptive performance model according to global standards (Pulakos, 2000). Pulakos described the first step towards measuring performance according to the adaptive performance as reviewing how the employee reacts to changes and then analyzing one thousand critical incidents where behavioral adjustments need to made (Voirin, 2012). A total of 24 jobs, including those in the military, were reviewed in research conducted by Pulakos et al., who proposed eight dimensions of adaptive performance. Ultimately the aspects were worked upon by Pulakos et al. (Pulakos, 2000). Which includes dealing with unpredictable work circumstances, handling stress related to work, learning new work tasks in an adaptable way, and dealing with uncertain situations. Other dimensions of adaptable performance include innovatively solving problems, using technologies and materials that are adaptable, having cultural adaptability. Demonstrating adaptability in physical orientation and demonstrating interpersonal flexibility also scores high in determining the adaptive performance of an individual. Different factors of the dimensions mentioned previously were considered by Pulakos et al., who used them depending on the type of the organization and the technical circumstances of the employees. Voirin considers the dimensions proposed by Pulakos to study the efficiency of the employees in detail with the unpredictable and predictable situations at work. Furthermore, successful adaptive performance entails that the staff members can function and deal with uncertain situations. These situations might include restructuring of the workload, changes in the priorities of tasks, lower resources provided to the employees (Dorsey, 2006). Exceptional adaptive performance concept points out that those employees adapt quickly and make decisions in the face of ambiguity and uncertainty well are high scorers of adaptive performance, can handle the crisis, and correspond with upper management well. Another dimension of adaptive performance pointed out by Pulakos is the ability to find innovative solutions to ill-defined, atypical, and complex problems (Pulakos, 2000). Employees are expected to manage stress while handling issues that are not well defined and are ambiguous. Employees should also be able to manage stressful situations that are unpredictable. Those who do not panic and continue to work with appropriate feedback from the management score high on adaptive performance. Due to technological innovation, there has been a rapid increase in the ability of employees to engage themselves along with the evolution of different occupations. The employees must demonstrate innovative and creative thinking in the face of ordeals by willingly engaging themselves in learning new technology and dealing with it inefficient manner (Dorsey, 2006). Performance measurement through adaptive performance concept entails that employees must anticipate and learn new skills to the extent that managing their work environments becomes easy for them. Adoptive performance promotes multidisciplinary teams, which are characterized by successful project work (Dorsey, 2006). The existing adaptive performance measurement scales, however, have some limitations as the current scales do not only reflect the underlying dimensionality of the adaptive performance concept.Other adaptive performance measures are also restricted to specialized context. A six-item scale that was developed by Ruyter for measuring the ability of employees in a bank did not work well. The scale was designed for measuring the adaptability of the employees in dealing with the demands of the customers, for example, being sensitive to the demands of the customer. Chen, on the other hand, assessed the adaptive performance of flight attendants and pilots in demonstrating adaptation to flight simulation (Chen, 2005). War games were used by Neal to investigate specific problems with the active responses of the employees. However, according to Voirin, none of the scales designed were able to measure the performance well because they were not psychometrically sound and did not have a multidimensional scale (Voirin, 2012). For a performance measurement system to be effective, the method should focus on critical success factors such as employee needs in particular sectors and businesses. Birchall argues that for an innovation performance measurement system to be effective, the innovative actions taken by the firm must be relative to the success factors in the marketplace (Birchall, 2011). The innovative performance measurement has been divided into two terms, known as nature and scope of measures. By the scope of innovation performance, Birchall means that a firm must be focused on the operational activities and aspects of innovation, which are future-oriented and focused (Birchall, 2011). The traditional performance measurement methods happen to include measurable parameters such as quantifiable indicators, which are related to more substantial nonquantifiable factors. Innovation performance measurement has three main clusters, which become apparent. These clusters are different from traditional measures and are based on the functional planned approach and rational approach, which leads to incremental change. Ivanov highlights the importance of performance prism for the interest of measuring the performance of the employees in a bigger picture. The performance prism was first created back in 2004 by Neely, who created the system to offer the management a wider focus as well as a narrow focus, depending on the need of the organization (Ivanov, 2014). Performance prism has interrelated perspectives for the measurement of the performance of the employees. The first perspective is the stakeholder satisfaction that includes key stakeholders, their needs, and wants, such as the employees and customers. The second perspective is the strategies that the firm has to apply for satisfying the stakeholders and for making sure that the needs and wants of the stakeholders are satisfied. The third perspective of the performance prism is the process or processes involved that need to be applied by the organization for satisfying the needs as well as wants of the stakeholder through executing the strategy. The fourth perspective is the capabilities of the organization. This involves the capabilities which the organization has to ensure that strategy is implemented using the core competencies. The stakeholder contribution is the last perspective in the performance prism provides that the needs and wants of the organization from the stakeholder. The management teams can use the performance prism tool for influencing the thinking of the top management when the key issues need to be addressed. This model, however, is not good with analyzing the innovation performance. Still, it can be used for assessing the competencies of the employees as well as the processes of the employees. European Foundation for Quality Management excellence model happens to be a cause and effect relationship based technique that analyses what the employees are doing as well as analyses the results of the organization (Awadallah, 2015).Awadallah develops more on the concept of the Balanced Scorecard, which was initially developed in 1992 as the performance measurement system. The main objective of this method was to overcome the issues encountered by inadequate financial-based performance measurement techniques (Awadallah, 2015). Despite the widespread demand, the adaptation of a balanced scorecard has ranged from being successful to not tangible to outright unimpressive (Awadallah, 2015). Balance scorecard has been applied to almost all industry sizes and sectors, such as from the service industry to those that are mass producers of products, from small and medium enterprises to large and from public to the private sector (Awadallah, 2015). Innovation happens to be recognized as a significant variable for gaining competitive advantage as well as growth. However, change is considered a vague concept in performance measurement because of the differences in the learning and execution of innovation. The Berkeley Innovation Index happens to be an open project which allows for the management to measure the innovative capabilities of the employees in a holistic sense (Sidhu, 2011). The Berkeley Innovation Index covers different facets of innovation through Strategy and Leadership, Organizational Operations, Tactical Measures, and Measures in various domains such as culture of the organization. The Berkeley Innovation Index is considered a pioneer in the field of performance measurement and sets the baseline for measuring creativity at the group level as well as individual level. The intended use of the Berkeley Innovation Index is to maximize innovation while promoting strategic action and planning within the workplace. The algorithm in the innovation index uses a specially designed link between success and creativity levels used in the projects. The report is formed by combining the entire data in the company, including the psychological profiles, knowledge sharing of workers, and teamwork done by the employees to check the potential for success in new projects (Sidhu, 2011). The potential of the company can also be measured using the Berkeley Innovation Index as it can measure the industry position, innovation culture, operational effectiveness, etc. For example, a company can measure the weakness of its operations while another company that is performing well but is having issues in alignment with innovation can use the Berkeley Innovation Index for risk factor failure analysis. According to Akinbowale, managers tend to be capable of forging judgments regarding the performance of employees, which are accurate most of the rimes. He highlights that rating inaccuracy occurs because of a deliberate conscious reflection of the rater’s agenda, which leads to unconscious bias (Akinbowale, 2014). The ratings of employee performance tend to be bunched together as either high performance or moderate. The amount of negative information is less likely to be present than the amount of positive news, and as a consequence, the tendency to rate employees above-average decreases. This occurs due to interpersonal conflict of telling the employee that their performance might be below the average. Emphatic buffering is a process in which the manager posses the tendency to review or mark the performance of the employee at a larger or middle scale. The manager in this situation rates the employee by avoiding negative responses because emphatic buffering occurs. According to Akinbowale, there is enough evidence to suggest that the performance appraisal policy used by the managers for achieving goals is often contrary to what the performance rating displays. Thus the ratings might be motivated or market by the fear of avoiding any form of conflict that might arise due to the poor performance of an employee (Akinbowale, 2014). Performance appraisal can either be negative or positive in impact depending on how the employees perceive it. Employees who receive a positive feedback score might receive the estimate as being motivational. Employees with higher feedback will be motivated to perform well or maintain this feedback (Akinbowale, 2014). Positive feedback is symbiotic with appraisals and feelings of worth or value. Negative feedback, on the contrary, might have reduced impact on the motivation of the employee or it might lead to the grievance. The most tedious part of an appraisal or performance measurement policy is to objectively and accurately measure the performance of the employees. To measure the performance, managers must keep in check the main tasks completed and evaluate the accomplishments of the employee against the period of task completion. Measuring performance also encompasses the quality of the job completed. Different inputs can be taken, such as feedback forms from sources such as employees, peers, supervisors, and customers (Birchall, 2011). All the perspectives received through feedback can thus be combined using an appropriate way for achieving a complete view of how well the employee performed. It is necessary to monitor the performance of employees on a day to day basis (Akinbowale, 2014). Useful measurement and monitoring techniques involve providing feedback on time as well as reviewed that are timely for the work done according to goals and problems faced by the employee. Cox highlights that timely recognition regarding work activities motivates the employees to work harder and achieve goals (Cox, 2012). Measurement of performance is based solely on few factors tends to provide inaccurate results. By measuring the activities of employees, upper management might mark the employees as being outstanding even when the organization might have failed to meet the objectives on a larger scale. Therefore tools and techniques that are balanced in measuring the performance must be used by the employees (Cox, 2012). A popular performance appraisal technique is the 360-degree feedback technique that evaluates the input received from different levels present in the firm along with the external sources such as employer, customer, and supplier reviews. Aggarwal states thatn the 360-degree feedback heavily rely on the customers, superiors, line managers, subordinates, and reports of the colleagues (Aggarwal, 2013). The 360-degree feedback technique is best for letting the employee know how they affect someone with their actions. Aggarwal points out that most of the employees perceive 360-degree feedback tool as being essential for their self-development as the context of competition is eliminated with self-awareness (Aggarwal, 2013). This is because at the end of the feedback, there is no prize to be won except from self-improvement, and it is considered as the highest context of achievement. The behavioral changes required might be demonstrated through the reviews, and the notion of behavioral change might lead to self-awareness in the employee. The 720-degree feedback has become the pioneer for change in the feedback system. Rick Gal, who was dissatisfied with the working of 360-degree feedback, approached the 720-degree feedback for a more intense and personalized look on performance measurement (Aggarwal, 2013). The 720-degree review is more focused on the perception of investors and customers. The 720-degree review focuses on the analysis of those that matter the most and takes into consideration the opinion of the most important stakeholders (Birchall, 2011). The 720-degree method provides individuals with different views relating to that of leaders and individuals that are career-oriented. The 360-degree review, on the other hand, involves a long and tedious procedure in which the performance of the employees is evaluated through feedback mechanism while in 720-degree feedback, provides the employee with tips and insights regarding achieving the set targets (Aggarwal, 2013). Smith and Kendall introduced a Behaviorally Anchored Rating Scale that grabbed the attention of Aggarwal in his research regarding the issue of validity and reliability of performance ratings. The behavioral anchor scale informs the manager about the performance of the employee in numbers. The behaviorally anchored dimensions can also be conceptually as well as operationally understood and distinguished from each other. This means that on the rating scale, the rater will observe rather than judging the performance of the employee (Aggarwal, 2013). Behavioral statements or examples of performance in a concrete sense are used for understanding the multiple facets of the performance of an employee. Human resource accounting is also a technique that can be adopted for performance measurement (Aggarwal, 2013). The theory of human resource accounting states that individuals that work for the organization, such as the employees are the assets of the company or enterprise in the form of information, insights, skills, or investment. These employees invest their skills in the company and this value of the human resource is then used for decision making within the enterprise (Aggarwal, 2013). The human resource accounting method can ascertain the cost of the turnover labor as well as project the development of human resources. Human resource accounting can also aid in planning of personnel policies as well as calculate the return on investment on human resources. This means that the technique will ardently lead to enhancement in the efficiency of the employees. The human resource accounting method, however, has one drawback that it does not measure the value of the employees relative to the organization and focuses just on the cost. Aggarwal states that some of the employers use assessment centers for determining the performance of the employees over a short, long period, such as two to three days by observing and analyzing the behavior in relation to work-related tasks (Aggarwal, 2013). In the assessment center technique, the concepts are somewhat flexible, and the methodology is simple. The main drawback of this method is that it can be quite challenging to handle and is often expensive, so small enterprises might not be able to use it. Assessment centers require large staff, and a great deal of time goes into managing the entire process. Only a limited number of individuals can be processed for their performance, which makes it more detailed but less suitable as a cost-effective solution (Aggarwal, 2013). Some of the exercises used in assessment centers include basket exercises such as simulations, interviews between clients and subordinates, which are staged in a way that role-playing is involved. Fact-finding activities as well as decision-making issues are considered in which oral presentations and written communication skills are tested. Some other techniques which can come in handy when measuring the performance of employees include a balanced scorecard, forced distribution, electronic performance monitoring, human resource costing, 270-degree feedback, confidential reports, and 180-degree feedback. The ranking method happens to be the fastest performance measurement method, which is cost-effective, as well as transparent. The ranking method is also simple and easy. However, it is less objective because morale problems are often encountered in dealing with this method. This method is only suitable for a small amount of the workforce (Aggarwal, 2013).

Chapter 3- Methodology

Current research is based on an interdisciplinary research approach. In this paper, the innovative human management methods will be explored to improve the employees’ performance at work by taking into account the new organization psychology and modern human resource management. The research question in this study will address that how new phenomena like new technologies and innovative organization psychology approach make the traditional human resource management perspective to move away? In addition, how the emergence of new sciences like talent management might contribute to exploring the relationship between the individuals’ performance at work and the organization performance. The hypothesis of study is to find out role of new performance management mindset in the encouragement of motivation and commitment to achieve organizations’ objectives. It entails that according to positive psychology movement, we believe that organizations might go further to produce more innovative outcomes rather than the traditional ones. Ho: significant relation between motivation and technological advancement H1: no significant relation between motivation and technological advancement Ho: significant relation between innovation and organizational performance H1: no significant relation between innovation and organizational performance


The first section is about the organizational learning process, second is about innovation, third discusses the performance of organization and fourth is about demographics. (See Annex)

Organizational Analysis

On the basis of each employees’ activity in HR departmentfollowing table is drawn. Table 1 Analysis of Organizations
Work Future Working practices HRM Technology Other trends
Work Future Home working Human resource Technological Mega trends
Workplace 2040 HRM
Activities of employment Technology advancement Flexible work Role of HR Virtual reality Demographics
Workstation HR based activity
Work context Innovation Autonomy Skills related to HR Augmented reality Multi-generational workforce
Employment HR analytics
Employees HR experts
Workforce 2030 Remote working Employee management Artificial intelligence Globalization
Labor Staffing
Wearable devices Public sector
Government Civil services
(Source:Imran, Maqbool & Shafique, 2014) The organizational analysis is performed to analyze the role of innovation and motivation for employees. By asking participants about their job function, nature and interaction, above table is constructed on the basis of information provided. The information suggests that impact of technology is significant on the work performance of employees. It is necessary for companies to implement technology and innovation in working environment, to speed up the functioning (Pirohov-Tóth, 2019). The scope of technology advancement for the latest trends in work is analyzed and described in the table. This information is divided in six thematic areas, i.e. work, future, technology, working practices, HRM, and other trends. These research implications provided that multiple fields are using technologies and innovative practices. Innovation is increasing the speed of organizational performance (Anbalagan, 2017). It is found out that these emerging fields are likely to have a strong impact on work performance and organizations. For instance, human resource functions are going to have impact of technology, in the form of digital platforms, such as labor market platforms, eBay, and Amazon (Subramanian &Nilakanta, 1996). Artificial intelligence is a key technology augmenting the scope of HR performance, data analysis, making predictions and finding different patterns. Next, the field of robotics is affecting employment level because its use is increased in industry (Ahmad Bowra, 2012). The routine manufacturing is now associated with robots, to save labor costs and training. The augmented and virtual reality is another hallmark of technology that has increased performance of organization. Besides, inspiration as far as money related motivators, thankfulness, criticism and rewards assume huge job (Imran, Maqbool & Shafique, 2014). Members likewise referenced that they feel it empowering when their associations actualize some thankfulness apparatuses and efficiency measures. It is legitimately connected to improve the exhibition of workers just as their efficiency. In multiple industries, like construction, healthcare, aerospace etc. this technology is implemented. Employees’ performance is also increased by wearable devices. For instance, employees are now easily tracked, their performance is measured and motivation is increased (Parshetty, 2019). The member’s job and commitment in various ventures has introduced that they are dealing with various exercises with the assistance of innovation. The associations are utilizing procedures to screen the exhibition of workers, record them and measure it with explicit instruments. HR administrators are supporting their staff through help, alleviation and actualizing potential programming identified with the exhibition. HRM requires the examination of most recent patterns for workers, to improve their presentation, measure their progress and sort out the exercises (Pirohov-Tóth, 2019). In HR field, representative’s association and commitment is explicit to bring profitability, as it serves the office with expanded productivity. Practically, this issue is inferable from the advancement and usage of innovation at work environment. The improvement in issue detail is likewise centered on the usage of innovation. For example, a few members revealed that if a representative is associated with deceitful practices and identification, programming and safety efforts can evaluate the impulses (Long, 1978). it is clear that the association gets all the important supplies and data, at that point the business market will offer sensible costs for every one of the merchandise and ventures. The mechanical progressions significantly affect how a business must be continued and the collaboration with clients and administrators. There are businesses the executives’ applications that pursued new expert administrations and furthermore human asset the board. Another innovative progression is client self-administration. Through client self-administration, the clients can understand their inquiries and can do inquiries to a concerned site on the web. The scope of technology in every sector is engaging employees, boosting their performance and supporting HR functions. The transaction, information exchange and increased level of security are attributable to block chain activities (Zahid Hussain Bhat, 2011). The participant’s role and contribution in different industries has presented that they are managing a number of activities with the help of technology. The exhibition level is improved when workers get significant help about their working and expected set of responsibilities. Emerging technology is significant to support HRM. Managing people, recruiting, training and development of staff is integral for an organization (Subramanian &Nilakanta, 1996). Technology has made it easier than ever. The organizations are using strategies to monitor the performance of employees, record them and measure it with specific tools. HR managers are supporting their staff through facilitation, mitigation and implementing potential software related to the performance. The evidences collected from the participants provided that training and skills are some major elements that are required for employees. The performance level is improved when employees get substantial support about their functioning and job description. Moreover, motivation in terms of financial incentives, appreciation, feedback and bonuses play significant role (Ahmad Bowra, 2012). Participants also mentioned that they feel it encouraging when their organizations implement some appreciation tools and productivity measures (Imran, Maqbool & Shafique, 2014). It is directly linked to improve the performance of employees as well as their productivity. Realistically, this matter is attributable to the innovation and implementation of technology at workplace. In the field of technological performance, artificial intelligence, automation and virtual reality are key concepts discussed by the employees. Today, in various business sectors, banking institutes and in academic institutes, technology is implemented in form of software and management systems (Parshetty, 2019). Its key part is linked with management of staff, training and development and measuring their patterns of performance. The improvement in problem specification is also focused on the implementation of technology (Long, 1978). For instance, some participants reported that if an employee is involved in fraudulent practices and detection, software and security measures can assess the instincts. Developing innovation is critical to help HRM. Overseeing individuals, selecting, preparing and improvement of staff is fundamental for an association. Innovation has made it simpler than any time in recent memory. HRM necessitates the contemplation of latest trends for employees, to improve their performance, measure their progress and organize the activities (Zahid Hussain Bhat, 2011). In HR field, employee’s interaction and engagement is specific to bring productivity, as it serves the department with increased efficiency. If employees are provided with innovatory support for their functioning, and performance, it is likely that they can increase their efficiency. (Ahmad Bowra, 2012)    

Chapter 4- Discussion and Analysis

The studies provide the evidence of employee’s motivation and innovation practices in HR. It has been found out that innovation is positively related to employee’s performance. Significant support to employees provides increase in productivity and output. The results provide analysis of productivity of workers, while working in banks, and a specific relation of innovation and performance. The literature concepts from different organiztaions offer a clear analysis that how motivation of employees can be increased and innovative practices can increase productivity of HR management. The evidences and examples from different organiztaions are used to discuss the authenticity of hypothesis.

Motivation of Employees at workplace

Employees are the ones who contribute most to the business success, most business who are now flourishing or making higher profits higher than their competitors is because of employees, who works tired less to make the company successful. To keep success in the long run, companies try to maintain a good and healthy relationship with their employees, but other things are mandatory for employee satisfaction, which most of the organizations didn’t care much about. One of the most important factors is realistic goals, companies that set an unrealistic goal for their employees mostly ends up in higher turnover rate as compared to the market trend. Setting clear and realistic goals pumps up employee motivation, which directly leads to the higher achievement of targets(Birchall, 2011). Targets that are unrealistic, more often considered employee reasons for resignations. When an employee achieves targets, which were to attain then it should be celebrated, not a lavish kind of celebration, but a small group of people congratulates their piers for the performance he led to high motivation. The regular break is also important, working hours should not be extensive where employees work while day and they don’t have time to maintain work-life balance, this led disturbance in their family life, and they mostly come offices with distorted minds and create reasons for a day off or create organizational environment worst.Transparency and clarity should be important, huge profits are achievable only if there are trust and transparent relationship between employees and managers. Transparency helps to maintain the idea that everyone has the same level of information, and make sure clarity should be in the assigned task and everyone is clear and confident about the task or job which he or she is given. Transparency and clarity both are important in their way, without transparency effectiveness of information will be vague and the result came out from them will be demotivating. Technological advancement for organization With the passage of technological advancement, the organization has adopted some changes that make the business run resourcefully and effectively. Technology keeps the data flow, manage contacts and also try to keep every individual’s record who is a member of the organization. If the organization gets all the necessary supplies and information, then the business market will offer reasonable prices for all the goods and services. The technological advancements have a significant effect on how a business must be carried on and the interaction with customers and operators(Aggarwal, 2013). There are business management applications that followed new professional services and also human resource management. Another technological advancement is customer self-service. Through customer self-service, the customers can solve their queries and can do questions to a concerned website online. Applications such as UserVoice and GetSatisfaction have enhanced the mindset of the software developers to understand what the customers need and also what they want to say. As a result, this has given the right to customers that they can share their views anytime. Web Conferencing has built up an easy communication network between salespeople and customers. There are Webinar Applications such as Cisco WebEx and GoToWebiner which have provided the content to get spread. Also, the webinar apps have become necessarily important to many organizations. Moreover, there is IP Telephony that has moved the organization to VoIP service than to landlines. Keeping communication over landlines and telephones has become very cheap. The organizations have other means of communicating with one another that is skype, WhatsApp, Imo, and many more which has gained popularity worldwide. Mobile apps have also introduced that provides easy access to the CRM systems, different updated documents, and the view. However, an employer can also make calls through an IP phone system and can also get into web conferences.

Innovation and organizational performance

Technological importance is always having a huge impact if you are running a business. In 21st century where the demand of product depends upon many factors for example confectionary items sales pumps up in weekends or during special celebrations like Eid or independence day. This kind of variability can only be met when organization can have technological Help.In many companies like pharmaceuticals where human involvement is highly discouraged where controlled environment is necessary to operate and to maintain medicine life, technology plays great role from making till packaging. Without technology it wouldn’t be easy to do all these delicate jobs, without harming people health and keeping standards control. Technology also improves lives of its employees and customers, due to technology cross border trade, buying and purchasing of items are just one click away. Now on websites you can order from car to a needle from any ware in the world and pay it through your debit car or credit card. This technological advancement led to create new market called e-commerce. Fast track options allow organization to move products over a large geographical area of the world.When this type of technology is used the bond between customer and organization will increase, and customer will become loyal to its supplier and will never trust any other company to choose their product from. As the market further evolve and use of technology increases, invocation involve in the process. Innovation led to the idea to create different thing by using these same technologies or it can be defined as a process that involves multiple activities to uncover new ways to do things., for example now people are nature conscious so by using innovative ideas some companies are making plastic begs which are friendly to the mother nature and can reduce plastic waste, some companies decrease their carbon emission by introducing new technology and making innovation in previous ones that led to decrease sound pollution and carbon emission. As the innovation increases people like their product more than competitors due to change in people’s demand and due to carrying behavior for the mother nature.

Relation between innovation and HR

As innovation increases it makes an impact on HR solution and recruitment as well, know there are multiple and effective ways from which HR recruiters can find their desired people in their respective salary slab. There are multiple ways and platforms through which organizations can recruit their desired employees without going anywhere, for example, online recruitment websites, which is the most popular way of recruitment in the 21st century(Cox, 2012). Through website employer post job opportunities which are available in its organization and suitable candidate apply on it by seeing qualification requirements, experience and personality traits. Another way that HR can help its employees through technological advancement while working is through Real-time learning applications. Through real-time learning applications employees can excess learning and development app any time any ware easily even through its mobile and can get answers on a day to day problems(Sidhu, 2011). Theses application can also provide a solution to any problem related to work that can create ease for managers and staff. Training can also be provided remotely about any new product that is to be launched soon. Talent management dashboard is also an innovation in HR. Through talent management dashboard companies and managers can get a view of the talent pool. This helps them to communicate the nature of talent and professionalism which they require in future development and expansion.While all these development, HR also seeks feedback from organization customers, whether or not the training and close observation of employees needs to bring change in people’s behavior(Akinbowale, 2014). Today performance management applications can give and receive customer’s feedback, whether or not the employees are doing the right thing as directed. This helps the managers to look into trouble if there is and take corrective measure to gain customer satisfaction as customers want. It creates managers’ and peers’ confidence as well.                                                             Technology and innovation are very important whether it’s for organization profit or employee motivation, training, and development. Due to the globalization of the workplace and the increasing requirement of people around the world, technological advancement is necessary to meet the increasing requirement to run the business and maintain healthy relationships and standards.Technology and innovation also help the business to understand its daily cash requirement; it also helps to utilize resources effectively and efficiently. It can manage cost-effective products and its whole process, the product which is highly cost-effective will led to higher profits and employees will get a higher return in against it. With proper technological use, an organization can save time and money; they can start a meeting on the internet rather than on board rooms(Awadallah, 2015). Technology innovation helps in improving employee organization relationships, the employee can better understand what type of work and services the organization wants and can deliver according to it. While the organization will understand its employees according to their desired needs.Innovation also reflects an organization willing to change and making efforts for its target market(Ivanov, 2014). Changing environment create need of its customers, and by seeing innovation and new products according to customer demand and needs, customer loyalty increases, that will never switch to other substitutes or competitors for sake of little difference. Every large or small organization has Information Technology departments that are hiring a large number of people on internships or a permanent basis. The main purpose of the Information Technology department is that it handles all the technical issues or problems that arise in an organization. But when a bank is involved in the department of information technology, it tries to invest as much as it can through this information technology work(Birchall, 2011). The main aim is to find out the effects of information technology on the performance of the employees. When many employees are working in this department, the time is saved and the plentiful work is done within a short time. The product based application likewise gives preparing and improvement to the representative before making or giving over another undertaking. It explains the essential abilities which are important for doing a particular undertaking or work. Innovation makes effortlessness and less outstanding burden on HR, however actually, it makes disturbance and mutilation like numerous representatives don’t feel certain and simple while depending on innovation, they urge and attempt to apply old frameworks that they are utilizing in past(Voirin, 2012). In this situation, the director must persuade and comprehend their worker’s shortcomings and attempt to persuade them to utilize present day applications and innovation which can lead extraordinary advantages for the organization, and unquestionably, these benefits will profit representatives in since a long time ago keep running as motivators, rewards, and examinations. At first, the workload is quite excessive and continuous but the employees are vigilant and control the problems in an instant that occur during their tasks(Chen, 2005). When the information is easily available, the bank employees try to produce good quality service. The team of IT employees must be fully trained in what they are doing and how they are tracking technology to achieve business goals, and efficiently working to maintain systems and operations. Moreover, if employees are focused and concentrated on their work, then only innovation can take place(Dorsey, 2006). The employees are quite motivated and encouraged when they receive appreciation from the senior managers or the branch manager. In terms of HR, all the employees are trying to flourish their information technology department more to get better results. When many ideas and different intellectual skills are gathered, then a change or an innovation can come into existence. In most of the banks, the working hours are quite prolonged which might be hectic for some of the employees but at the end of the day, the outcomes are fruitful and beneficial for a bank(Pulakos, 2000). In this way, the interactive skills of the employees can lead any bank to a higher level.  

Chapter 5- Recommendations

Employees are considered as the most essential part asset of an organization. They contribute most to organizational development, making higher profits for the organization. They create an atmosphere of a company where all can work together and can give greater benefits to the company and its staff welfare. Motivation in an employee can only be shown through his performance. It depends on an employee where he can gain motivation and how he manages everything within a short time. Some employees get the motivation by incentives, leaves, or appreciation by the manager for completion of the task. A new study shows us that during the building of pyramids of Giza, the workers were highly encouraged and had higher pays and used to work with full concentration. This is because to keep them pumped up so that they can do work properly and effectively(Farooq, 2014 ). Managers should encourage employees to involve in work or tasks assigned to them. There must be sound Job descriptions of every employee according to experience, work, and workload. If an employee performs a task on time and with his full efforts, then he should be appreciated. Employees who are little motivated to work could be because of multiple reasons, maybe some disturbance at home, salary issues, irrelevant behavior of line managers or might be dealt with proper strict action. The Involvement of employees in an organization creates progress and better outcomes in organizational work(Striteska, 2012). When the employee is motivated by his work and the praiseworthy comments he gets from his higher authorities, then only he can show his abilities and his determination in his tasks. When the environment of the organization is quite friendly and cozy along with cooperative co-workers, then only his viewpoints and his opinions are considered and he gets a chance to think out of his boundary line. Not everyone is suitable to engage in decision making. However, an organization must judge an employee according to his abilities and how much he knows about his work. Everyone must be assigned a different task that not only earn them satisfaction but also motivate them to work(Mendonça, 2010). The staff creates a plan to connect everyone and those who have capabilities to bring change in better decisions, knowledge, and preparation are applauded. If any important information is shared with some of the employees and not the entire team, then it might be difficult for other co-workers to catch up and register the information. If the small group of people makes change management plans, the staff may be unable to observe the latest ideas after the decisions have already taken(Kennerley, 2003). All the staff members must know what are the pros and cons of the decisions that they have taken and how they have to work effectively to make it successful. Employees who are focused on their work and have worked amazingly with the change must be rewarded(Simmons, 2003). Every employee has a unique tempo to work with his organization and how he manages his work and completes his tasks within a certain time which shows his confidence in his self and his hard work. Having a complete involvement of employees can lead any organization forward and maintaining the enthusiasm at all levels. If the organization shows complete trust in the employees, then only they can trust their performance and display remarkable skills that they have got in themselves(Spangenberg, 1994). When many people are participating in any project, the problems can easily be solved along with various new ideas that exhibit good planning skills. In this way, an organization can reach the heights of success and its development only depends upon the staff members who are determined to make it grow further. An organization must hire well-deserved and dedicated employees who can bring great changes and achieve higher. Technology transformed all the processes of human resources throughout the world. According to recent studies, 77% of Human resource managers used data analyses to help employees and to find an employee according to their needs and works. Human resources are set up to make employees compete and capable enough so that they can do work effectively and efficiently. In this scenario, technology plays a great role while making employees stand out from the crowd(Jha, 2018). There is multiple ways through which technology helps recruitment, selection and empowering employees according to the desired needs and wants of the company. The company always wants its employees to be empowered and willing to do the hardest task in the required time frame with the full motivation that why these changes in human resource recruitment and training are necessary for an organization and employee development. To ensure avoiding risk and to keep the pace of development of work in an organization, big data transforms and digitize the information human resource needs this information can be used to monitor and understand their target market. It also helps to allow Human resource professionals and managers to make decisions that are in favor and can help in making huge profits for the company(Karanika, 2017). The trend of using HR systems is increasing in developing the organization. They can give access to multiple job seekers while sitting on a laptop and doing some clicks. These devices can also be operated on telephones and are helpful for both employers and employees. This type of HR system mobilizes the recruitment and selection process which are both times consuming and cost-effective for the organization, as now a day’s multiple organizations are doing cost-effective business and didn’t entertain products and services which are source cash outflow(Otley, 2013). Cloud bases application and software also helps organizations and HR and are inevitable in the 21st century. It has some problems, like before placement of HR cloud-based solution or process, requirement needs of company should be understood, whether the company needs a cloud-based software or it can continue its operation on a regular software. After cloud-based operations, the collection and restoration process of data will become easier, all documents and important files can be easily accessed online, and are at minimal threat of online virus, natural calamity, and hacking threat(Birchall, 2011). In some companies for employee’s easiness, they introduce software from which employees can do company work from any remote place in the world. The only thing which is required is an internet connection which can get easily at a minimal cost. According to the study it is commonly observed that the employee who works remotely cab have better work-life balance and due to which they can meet deadlines and work effectively for the company profit motive(Ntanos, 2012). The software-based application also provides training and development for the employee before making or handing over a new project. It clarifies the basic skills which are necessary for doing a specific task or a job. Technology creates easiness and less workload on HR, but on the contrary, it creates disruption and distortion like many employees don’t feel confident and easy while relying on technology, they encourage and try to apply old systems that they are using in past. In this scenario, the manager must motivate and understand their employee’s weaknesses and try to convince them to use modern applications and technology which can lead great benefits for the company, and definitely, these profits will benefit employees in long run as incentives, bonuses, and appraisals(Sánchez, 2011). Managers should encourage employees to involve in work or tasks assigned to them. There must be sound Job descriptions of every employee according to experience, work, and workload. If an employee performs a task on time and with his full efforts, then he should be appreciated. Employees who are little motivated to work could be because of multiple reasons, maybe some disturbance at home, salary issues, irrelevant behavior of line managers or might be dealt with proper strict action. The Involvement of employees in an organization creates progress and better outcomes in organizational work(Lendel, 2015). When the employee is motivated by his work and the praiseworthy comments he gets from his higher authorities, then only he can show his abilities and his determination in his tasks. When the environment of the organization is quite friendly and cozy along with cooperative co-workers, then only his viewpoints and his opinions are considered and he gets a chance to think out of his boundary line. Not everyone is suitable to engage in decision making. However, an organization must judge an employee according to his abilities and how much he knows about his work. Everyone must be assigned a different task that not only earn them satisfaction but also motivate them to work. The staff creates a plan to connect everyone and those who have capabilities to bring change in better decisions, knowledge, and preparation are applauded. If any important information is shared with some of the employees and not the entire team, then it might be difficult for other co-workers to catch up and register the information(Burcharth, 2017). If the small group of people makes change management plans, the staff may be unable to observe the latest ideas after the decisions have already taken.

Chapter 6- Conclusion

The study focused on employee motivation and engagement at workplace. The test and results proved that employee motivation and engagement is related to innovation. The technological advancement play significant role for HR activities, monitoring employees and managing them. All the staff members must know what are the pros and cons of the decisions that they have taken and how they have to work effectively to make it successful. Employees who are focused on their work and have worked amazingly with the change must be rewarded. Every employee has a unique tempo to work with his organization and how he manages his work and completes his tasks within a certain time which shows his confidence in his self and his hard work. Having a complete involvement of employees can lead any organization forward and maintaining the enthusiasm at all levels. If the organization shows complete trust in the employees, then only they can trust their performance and display remarkable skills that they have got in themselves. When many people are participating in any project, the problems can easily be solved along with various new ideas that exhibit good planning skills. In this way, an organization can reach the heights of success and its development only depends upon the staff members who are determined to make it grow further. An organization must hire well-deserved and dedicated employees who can bring great changes and achieve higher. Technology transformed all the processes of human resources throughout the world. According to recent studies, 77% of Human resource managers used data analyses to help employees and to find an employee according to their needs and works. Human resources are set up to make employees compete and capable enough so that they can do work effectively and efficiently. In this scenario, technology plays a great role while making employees stand out from the crowd. There is multiple ways through which technology helps recruitment, selection and empowering employees according to the desired needs and wants of the company. The company always wants its employees to be empowered and willing to do the hardest task in the required time frame with the full motivation that why these changes in human resource recruitment and training are necessary for an organization and employee development. To ensure avoiding risk and to keep the pace of development of work in an organization, big data transforms and digitize the information human resource needs, this information can be used to monitor and understand their target market. It also helps to allow Human resource professionals and managers to make decisions that are in favor and can help in making huge profits for the company. The trend of using HR systems is increasing in developing the organization. They can give access to multiple job seekers while sitting on a laptop and doing some clicks. These devices can also be operated on telephones and are helpful for both employers and employees. This type of HR system mobilizes the recruitment and selection process which are both times consuming and cost-effective for the organization, as now a day’s multiple organizations are doing cost-effective business and didn’t entertain products and services which are source cash outflow. Cloud bases application and software also helps organizations and HR and are inevitable in the 21st century. It has some problems, like before placement of HR cloud-based solution or process, requirement needs of company should be understood, whether the company needs a cloud-based software or it can continue its operation on a regular software. After cloud-based operations, the collection and restoration process of data will become easier, all documents and important files can be easily accessed online, and are at minimal threat of online virus, natural calamity, and hacking threat. In some companies for employee’s easiness, they introduce software from which employees can do company work from any remote place in the world. The only thing which is required is an internet connection which can get easily at a minimal cost. According to the study it is commonly observed that the employee who works remotely cab have better work-life balance and due to which they can meet deadlines and work effectively for the company profit motive. The software-based application also provides training and development for the employee before making or handing over a new project. It clarifies the basic skills which are necessary for doing a specific task or a job. On the basis of above discussion, and hypothesis, it is proved that technology and innovation are closely related to productivity and employees motivation. Technology creates easiness and less workload on HR, but on the contrary, it creates disruption and distortion like many employees don’t feel confident and easy while relying on technology, they encourage and try to apply old systems that they are using in past. In this scenario, the manager must motivate and understand their employee’s weaknesses and try to convince them to use modern applications and technology which can lead great benefits for the company, and definitely, these profits will benefit employees in long run as incentives, bonuses, and appraisals.


The purpose of this questionnaire is to find out the organizational learning methods under innovation management. This questionnaire has four main sections. The first section is about the organizational learning process, second is about innovation, third discusses the performance of organization and fourth is about demographics. The research questionnaire is to assess the role of organization. Complete anonymity of gathered data will be provided.  Please answer all the questions and reflect your opinion about the organization. If you feel any statement is not relevant, circle X as (no idea).
  1. Organizational Learning Process
Each statement has different choices, kindly circle them: (1 = strongly disagree, 2 = disagree, 3 = nor disagree nor agree, 4 =agree, 5 = strongly agree; X = do not know)
  1. Employees are important source of information for the organization (1,2, 3, 4, 5, X)
  2. Last decisions offer valuable information for current decisions (1,2, 3, 4, 5, X)
  3. New business services should be tried often (1,2, 3, 4, 5, X)
  4. Hiring new employees is attributable to existing expertise about industrial products and services (1,2, 3, 4, 5, X)
  5. Current organization provide effective trainings to employees regarding new skills development (1,2, 3, 4, 5, X)
  6. Innovation
Please indicate which kind of services and innovation is implemented in your organization.
  1. New services and products in our organization are like first-market (1,2, 3, 4, 5, X)
  2. We focus on new methods of employee’s training and development (1,2, 3, 4, 5, X)
  3. we improve old products continually to enhance quality of new products (1,2, 3, 4, 5, X)
  4. We compete market and manage to cope the market demands by developing new products (1,2, 3, 4, 5, X)
  5. New products play significant role to lift us up against competitors (1,2, 3, 4, 5, X)
  6. Organizational performance
Statement A Options Statement B
Our relations with suppliers are unstable and poor (1,2, 3, 4, 5, X) We believe in maintaining strategic partnership with our suppliers
We do not focus on suppliers’ research and development and do not involve them (1,2, 3, 4, 5, X) We involve them in all research and development processes
Trust level in workers is weak (1,2, 3, 4, 5, X) The trust level in workers is high
Productivity of employees is less than average level in industry (1,2, 3, 4, 5, X) Productivity level is much higher than the average of industry
Absenteeism in this organization is high (1,2, 3, 4, 5, X) Absenteeism in this organization is low
  1. Demographics
  2. Name of organization
  3. Average number of employees:
  4. 1-50
  5. 50-200
  6. 200-400
  7. 400 and above
  8. Function in organization


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[1]David G Collings & Kamel Mellahi, “Strategic talent management: A review and research agenda” (2009) 19:4 Hum Resour Manag Rev 304, at 1-2 [2]Riccardo Peccei & Marc Van Veldhoven, Well-being and performance at work: the role of context, Current issues in work and organizational psychology (London ; New York: Psychology Press, 2015). [3]Michael D Coovert & Lori Foster Thompson, The psychology of workplace technology, Organizational frontiers series (New York, NY: Brunner-Routledge, 2014). [4]“What is job performance? definition and meaning”, online:<>. [5]Michel J Lebas, “Performance measurement and performance management” (1995) 41:1 Int J Prod Econ 23, at 2. [6]Ibid. [7]Ibid, at 3. [8]Ibid, at 5-7. [9]HRM will be defined as a set of practices used to manage the workforce of an organization, that is recruitment and selection, training and development, worker involvement, pay and rewards, flexibility, involvement in decision making, communications and employee welfare. [10]Ibid, at 10. [11]Karina Van De Voorde, JaapPaauwe& Marc Van Veldhoven, “Employee Well-being and the HRM–Organizational Performance Relationship: A Review of Quantitative Studies” (2012) 14:4 Int J Manag Rev 391. [12]“Occupational Wellbeing and Performance: A Review of Organisational Health Research – Cotton – 2003 – Australian Psychologist – Wiley Online Library”, online: <>. [13]Ibid. [14]Sheena Johnson, Well-being: productivity and happiness at work, 2nd, ed, EBook Central (Cham, Switzerland: Palgrave Macmillan, 2018). [15] It is a personality shows how sociable a person is, and how decisive they are, or whether they are more into positive emotions or not. [16]It is a personality which shows how much sympathy one might have with others, and also how cooperative the person is. [17]Johnson, supra note 14. [18]Ibid.

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