Related Keywords: Representations of women in Greek art, Greek Art, Ancient Greek art, the Greek god of art, Greek mythology art
- Introduction: Artwork from Archaic to Hellenistic Era represented women. In Ancient Greece, Renaissance women’s relationship is seen among poetry and artwork before the Hellenistic period.
- The Greek society is antique civilization of the globe found more than 4000 years ago.
- Greeks were different due to ideas, religion, culture, and art
- The main element of art was a beauty, sex, and nudity in sculptures
2. Archaic period was from 650 BCE to 480 BCE
- In this period, stones, bronzes, marble, and wood were used to present different forms of artwork
- The material was used to show the role of women in a distinct way
- Women sculptures were a sex sign or predilection for sex
- Egyptian sculptures
- The era represented low-class women as prostitutes and priestesses
3. Significance of Era: the sculptures of females were drawn on multiple patterns that exhibited drapery under ornamental qualities.
- Women’s role in the archaic era was that they were only supposed to cook, manage, spin, and raise children.
- Athens provided some evidence about women’s role in the archaic era that they were only supposed to cook, manage, spin, and raise children.
4. The Hellenistic Era From 323 B.CE-1st century
- Greeks showed ethnic components and monarchies
- Women involved in religious spheres and queens
- Principle symbol continued in this era was the portrayal of nude figures, young women, and attractive figures. Common elements were sensual themes, comical, and ugly scenarios
- The era gave rise to education
5. Conclusion: Both eras presented the role of women as significant in visual arts with the imposition of artistic subjects. The common elements were political aspirations, religious aspects, and economic responsibilities.
Women from the Archaic to Hellenistic Era
The feminist movements have been a great deal of attention since history. Most studies and literary sources have dramatized a specific bias related to women’s representation in Greek art. Studies have shown a contemporary depiction of artistic work, vases, and colored elements. The role of women is visualized differently in the Greek era, while the imposition of artistic subjects has suggested critical significance in visual arts (Gill, 2019). In Ancient Greece, Renaissance women‘s relationship is seen among poetry and artwork before the Hellenistic period (Ridgway, 1987). There is a limited role seen by Roman women in monuments and buildings as compared to Greek women.
Ancient Greeks were the ancient and antique civilizations of the globe, i.e., more than 4000 years ago. From 2000 B.C to 146 B.C, ancient Greek empires experienced the reign of prosperity (Schmitz, 2010). Ideas, religion, culture, and art by Greeks were spread everywhere (art, 2019). The Greek sculptures are ubiquitous today due to their richness and style; for instance, Greeks focused on stones, bronzes, marble, and wood to present different forms of artwork. The familiar and most famous periods of Greeks were 650-480 B.CE (Archaic) and 323 B.CE-1st century (Hellenistic). This era highlighted the role of women in a distinct way.
Women figures in Greek sculptures were commonly used to show famous artwork and beauty. These sculptures stay noticeable in different periods because they reflected unique culture and style in a bright format. The ancient Greek sculpture mainly engaged the nudity of women, not showing the way of disrespect towards females, but it was a culture (Palagia, 2015). These women’s sculptures during the era were considered a sex sign or predilection for sex. The role of women in these sculptures was to inspire males. The inspiration of real-life women mainly drew these and portrayed some advantages and disadvantages.
The Archaic period settled in 650 BCE to 480 BCE is considered the earliest period that represented Greek art. The sculptures that belonged to this artistic period were commonly known as Egyptian sculptures, mainly due to the reflection of Egypt style in male and female artwork. The intense creativity period was associated with traditions, temple architecture, and monumental sculptures (Ridgway, 1987). Maiden was the common word used for female sculptures in that ear, and its leading example is Draped Female in 530 BCE. As shown in Fig.1
Figure 1 Kore Peplos
(Source: STATUES, 2019)
The Peplos Kore is a girl statue, 118 cm and 46 inches in height, made up of white marble and painted in different colors. It is placed in the Acropolis Museum (STATUES, 2019).
During this era, the sculptures of females were drawn on multiple patterns that exhibited drapery under ornamental qualities (art, 2019). Simonides and Hesiod were poets in that era who mentioned women’s portrayals in artistic and poetic styles. Hesiod focused on women’s exploitation in its writings, and a famous example is Pandora. The image reflected from the story is women were unnatural.
From Hesiod to Persian War by the end of the Archaic age, the women’s exploits were estimated by Lesbos Sappho. Athens provided some evidence about women’s role in the archaic era that they were only supposed to cook, manage, spin, and raise children (Palagia, 2015). The home-associated concept of women was prevalent in the middle class, where women were a liability. Low statuses of the Archaic era women were prostitutes and priestesses. Greek women were influential in terms of employment; for instance, some Greek tradeswomen were involved in property, laundries, and stall operations (Gill, 2019). In Archaic Greece, the family roles were painful; women had to pay a dowry to husbands. Women were married to the much older persons, and in the case of no son, the daughter had to bestow her father’s inheritance to the spouse.
The Hellenistic period in Greeks was mainly associated with ethnic components and monarchies (Schmitz, 2010). Women were increasingly involved in the societies in the form of religious spheres and queens, while in public performance, their roles were significant. The literary evidence confirmed that the importance of women from the 8th to 5th centuries was substantial, in form of cultures, traditions, and customs (Ridgway, 1987). Greece’s influence was spread in the world by Alexander in 336 BCE. The Hellenistic period in 323 BCE was the revival of Greek sculpture because from the Archaic to Classical period, the reign of sculpture was less focused. The portrayal of nude figures, young women, and attractive figures is the principal symbol of this period. Most of them were created with marble and bronze (art, 2019).
From the Archaic to the Hellenistic period, the scope of women’s role was increased. Increased evidence about sculpture and nude figures was found in that era. Greeks preferred their masters, and with the representation of women, the low preferred the women aspects (STATUES, 2019). This was characterized by sensual themes, comical, and ugly scenarios. The Greek art in that era highlighted women to show how concrete it was to design this structure. Its best example is the Venus de Milo sculpture in the same period. As shown in Fig.2
Figure 2 the Venus de Milo
(Source: nationaux, 2019)
Venus de Milo represents Aphrodite, which was a goddess of beauty and love in Greece. This statue is 18-50 cm; it fascinates antiquities (national, 2019).
Women’s role in the Archaic to the Hellenistic era was crucial in different terms. Women represent different roles in society, i.e., mother-daughter, sister, and muse. In Ancient Greece, this role was shown in Greek sculpture with power and excellence. More often, the female figures portrayed love and sex in that period. The Hellenistic period was a transition due to growing competencies (nationaux, 2019). Ruing families as Macedonian competed in terms of a power struggle among men. This struggle created the relationship between mothers and sons while also provided the polygamist nature of kings. Many royal women in this period came at the front by exhibiting imperial and political power, i.e., the mother of Alexander Olympias (Palagia, 2015).
The role of women in the classical period between these two eras was not significant, and women started to gain power in the Hellenistic era. This notion provided political marriages; an example is Antiochus and Berentice. Political aspirations for females were illustrated by their actions (STATUES, 2019). In addition, domestic and economic responsibilities that females faced between the two eras were increased. Men did not talk about the religious aspect of women and their glory. The social standing of women was evident in that region. Legal rights and their evolution are seen in the Hellenistic era (Schmitz, 2010). A clear example is Papyri from Egypt, and it showed how important it was for females to had guardians. The legal rights aspect highlights the women’s involvement in marital contracts to demonstrate the protection of rights and expression of mutuality (Gill, 2019).
The position of women from Archaic to Classic, and then the Hellenistic period, was changed drastically (nationaux, 2019). The changing patterns of society also changed the behavior of women. Erinna of Talos in the Hellenistic era is a clear example of educated women. Women’s positions in society faced a transition due to the multiplicity of roles. In these eras, a focus on women’s education was made. This changed the social standing of women and provided a different scenario to all the women in society. The prominent culture and prevalence of customs had affected women’s life in Greek to a high degree.
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